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{{For|other people named Zaynab|Zaynab (disambiguation)}}
{{Infobox descedant of Imam
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{{Infobox descendant of Imam
| image = حرم حضرت زینب.jpg
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| name = <!--default is the page name-->
| image_size =
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| image = حرم حضرت زینب.jpg
| caption =
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| image_size =  
| role =
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| caption = [[Shrine of Lady Zaynab (a)]], Damascus, Syria
| name = Zaynab bt. 'Ali (a)
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| Role =  
| epithet = 'Aqila
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| Name = Zaynab bt. al-Imam 'Ali (a)
| Birthday = [[Jumada l-Ula 5]], [[5]] or [[6]]/[[October 5]] 626 or 627
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| Kunya =  
| Birthplace = [[Medina]]
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| Epithet = 'Aqilat Bani Hashim, al-Kamila, al-Fadila
| Demise = [[Rajab]] 15, 62/[[April 2]], 682
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| Well Known As =  
| Place of burial = [[Damascus]]
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| Religious Affiliation =  
| Hometown = Medina
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| Father = [['Ali b. Abi Talib (a)]]
| Title = 'Aqila banu Hashim, Kamila, Fadila,
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| Mother = [[Fatima al-Zahra (a)]]
| Father = [['Ali b. Abi Talib (a)]]
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| Birth = [[Jumada I 5]], [[5]] or [[6]]/626 or 627
| Mother = [[Fatima al-Zahra (a)]]
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| Place of Birth = [[Medina]]
| Spouse(s) = [['Abd Allah b. Ja'far b. Abi Talib]]
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| Place of Residence =
| Children = 'Ali, 'Abbas, 'Awn, Muhammad
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| Spouse(s) = [['Abd Allah b. Ja'far b. Abi Talib]]
| Age = 57
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| Children = 'Ali, al-'Abbas, 'Awn, Muhammad
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| Demise = [[Rajab 15]], [[62]]/[[April 2]], 682
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| Place of burial = [[Damascus]]
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| Age = 57
 
}}
 
}}
'''Zaynab bt. ʿAlī''' (Arabic: زینب بنت علی) is the daughter of [[Imam Ali (a)]] and the [[Lady Fatima al-Zahra' (a)]]. She was born in [[Medina]] in [[Jumada l-Ula 5]], [[5]] or [[6]]/[[October 5]] 626 or 627. [['Abd Allah b. Ja'far]] was her husband. She and her two sons accompanied [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] in the [[event of 'Ashura']] where her two sons were martyred and she was taken as captive to [[Kufa]] and then to [[Damascus]]. Her sermons in Kufa and Damascus (in front of [[Yazid]]) are very famous. She passed away in 62/682.
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'''Zaynab bt. ʿAlī''' (Arabic: {{ia|زینب بنت علي}}) the daughter of [[Imam Ali (a)]] and the [[Lady Fatima al-Zahra' (a)]], and [['Abd Allah b. Ja'far]]'s wife. She and her two sons accompanied [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] on the [[Day of Ashura (events)|Event of 'Ashura']] where her two sons were martyred and she was taken as captive to [[Kufa]] and then to [[Damascus]]. Her [[Sermon of Lady Zaynab (a) in Kufa|sermons]] in Kufa and Damascus (in front of [[Yazid]]) are very famous. Due to many sufferings she had undergone, she was called as '''Umm al-Masa'ib''' (mother of calamities). She passed away in [[62]]/682.  
  
==Birth, Name, Title and Lineage==
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==Birth, Name, Title, and Lineage==
She is the daughter of [[Imam 'Ali (a)]] and the [[Lady Fatima al-Zahra' (a)]].<ref>Ibn 'Asakir, ''A'lam al-nisa''', p.189-190</ref> Her most famous name is Zaynab, which literally means "a scenic tree"<ref>Jubran Mas'ud, ''al-Za'id'', vol.1 p.924</ref>. Zaynab is also a compound of two words "Zayn" (adornment) and "Ab" (father), meaning the adornment of the father.
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She is the daughter of [[Imam 'Ali (a)]] and the [[Lady Fatima al-Zahra' (a)]].<ref>Ibn Athīr, ''Usd al-ghāba'', vol. 6, p. 132.</ref> Her most famous name is "Zaynab", which literally means "a scenic tree with a beautiful fragrance"<ref>Ibn Manẓūr, ''Lisān al-ʿarab'', Under the word «{{ia|زنب}}»</ref>. Zaynab is also a compound of two words "zayn" (adornment) and "ab" (father), meaning the adornment of the father.<ref>Zubaydī, ''Tāj al-ʿarūs'', vol. 2, p. 60.</ref>
  
She was born in [[Jumada l-Ula 5]], [[5]] or [[6]]/[[October 5]] 626 or 627 in [[Medina]].<ref>Mahallati, ''Rayahin al-shari'a'', vol.3 p.33; Muhammadi Ishtihardi, ''Hadrat i Zaynab'', p.17</ref>
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She was born on [[Jumada I 5]], [[5]] or [[6]]/[[October 2]], 626 or [[September 22]], 627 in [[Medina]].<ref>Kaḥḥāla, ''Aʿlām al-nisāʾ'', vol. 2, p. 91.</ref>
  
According to several [[hadith]]s, [[the Prophet (s)]] named her Zaynab. It is said that [[Gabriel]] brought this name from God to the Prophet (s).<ref>Al-Qurashi, ''al-Sayyida Zaynab'', p.39; Ilahi, ''Zaynab kubra'', p.29; Arfa', ''Hazrat Zaynab'', p.7</ref>
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According to several [[hadith]]s, the [[Prophet (s)]] named her Zaynab. It is said that [[Gabriel]] brought this name from God to the Prophet (s).<ref>Sharīf al-Qarashī, ''al-Sayyida Zaynab'', p. 39.</ref>
  
When the Prophet (s) held her for the first time, he kissed her and said, "I advise the present and the absent of my Umma to honor and respect this girl as she looks like [[Khadija]]."<ref>Dibaji, ''Zaynab al-Kubra'', p.15</ref>
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When the Prophet (s) held her for the first time, he kissed her and said, "I advise the present and the absent of my Umma to honor and respect this girl as she looks like [[Khadija (a)]]."<ref>Jazāʾirī, ''al-Khaṣāʾiṣ al-zaynabīyya'', p. 44.</ref>
  
Many titles have been reported for her such as 'Aqilat [[Bani Hashim]] (wise woman of Bani Hashim), 'Alima Ghayr Mu'allama (the scholar without being taught), 'Arifa, Muwaththaqa (trustworthy), Fadila, Kamila (complete), 'Abida Al 'Ali (worshiper of the family of 'Ali), Ma'suma al-Sughra, Aminat Allah, Na'ibat al-Zahra' (representative of Zahra'), Na'ibat al-Husayn, 'Aqilat al-Nisa', Sharikat al-Shuhada', Baligha, Fasiha and Sharikat al-Husayn.<ref>Jaza'iri, ''al-Khasa'isat al-Zaynabiyya'', pp.52-53</ref>
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Many titles have been reported for her such as 'Aqilat Bani Hashim (wise woman of [[Banu Hashim]]), 'Alima Ghayr Mu'allama (the knowledgeable without being taught), al-'Arifa, al-Muwaththaqa (trustworthy), al-Fadila, al-Kamila (perfect), 'Abida Al 'Ali (worshiper of the family of 'Ali), al-Ma'suma al-Sughra, Aminat Allah, Na'ibat al-Zahra' (representative of Zahra'), Na'ibat al-Husayn, 'Aqilat al-Nisa', Sharikat al-Shuhada', al-Baligha, al-Fasiha, and Sharikat al-Husayn.<ref>Jazāʾirī, ''al-Khaṣāʾiṣ al-zaynabīyya'', p. 52-53.</ref>
  
Due to the hardships she suffered during her life (demise of the Prophet (s), martyrdom of her mother and her sufferings, martyrdom of her father, Imam 'Ali (a), her brother, [[Imam al-Hasan (a)]], the [[event of Karbala]], martyrdom of her brother, [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] and her two sons and her other relatives, going to Kufa and Damascus as a captive, ...) she was titled as [[Umm al-Masa'ib]] (lit, referring to the numerous miseries she was inflicted with ).<ref>Amin, ''A'yan al-Shi'a'', vol.7 p.137</ref>
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Due to the hardships she suffered during her life (demise of the Prophet (s), sufferings of her mother and her martyrdom, martyrdom of her father, Imam 'Ali (a), her brother, [[Imam al-Hasan (a)]], the [[event of Karbala]], martyrdom of her brother, [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] and her two sons and her other relatives, going to Kufa and Damascus as a captive) she was titled as Umm al-Masa'ib (lit, mother of calamities, referring to the numerous miseries she was inflicted with).<ref>Amīn, ''Aʿyān al-Shīʿa'', vol. 7, p. 137.</ref>
{{Family tree Ahl al-Bayt (a)}}
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{{Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)}}
  
 
==Husband and Children==
 
==Husband and Children==
Zaynab married [['Abd Allah b. Ja'far al-Tayyar]] (her cousin) in [[17]]/638. She gave birth to four sons named: 'Ali, [['Awn b. 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far al-Tayyar|'Awn]], 'Abbas and [[Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far|Muhammad]], and one daughter named: Umm Kulthum.<ref>Ibn 'Asakir, ''A'lam al-nisa''', p.190; Mahallati, ''Rayahin al-shari'a'', vol.3 p.41</ref> Muhammad and 'Awn were martyred in [[Event of Karbala|Karbala]].<ref>Mufid, ''al-Irshad'', vol.2 p.125</ref>
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Zaynab married [[Abd Allah b. Ja'far al-Tayyar]] (her cousin) in [[17]]/638. She gave birth to four sons named: 'Ali, [['Awn b. 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far|'Awn]], al-'Abbas and [[Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far|Muhammad]], and one daughter named: Umm Kulthum.<ref>Ibn Athīr, ''Usd al-ghāba'', vol. 6, p. 133.</ref> Muhammad and Awn were martyred in [[Battle of Karbala|Karbala]].<ref>Mufīd, ''al-Irshād'', vol. 2, p. 125.</ref>
  
[[Mu'awiya]] asked to marry [[Yazid]] to Umm Kulthum but [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] married her to Qasim b. Muhammad b. Ja'far b. Abi Talib (Umm Kulthum's cousin).<ref>Amin, ''A'yan al-shi'a'', vol.7 p.137</ref>
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[[Mu'awiya]] asked to marry [[Yazid]] to Umm Kulthum but [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] married her to [[al-Qasim b. Muhammad b. Ja'far b. Abi Talib]] (Umm Kulthum's cousin).<ref>Amīn, ''Aʿyān al-Shīʿa'', vol. 7, p. 137.</ref>
  
==Characteristics, Virtues and Merits==
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==Characteristics, Virtues, and Merits==
 
===Knowledge and Eloquence===
 
===Knowledge and Eloquence===
Her utterances and sermons, which are full of demonstrations from [[Qur'an]], in [[Kufa]] and the court of Yazid, show how knowledgeable she was. She has narrated [[hadith]]s from her father, [[Imam 'Ali (a)]], and her mother, [[Lady Fatimat al-Zahra (s)]].<ref>Ibn 'Asakir, ''A'lam al-nisa''', p.189</ref> Muhammad b. 'Amr, 'Ata' b. Sa'ib, [[Fatima bt. al-Husayn]] and other narrators have narrated hadiths from her.<ref>Ibn Abi l-Hadid, ''Sharh nahj al-balagha'', vol.16 p.210; 'Amili, ''Wasa'il al-shi'a'', vol.1 p.13-14; Majlisi, ''Bihar al-anwar'', vol.7 p.107</ref>
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Her utterances and sermons, which are full of demonstrations from the [[Qur'an]], in [[Kufa]] and the court of Yazid, show how knowledgeable she was.<ref>Kaḥḥāla, ''Aʿlām al-nisāʾ'', vol. 2, p. 92-97.</ref> She has narrated [[hadith]]s from her father, [[Imam Ali (a)]], and her mother, [[Lady Fatimat al-Zahra (s)]].<ref>Kaḥḥāla, ''Aʿlām al-nisāʾ'', vol. 2, p. 91.</ref> Muhammad b. Amr, Ata' b. Sa'ib, [[Fatima bt. al-Husayn]], and other narrators have narrated hadiths from her.<ref>Kaḥḥāla, ''Aʿlām al-nisāʾ'', vol. 2, p. 91.</ref>
 
 
During the residence of Imam 'Ali (a) in Kufa, Zaynab held sessions on exegesis of Qur'an for women of Kufa.<ref>Tabari, ''Dla'il al-imama'', vol.3; Mahallati, ''Rayahin al-shari'a'', vol.3 p.57</ref>
 
  
Her sermons reminded the audience of the sermons of her father, Imam 'Ali (a). Her sermons in Kufa, in the court of Yazid and in front [['Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad]] are very similar to those of Imam 'Ali (a) and the [[Fadakiyya sermon]] from her mother Fatima (a).<ref>Arfa', ''Hadrat Zaynab'', p.88</ref>
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During the residence of Imam Ali (a) in Kufa, Zaynab held sessions on exegesis of the Qur'an for women of Kufa.<ref>Maḥallātī, ''Rayāḥīn al-sharīʿa'', vol. 3, p. 57.</ref>
  
It is narrated that [[Imam al-Sajjad (a)]] told her, "O, aunt! … You are, thanks to God, a scholar without been taught ..."
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Her sermons reminded the audience of the sermons of her father, Imam Ali (a).<ref>Ṭabrisī, ''al-Iḥtijāj'', vol. 2, p. 109.</ref> [[Sermon of Lady Zaynab (a) in Kufa|Her sermons in Kufa]], in front of [[Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad]], and in the court of Yazid are very similar to those of Imam Ali (a), and the [[Fadakiyya sermon]] from her mother Fatima (a).
  
 
===Worship===
 
===Worship===
She spent her life for worshiping and [[prayer]]s even at nights. She gave so much of her time to worshiping acts that she was titled as "'Abidat Al 'Ali" (the female worshiper of the family of 'Ali).<ref>Naqdi, ''Zaynab al-kubra'', p.61</ref>
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She would worship at nights. She never quit [[tahajjud]] (night vigil). She gave so much of her time to worshiping acts that she was titled as "'Abidat Al 'Ali" (the female worshiper of the family of Ali).<ref>Naqdī, ''Zaynab al-kubrā'', p. 61.</ref>
 
 
On the 10th and 11th eve of [[Muharram]] [[61]] and after the martyrdom of her brothers, her children and many of her relatives she did not abandon her acts of worship.
 
  
[[Fatima bt. al-Husayn (a)]] said, "In [[eve of Ashura]], my aunt (Zaynab) was worshiping, praying and crying for all the night."<ref>Mahallati, ''Rayahin al-shari'a'', vol.3 p.62</ref>
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On the [[Muharram 10|tenth]] and eleventh eve of Muharram [[61]]/October 680 and after the martyrdom of her brothers, her children, and many of her relatives she did not abandon her acts of worship.  
  
It is narrated that [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] told her at his last moment on the day of [['Ashura]], "O, my sister! Do not forget me in your [[night prayers]]."<ref>Mahallati, ''Rayahin al-shari'a'', vol.3 p.62; Naqdi, ''Zaynab al-kubra'', p.61</ref>
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[[Fatima bt. al-Husayn (a)]] said, "On the [[eve of Ashura]], my aunt (Zaynab) was worshiping, praying and crying for all the night."<ref>Maḥallātī, ''Rayāḥīn al-sharīʿa'', vol. 3, p. 62.</ref>
  
===Hijab and Modesty===
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It is narrated that [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] told her at his last moment on the [[day of Ashura]], "O, my sister! Do not forget me in your [[night prayers]]."<ref>Maḥallātī, ''Rayāḥīn al-sharīʿa'', vol. 3, p. 62.</ref>
It has been narrated, "Whenever Zaynab wanted to go to [[Masjid al-Nabi]] to the Prophet (s)'s tomb, she went at night, and [[Imam 'Ali (a)]] had told [[Imam al-Hasan (a)]] and [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] to accompany her. Imam al-Hasan (a) walked in front of her and Imam al-Husayn (a) behind her. When they reached the Prophet (s)'s tomb they extinguished the light on the tomb so that no one can see her."<ref>Dastghayb, ''Zindigani hadrat Zaynab'', p.19</ref>
 
 
 
Yahya al-Mazini said, "I was Imam 'Ali's neighbor in Medina for a long time. By [[God]]! I never saw Zaynab nor heard her voice."<ref>Muhammadi Ishtihardi, ''Hadrat Zaynab'', p.99</ref>
 
  
 
===Patience and Resistance===
 
===Patience and Resistance===
In the [[Day of 'Ashura]] when she saw her brother's bloody body, she said, "O, Allah! Accept this humble sacrifice from us."<ref>Fayd al-Islam, ''Khatun du sara'', p.185</ref>
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On the [[day of Ashura]] when she saw her brother's bloody body, she said, "O, Allah! Accept this humble sacrifice from us."<ref>Fayḍ al-Islām, ''Khātūn-i du sarā'', p. 185.</ref>
  
She rescued Imam al-Sajjad (a) from death several times, one of which was in the court of [['Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad]] after that Imam al-Sajjad (a) debated with him, he ordered to kill the Imam (a), but Zaynab (a) put her hand around Imam's neck and said, "As long as I am alive, I do not let you kill him."<ref>Majlisi, ''Bihar al-anwar'', vol.45 p.117</ref>
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She rescued Imam al-Sajjad (a) from death several times, one of which was in the court of [['Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad]] after that Imam al-Sajjad (a) debated with him, he ordered to kill the Imam (a), but Zaynab (a) put her hand around Imam's neck and said, "As long as I am alive, I do not let you kill him."<ref>Majlisī, ''Biḥār al-anwār'', vol. 45, p. 117.</ref>
  
==In the Tragedy of 'Ashura'==
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==In the Tragedy of Ashura==
 
{{Mourning of Muharram}}
 
{{Mourning of Muharram}}
===In 'Ashura Day===
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===On the Eve of Ashura===
[[Al-Shaykh al-Mufid]] has narrated from [[Imam al-Sajjad (a)]], "In the eve of a day that my father was killed, I was sitting and my aunt was nursing me. My father went to his tent... and started repairing his sword while reading this poem, (translation: "O, days! Fie upon your friendship! How many of your fellows and seekers are killed in mornings and evenings, and the days are not content with substitutes. The Majestic (Allah) is in charge of this affair and every living creature will go through this path (will die)).
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{{main|Eve of Ashura}}
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[[Al-Shaykh al-Mufid]] has narrated from [[Imam al-Sajjad (a)]], "On the eve of the day that my father was killed, I was sitting and my aunt was nursing me. My father went to his tent... and started repairing his sword while reading this poem,  
  
He repeated this poem two or three times until that I understood what he meant, I choked up but I kept silent and knew that tragedy has been sent down, but my aunt, like other women who are prevailed by their tender hearts, could not control herself. She jumped towards him with uncovered head dragging her clothes on the ground, and said, "Oh what pain! May demise deprive me of life! Today my mother, Fatima, my father, 'Ali, and my brother, Hasan died. You are the successor of the bygone ones and the last of the remainder." [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] looked at her and said, "O, My dear sister! Do not let [[Satan]] take away your patience." then his eyes overflowed with tears and added, "If the bird is left alone, it will sleep."
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:"O, days! Fie upon your friendship!, How many of your fellows and seekers, are killed in mornings and evenings?, and the days are not content with substitutes (other than the lives of people). The Majestic (Allah) is in charge of this affair, and every living creature will go through this path (will die).  
  
Then she said, "Oh, woe! Do they take your soul by force? This hurt my heart more and is more painful to me." Then she slapped her face and tore her clothes and fell on the ground losing consciousness. Imam (a) went to her and sprinkled some water on her face and told her, "O, my dear sister! Be content with [[Allah]]'s will and know that the inhabitance of the earth will die and the inhabitance of heavens will not remain and everything will perish except Allah who has created all the creatures by His omnipotence and will resurrect them, they will return to Him and He is Single and the Only One. My father was better than me, my mother was better than me, my brother was better than me, and for me and for every Muslim there is good exemplar in the Prophet of God."
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He repeated this poem two or three times until that I understood what he meant, I choked up but I kept silent and knew that tragedy has been sent down, but my aunt, like other women who are prevailed by their tender hearts, could not control herself. She jumped towards him and said, "Oh what pain! May demise deprive me of life! Today my mother, Fatima, my father, Ali, and my brother, al-Hasan died. You are the successor of the bygone ones and the last of the remainder." [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] looked at her and said, "O, My dear sister! Do not let [[Satan]] take away your patience." then his eyes overflowed with tears and added, "If the bird is left alone, it will sleep."
  
He consoled her with this and other thing and said, "O, my dear sister! I put you under this oath and please do not break it: never tear a piece of your clothes (as a sign of your sorrow) for me, never slap your face (for mourning) for me, and never invoke woe and perdition when I was slain." Then he accompanied her to my tent and went to his companions."<ref>Mufid, ''al-Irshad'', vol.2 pp.93-94</ref>
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Then she said, "Oh, woe! Do they take your soul by force? This hurts my heart more and is more painful to me." Then she slapped her face and tore her clothes and fell on the ground losing consciousness. Imam (a) went to her and sprinkled some water on her face and told her, "O, my dear sister! Be content with Allah's will and know that the inhabitant of the earth will die and the inhabitant of heavens will not remain and everything will perish except Allah who has created all the creatures by His omnipotence and will resurrect them, they will return to Him and He is Single and the Only One. My father was better than me, my mother was better than me, my brother was better than me, and for me and for every Muslim there is good exemplar in the Prophet of God."
  
In [['Ashura]] evening when Zaynab saw [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] fallen on the ground and he was surrounded by his enemies who intend to kill him, she came out of her tent and shouted at [['Umar b. Sa'd]] (the commander of the enemy's army);
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He consoled her with this and other similar sentences and said, "O, my dear sister! I put you under this oath and please do not break it: never tear a piece of your clothes (as a sign of your sorrow) for me, never slap your face (for mourning) for me, and never invoke woe and perdition when I was slain." Then he accompanied her to my tent and went to his companions."<ref>Mufīd, ''al-Irshād'', vol. 2, p. 93-94.</ref>
  
"O, Ibn Sa'd! Is Aba 'Abd Allah (Imam al-Husyan) being slain while you are watching?"<ref>Nazari Munfarid, ''Qissiyi karbala'', p.371</ref>
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===On the Day of Ashura===
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{{main|Day of Ashura}}==
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In the evening of the day of Ashura, when Zaynab saw [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] fallen on the ground and he was surrounded by his enemies who intended to kill him, she came out of her tent and shouted at [[Umar b. Sa'd]] (the commander of the enemy's army), "O, Ibn Sa'd! Is Abu Abd Allah (Imam al-Husyan) being slain while you are watching?"<ref>Mufīd, ''al-Irshād'', vol. 2, p. 112.</ref>
  
He did not reply and Zaynab cried, "Oh for my brother! Oh for my master! Oh for my household! Would God the heavens had fallen upon the earth! Would God mountains had been made to crumble on plains!"<ref>Ibn Tawus, ''al-Luhuf'', pp.159,161</ref>
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He did not reply and Zaynab cried, "Oh for my brother! Oh for my master! Oh for my household! I wish the heavens had been fallen upon the earth! I wish the mountains had been crumbled and scattered on plains!"<ref>Ibn Ṭāwūs, ''al-Luhūf'', p. 159-161.</ref>
  
And when she came to his brother's body, she said, "O Allah! Accept from us this sacrifice."<ref>Fayd al-Islam, ''Khatun du sara'', p.185</ref>
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And when she came to his brother's body, she said, "O Allah! Accept from us this sacrifice."<ref>Fayḍ al-Islām, ''Khātūn-i du sarā'', p. 185.</ref>
  
Then she face toward [[Medina]] and started addressing [[the Prophet (s)]], "Oh, Muhammad! These are your daughters! They are being taken captives! Your children are slain! The zephyr is blowing on their bodies! And this is Husayn, whose been slaughtered from back! His turban and cloak being plundered."<ref>Abu Mikhnaf, ''Waq'at al-taff'', p.259; Majlisi, ''Bihar al-anwar'', vol.45 p.59</ref>
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Then she faced toward [[Medina]] and started addressing the [[Prophet (s)]], "Oh, Muhammad! These are your daughters! They are being taken captives! Your children are slain! The Zephyr is blowing on their bodies! And this is al-Husayn, who has been beheaded from the back of his neck! His turban and cloak have been plundered."<ref>Abū Mikhnaf, ''Waqʿat al-ṭaff'', p. 259; Majlisī, ''Biḥār al-anwār'', vol. 45, p. 117.
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</ref>
  
"May my father be the ransom for the one whom the army plundered. May my father be the ransom for the one whose tents were taken down..."<ref>Majlisi, ''Bihar al-anwar'', vol.45 p.59</ref>
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"May my father be the ransom for the one whom the army plundered. May my father be the ransom for the one whose tents were taken down..."<ref>Majlisī, ''Biḥār al-anwār'', vol. 45, p. 59.</ref>
  
Her sayings made friends and enemies cry and wail.<ref>Abu Mikhnaf, ''Maqtal'', p.259; Majlisi, ''Bihar al-anwar'', vol.45 p.59</ref>
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Her words made both friends and enemies cry and wail.<ref>Abū Mikhnaf, ''Waqʿat al-ṭaff'', p. 259; Ṭabarī, ''Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk'', vol. 5, p. 348-349.
 +
</ref>
  
 
===In Kufa===
 
===In Kufa===
After [['Ashura]], the [[Captives of 'Ashura'|captives]] were taken to [[Kufa]]. They were circled around the city tragically.
+
After [[Ashura]], the [[Captives of Ashura'|captives]] were taken to [[Kufa]]. They were circulated around the city tragically.  
 
 
As they entered Kufa, Zaynab delivered a sermon, which influenced the people who had come to see the captives.
 
 
 
[[Bashir b. Khuzaym al-Asadi]] said, "On that day, I looked at her. By [[Allah]], I have never seen any proud and modest woman with that eloquence, it was as if she was talking with [['Ali]]'s tongue. She told people to be silent. People became silent, even the bells on the camels stopped jiggling."<ref>Sadiqi Ardistani, ''Zaynab qahraman'', pp.227-228</ref>
 
 
 
After that she finished the sermon, [[Kufa]] was filled with emotions and sadness. Some people were nipping their fingers (as a sign of regret and being shocked).
 
  
After her sermon, there was a possibility of uprising and riot against the government, thus, the captives were taken to Dar al-Imara (governing palace) to [['Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad]].<ref>Sadiqi Ardistani, ''Zaynab qahraman'', p. 246</ref>
+
As they entered Kufa, Zaynab delivered a sermon, which influenced the people who had come to see the captives.  
  
Zaynab spoke and debated with Ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, in his palace. (see: [[Debate of Lady Zaynab (a) with 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad]])<ref>Abu Mikhnaf, ''Waq'at al-taff'', pp. 299-300; Mufid, ''al-Irshad'', p.353; Majlisi, ''Bihar al-anwar'', vol.45 p.117</ref>
+
[[Bashir b. Khuzaym al-Asadi]] said, "On that day, I looked at her. By [[Allah]], I have never seen any proud and modest woman with that eloquence, it was as if she was talking with [[Ali]]'s tongue. She told people to be silent. People became silent, even the bells on the camels stopped jiggling."<ref>Ṭabrisī, ''al-Iḥtijāj'', vol. 2, p. 109-110.</ref> When she finished the sermon, [[Kufa]] was filled with emotions and sadness. Some people were nipping their fingers (as a sign of regret and being shocked).<ref>Ṭabrisī, ''al-Iḥtijāj'', vol. 2, p. 113.</ref> After her sermon, there was a possibility of an uprising and riot against the government, thus, the captives were taken to Dar al-Imara (the palace of the ruler) to [[Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad]].<ref>Ṣādiqī Ardistānī, ''Zaynab-i qahramān'', p. 246.</ref>
 +
{{fulltext|text:Debate of Lady Zaynab (a) with 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad}}
 +
Zaynab spoke and debated with Ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, in his palace.<ref>Abū Mikhnaf, ''Waqʿat al-ṭaff'', p. 299-300; Majlisī, ''Biḥār al-anwār'', vol. 45, p. 117.</ref>
  
Her arguments enlightened people and left [[Umayyads]] in disgrace. Then 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad ordered to imprison them. The sermon of the lady Zaynab and the utterances of [[Imam al-Sajjad (a)]], [[Umm Kulthum bt. 'Ali (a)|Umm Kulthum]] and [[Fatima bt. al-Husayn]] in [[Kufa]] and Dar al-Imara followed by the protests of [['Abd Allah b. 'Afif al-Azdi]] and [[Zayd b. Arqam]] encouraged the people of Kufa and prepared the grounds for a revolution against the government, because people were very regretful and were trying to remove the dishonor of what they have done to the [[household of the Prophet (s)]]. They finally gathered around [[Mukhtar]] and revolt against Umayyad Dynasty.
+
Her arguments enlightened people and left [[Umayyads]] in disgrace. Then 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad ordered to imprison them. The sermon of the lady Zaynab (a) and the words of [[Imam al-Sajjad (a)]], [[Umm Kulthum bt. al-Imam Ali (a)|Umm Kulthum]], and [[Fatima bt. al-Husayn]] in [[Kufa]] and Dar al-Imara followed by the protests of [[Abd Allah b. Afif al-Azdi]] and [[Zayd b. Arqam]] encouraged the people of Kufa and prepared the grounds for a revolution against the government<ref>Mufīd, ''al-Irshād'', vol. 2, p. 115-117.</ref>
  
 
===In Damascus===
 
===In Damascus===
After the tragedy of [[Karbala]], [[Yazid b. Mu'awiya]] asked [['Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad]] to send the Caravan of captives along with the heads of the martyrs of Karbala to [[Damascus]].
+
After the tragedy of Karbala, [[Yazid b. Mu'awiya]] asked [[Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad]] to send the caravan of captives along with the heads of the [[Martyrs of Karbala|martyrs]] of Karbala to [[Damascus]].<ref>Hāshimīnizhād, ''Darsī ki Ḥusayn bi insānhā āmūkht'', p. 236.</ref>
  
Yazid's government was very strong at that time in Syria, as the people were bombarded with false information about the household of [[Imam 'Ali (a)]] and fake virtues and merits of descendants of [[Abu Sufyan]]. So it is not surprising that "when the household of [[the Prophet (s)]] entered Damascus, people had worn new clothes, decorated the city, musicians were playing songs and the city was filled with happiness."<ref>Muhammadi Ishtihardi, ''Hadrat Zaynab'', pp.327-328</ref>
+
Yazid's government was very strong at that time in Syria, as the people were bombarded with false information about the household of [[Imam 'Ali (a)]] and fake virtues and merits of descendants of [[Abu Sufyan]]. So it is not surprising that "when the household of the [[Prophet (s)]] entered Damascus, people had worn new clothes, decorated the city, musicians were playing songs and the city was filled with happiness."<ref>Muḥammadī Ishtihārdī, ''Haḍrat-i Zaynab'', p. 327-328.</ref>
  
However the sermons delivered by [[Imam al-Sajjad (a)]] and Lady Zaynab (a) changed the conditions in a very short time. They informed people about the tyranny of Umayyad and the horrifying act they did to descants of the Prophet (s) in Karbala. In a short while the enmity of the people of Damascus toward [[Ahl al-Bayt (a)]] changed to friendship and affection.
+
However, the sermons delivered by [[Imam al-Sajjad (a)]] and Lady Zaynab (a) changed the conditions in a very short time. They informed people about the tyranny of Umayyads and the horrifying act they did to descendants of the Prophet (s) in Karbala. Soon the enmity of the people of Damascus toward [[Ahl al-Bayt (a)]] changed to friendship and affection.  
  
Yazid who thought that killing of [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] will help consolidate his governing position in Islamic world, realized that it was actually reducing from his popularity and weakening his authority.
+
Yazid who thought that killing of [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] will help consolidate his governing position in Islamic world, realized that it has actually damaged his popularity and weakened his authority.  
  
 
===In Yazid's Court===
 
===In Yazid's Court===
  
Yazid had prepared an unprecedented ceremony in his court. He had invited all the elite officials, noblemen and army commander of Umayyads. In the presence of the captives, he recited blasphemous poems, talked about his victory and interpreted some [[verse]]s of the [[Qur'an]] in support of his actions.<ref>Muhammadi Ishtihardi, ''Hadrat Zaynab'', p.248</ref>
+
Yazid had prepared an unprecedented ceremony in his court. He had invited all the elite officials, noblemen, and army commanders of Umayyads.<ref>Hāshimīnizhād, ''Darsī ki Ḥusayn bi insānhā āmūkht'', p. 330.</ref> In the presence of the captives, he recited blasphemous poems, talked about his victory and interpreted some [[verse]]s of the [[Qur'an]] in support of his actions.<ref>Muḥammadī Ishtihārdī, ''Haḍrat-i Zaynab'', p. 248.</ref>
  
The holy head of [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] was put before Yazid who disrespected it by hitting on it with a stick he had in hand. Meanwhile he recited these poems, which show his deep enmity and hatred of [[the Prophet Muhammad (s)]] and [[Islam]]:
+
The holy head of [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] was put before Yazid who disrespected it by hitting on it with a stick he had in hand.<ref>See: Ṭabrisī, ''al-Iḥtijāj'', vol. 2, p. 122.</ref> Meanwhile he recited these poems, which show his deep enmity and hatred of the [[Prophet Muhammad (s)]] and [[Islam]]:  
 +
:"I wish my forefathers who were killed at Badr had witnessed, the worry of Khazraj from unsheathed swords. They would have been very happy and delighted, and would have said: "O Yazid! May your hand never be paralyzed". We have killed the masters of their chiefs and equated it with Badr, and it has been so, indeed. The [[Banu Hashim]] played with the Dominion, while no news from the [[Heaven]] had come, nor was there anything revealed. I am not a descendant of Khunduf if I will not seek revenge from Ahmed's descendants for what he did to us!"<ref>Abū Mikhnaf, ''Waqʿat al-ṭaff'', p. 305-307; Ibn Ṭāwūs, ''al-Luhūf'', p. 213.</ref>
  
"I wish my forefathers who were killed at [[Badr]] had witnessed, the worry of [[Khazraj]] from unsheathed swords. They would have been very happy and delighted, and would have said: "O Yazid! May your hand never be paralyzed". We have killed the masters of their chiefs and equated it with Badr, and it has been so, indeed. The [[Banu Hashim]] played with the dominion, while no news from the Heaven had come, nor was there anything revealed.<ref>Abu Mikhnaf, ''Waq'at al-taff'', pp.306-307; Ibn Tawus, ''al-Luhuf'', p.213</ref> I am not a descendant of Khindif if I will not seek revenge from Ahmed's descendants for what he did to us!"
+
[[File:ایوان حرم حضرت زینب.jpg|thumbnail|[[Zaynabiyya]], [[Syria]]]]
 +
[[File:Sayyida zaynab mosque cairo.jpg|thumbnail|[[Sayyida Zaynab Mosque]], [[Cairo]], [[Egypt]]]]
  
Reacting to these verses, Lady Zaynab uprose against him and delivered an eloquent sermon which proved the rightness of [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] and the wrongdoing of Yazid. Her logical sermon influenced the attendance very much in a way that Yazid preferred to react gently and avoid harsh decisions.<ref>Ibn Tawus, ''al-Luhuf'', p.221; Majlisi, ''Bihar al-anwar'', vol.45 p.135</ref>
+
Reacting to these verses, Lady Zaynab uprose against him and delivered an eloquent sermon which proved the rightness of [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] and the wrongdoing of Yazid. Her logical sermon influenced the attendance very much in a way that Yazid preferred to react gently and avoid harsh decisions.<ref>Ibn Ṭāwūs, ''al-Luhūf'', p. 135; Majlisī, ''Biḥār al-anwār'', vol. 45, p. 135.</ref>
  
He consulted about the captives with Umayyad officials. Although some of them suggested killing the captives, [[Nu'man b. Bashir]] advised him to deal with them mildly and gently.<ref>Ibn Tawus, ''al-Luhuf'', p.221; Majlisi, ''Bihar al-anwar'', vol.45 p.135</ref>
+
He consulted about the captives with Umayyad officials. Although some of them suggested killing the captives, [[Nu'man b. Bashir]] advised him to deal with them mildly and gently.<ref>Ibn Ṭāwūs, ''al-Luhūf'', p. 221; Majlisī, ''Biḥār al-anwār'', vol. 45, p. 135.</ref>
  
Due to the enlightening of Zaynab, Yazid had to blame [['Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad]] for martyrdom of [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] and cursed him.<ref>Mufid, ''al-Irshad'', p.358</ref>
+
Due to the enlightening of Zaynab, Yazid had to blame [[Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad]] for the martyrdom of [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] and cursed him.<ref>See: Suyūṭī, ''Tārīkh al-khulafāʾ'', p. 158.</ref>
  
Yazid allowed the captives to mourn for some days in [[Damascu]]s. Umayyad women, including Hind, Yazid's wife, joined [[Ahl al-Bayt (a)]] in the ruin (where the captives where held), they kissed hands and feet of Ahl al-Bayt (a) and mourned for three days.<ref>Abu Mikhnaf, ''Waq'at al-taff'', p.311</ref>
+
Yazid allowed the captives to mourn for some days in [[Damascu]]s. Umayyad women, including Hind, Yazid's wife, joined [[Ahl al-Bayt (a)]] in the [[Ruins of Syria|ruin]] (where the captives where held), they kissed hands and feet of Ahl al-Bayt (a) and mourned for three days.<ref>Abū Mikhnaf, ''Waqʿat al-ṭaff'', p. 311.</ref>
  
Finally the captives were returned to [[Medina]] with respect and reverence.<ref>Ibn 'Asakir, ''A'lam al-nisa''', p.191</ref>
+
Finally the captives were returned to [[Medina]] with respect and reverence.
  
 
==Demise==
 
==Demise==
  
[[File:ایوان حرم حضرت زینب.jpg|thumbnail|[[Zaynabiyya]], [[Syria]]]]
+
Lady Zaynab (a) passed away on Sunday, [[Rajab 15]], [[62]]/[[April 2]], 682.<ref>Qazwīnī, ''Zaynab al-kubrā'', p. 591.</ref> Some reported that she passed away on Rajab 14.<ref>Sharīf al-Qarashī, ''al-Sayyida Zaynab'', p. 298.</ref>
 
 
Lady Zaynab passed away on Sunday, [[Rajab]] 15, 62/[[April]] 2, 682.<ref>Qazwini, ''Zaynab al-kubra'', p.591</ref> Some reported that she passed away on Rajab 14.<ref>Al-Qurashi, ''al-Sayyida Zaynab'', p.298</ref>
 
  
There are 3 reports about her resting place:
+
===Burial Place===
 +
There are three reports about her resting place:
  
* [[Baqi']]: Some historians reported that she was buried in Baqi', [[Medina]]. [[Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin]], the author of ''[[A'yan al-Shi'a]]'', accepted this report and mentioned some evidence refuting the other two reports.<ref>Amin, ''A'yan al-shi'a'', vol.7 p.140-141</ref>
+
* '''[[Al-Baqi' cemetery]]:''' Some historians have reported that she was buried in al-Baqi', [[Medina]]. [[Al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin]], the author of ''[[A'yan al-Shi'a]]'', accepted this report and mentioned some evidence refuting the other two reports.<ref>Amīn, ''Aʿyān al-Shīʿa'', vol. 7, p. 140-141.</ref>
  
* [[Zaynabiyya]]: It is widely believed that she was buried in Zaynabiyya, a southern suburb of [[Damascus]], [[Syria]], where nowadays her shrine is.
+
* '''[[Zaynabiyya]]:''' It is widely believed that she was buried in Zaynabiyya, a southern suburb of [[Damascus]], [[Syria]], where nowadays her shrine is.<ref>Sharīf al-Qarashī, ''al-Sayyida Zaynab'', p. 299.</ref>
  
[[File:Sayyida zaynab mosque cairo.jpg|thumbnail|Sayyida Zaynab Mosque, [[Cairo]], [[Egypt]]]]
+
* '''[[Maqam of Lady Zaynab (a)]]:''' Some historians said that she was buried in [[Egypt]].<ref>Sharīf al-Qarashī, ''al-Sayyida Zaynab'', p. 299.</ref>  Her shrine in Egypt has been renovated several times and now is a ziyara site.
 
 
* [[Egypt]]: Some historians said that she was buried in Egypt. They added that she was reminding the people of [[Medina]] about what happened in [[Karbala]], thus the governor of Medina, who was afraid of Lady Zaynab and her actions, wrote a letter to Yazid and asked for help. Yazid ordered him to exile her from Medina to wherever she wished. Consequently, Lady Zaynab along with [[Fatima bt. al-Husayn|Fatima]] and [[Sukayna bt. al-Husayn (a)|Sukayna]], the daughters of [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]], were exiled to Egypt and after 11 months and 15 days she passed away and was buried there. Her shrine in Egypt has been renovated several times and now is a Ziyarah site for Egyptians and Muslims. From the beginning of the month of [[Rajab]] (the month that Lady Zaynab passed away in) to 15th of that month, Egyptians hold a ceremony everyday by reciting the [[Qur'an]] and supplications in her shrine.
 
  
 +
==See Also==
 +
{{cb|2}}
 +
*[[Ruqayya bt. al-Imam al-Husayn (a)]]
 +
*[[Umayyad Mosque]]
 +
{{end}}
  
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==
Line 158: Line 160:
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{references}}
 
{{references}}
* Ibn 'Asakir, ''A'lam al-nisa'''. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1424/2004
+
*Abū Mikhnaf, Lūṭ b. Yaḥyā. ''Waqʿat al-ṭaff''. Edited by Yūsifī Gharawī. Second edition. Qom: al-Majmaʿ al-ʿĀlamī li-Ahl al-Bayt, 1427 AH.
* Jubran Mas'ud, ''Al-Ra'id''. translation: Rida Anzabi, Mashhad: Astan i Quds Radawi, 1376sh
+
*Amīn, Sayyid Muḥsin al-. ''Aʿyān al-Shīʿa''. Edited by Ḥasan al-Amīn. Beirut: Dār al-Taʿāruf li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1406 AH.
* Mahallati, Dhabih Allah. ''Rayahin al-shari'a''. Tehran: Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyya
+
*Fayḍ al-Islām, Sayyid ʿAlī Naqī al-. ''Khātūn-i du sarā sayyidatunā Zaynab al-Kubrā''. Second edition. Tehran: Nashr-i Āthār-i Fayḍ al-Islām, 1366 Sh.
* Muhammadi Ishtihardi, Muhammad. ''Hadrat i Zaynab furuq taban kawthar''. Tehran: Burhan, 1379sh
+
*Hāshimīnizhād, Sayyid ʿAbd al-Karīm. ''Darsī ki Ḥusayn bi insānhā āmūkht''. Eleventh edition. Mashhad: Hāshimīnizhād, 1369 Sh.
* Al-Qurashi, Baqir Sharif. ''Al-Sayyida Zaynab''. Beirut: Dar al-Mahajja al-Bayda' al-Ula, 1422/2001
+
*Ibn Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. ''Usd al-ghāba fī maʿrifat al-ṣaḥāba''. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1409 AH.
* Ilahi, Hasan. ''Zaynab kubra 'aqila bani Hashim''. Tehran: Afarini, 1375sh
+
*Ibn Manẓūr, Muḥammad b. Mukarram. ''Lisān al-ʿarab''. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, [n.d].
* Arfa', Sayyik Kazim. ''Hazrat Zaynab siriyi 'amali Ahl bayt''. Tehran: Nashr Qadir, 1377sh
+
*Ibn Ṭāwūs, ʿAlī b. Mūsā. ''Al-Luhūf''. Edited by ʿAqīqī Bakhshāyishī. Fifth edition. Qom: Daftar-i Nashr-i Nawīd-i Islām, 1378 Sh.
* Dibaji, Abu l-Qasim. ''Zaynab al-Kubra batala l-hurriyya''. Beirut: Al-Balagh, 1417
+
*Jazāʾirī, Sayyid Nūr al-Dīn al-. ''Al-Khaṣāʾiṣ al-zaynabīyya''. Qom: Intishārāt-i al-Maktaba al-Ḥaydarīyya, 1425 AH.
* Jaza'iri, Sayyid Nur al-Din al-. ''Al-Khasa'isat al-Zaynabiyya''. Qom: Intishart al-Maktaba al-Haydariyya, 1383sh/1425
+
*Kaḥḥāla, ʿUmar Riḍā. ''Aʿlām al-nisāʾ fī ʿālamay al-ʿarab wa l-islām''. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Risāla, 2008.
* Amin, al-Sayyid Muhsin al-. ''A'yan al-Shi'a''. Beirut: Dar al-Ta'aruf li l-Matbu'at, 1406/1986
+
*Maḥallātī, Dhabīḥ Allāh. ''Rayāḥīn al-sharīʿa''. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1349 Sh.
* Mufid, ''Al-Irshad''. Qom: Al-Mu'tamar al-'Alami li alfiyya al-Shaykh al-Mufid, 1413
+
*Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. ''Biḥār al-anwār''. Third edition. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Wafāʾ, 1403 AH.
* Ibn Abi l-Hadid. ''Sharh nahj al-balagha''. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-'Imiyya, 1418
+
*Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. ''Al-Irshād''. Qom: al-Muʾtamar al-ʿĀlamī li-Alfīyat al-Shaykh al-Mufīd, 1372 Sh.
* 'Amili, al-Shaykh Hurr al-''Wasa'il al-shi'a''.
+
*Muḥammadī Ishtihārdī, Muḥammad. ''Haḍrat-i Zaynab furūgh-i tābān-i kawthar''. Third edition. Tehran: Burhān, 1379 Sh.
* Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir al-. ''Bihar al-anwar''. Beirut: Mu'assisa l-Wafa', 1403/1983
+
*Naqdī, Jaʿfar al-. ''Zaynab al-kubrā bt. al-Imām''. Najaf: al-Maktaba al-Ḥaydarīyya, 1361 AH.
* Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir al-. ''Dla'il al-imama''.
+
*Qazwīnī, Sayyid Muḥammad Kāẓim al-. ''Zaynab al-kubrā min al-mahd ilā l-laḥd''. Qom: Dār al-Ghadīr, 1424 AH.
* Naqdi, Ja'far al-. ''Zaynab al-kubra bint al-imam''. Najaf: Al-Maktaba al-Haydariyya, 1361
+
*Ṣādiqī Ardistānī, Aḥmad. ''Zaynab-i qahramān''. Tehran: Muṭahhar, 1372 Sh.
* Dastghayb, Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn. ''Zindigani hadrat Zaynab''. Tehran: Kawih
+
*Sharīf al-Qarashī, Bāqir al-. ''Al-Sayyida Zaynab Bāṭalat tārīkh wa rāʾidat al-jihād''. Beirut: Dār al-Maḥajja al-Bayḍāʾ, 1422 AH.
* Fayd al-Islam, Sayyid 'Ali Naqi. ''Khatun du sara''. Tehran: Nashr Athar Fayd al-Islam, 1366sh
+
*Suyūṭī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Bakr al-. ''Tārīkh al-khulafāʾ''. Edited by Ḥamdī. Riyadh: Maktabat Nazār Muṣṭafā al-Bāz, 1425 AH.
* Nazari Munfarid, 'Ali. ''Qissiyi karbala''. Qom: Surur, 1384sh
+
*Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. ''Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk''. Cairo: Maṭbaʿat al-Istiqāma, 1358 AH.
* Ibn Tawus, ''Al-Luhuf''. Qom: Daftar Nashr Nawid Islam, 1378sh
+
*Ṭabrisī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. ''Al-Iḥtijāj''. Edited by Ibrāhīm al-Bahādurī. Qom: Uswa, 1413 AH.
* Abu Mikhnaf, ''Waq'at al-taff''. Qom: Majma' al-'Alami li Ahl al-Bayt, 1427
+
*Zubaydī, Murtaḍā. ''Tāj al-ʿarūs''. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1414 AH.
* Qazwini, al-Sayyid Muhammad Kazim al-. ''Zaynab al-kubra min al-mahd ila l-lahad''. Qom: Dar al-Ghadir, 1424/2003
 
 
{{end}}
 
{{end}}
  
==External Links==
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{{Template:Imam 'Ali (a)}}
* The material for this article is mainly taken from [http://fa.wikishia.net/view/%D8%AD%D8%B6%D8%B1%D8%AA_%D8%B2%DB%8C%D9%86%D8%A8_%D8%B3%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%85_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%D9%87_%D8%B9%D9%84%DB%8C%D9%87%D8%A7 حضرت زینب سلام الله علیها] from Farsi Wikishia.
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{{Battle of Karbala}}
 
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{{Captives of Karbala}}
{{Event of Karbala}}
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{{Ahl al-Bayt's Women}}
{{Template:Ahl al-Bayt's women}}
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{{Shia Female Narrators}}
 
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{{Effective Women from Shia's View}}
 
[[fa:حضرت زینب سلام الله علیها]]
 
[[fa:حضرت زینب سلام الله علیها]]
[[ar: السيدة زينب بنت علي عليها السلام]]
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[[fr:Zaynab bint 'Ali b. Abi Taleb (a)]]
 
[[ur:حضرت زینب سلام اللہ علیہا]]
 
[[ur:حضرت زینب سلام اللہ علیہا]]
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[[tr:Hz. Zeynep (s. a)]]
 
[[es:Zainab hija de Alí (La paz sea con ella)]]
 
[[es:Zainab hija de Alí (La paz sea con ella)]]
[[tr:Hz. Zeynep (s.a)]]
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[[id:Zainab binti Ali as]]
[[id:Zainab Binti Ali bin Abi Thalib As]]
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[[de:Zainab al-Kubrā (a.)]]
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[[Category:Al-Sayyida Zaynab (a)]]
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[[Category:Ahl al-Bayt (a)]]

Latest revision as of 08:06, 23 April 2019

For other people named Zaynab, see Zaynab (disambiguation).
Descendant of Imam
Al-Sayyida Zaynab (a)
حرم حضرت زینب.jpg
Shrine of Lady Zaynab (a), Damascus, Syria
Epithet 'Aqilat Bani Hashim, al-Kamila, al-Fadila
Father 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a)
Mother Fatima al-Zahra (a)
Birth Jumada I 5, 5 or 6/626 or 627
Place of Birth Medina
Spouse(s) 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far b. Abi Talib
Children 'Ali, al-'Abbas, 'Awn, Muhammad
Demise Rajab 15, 62/April 2, 682
Place of Burial Damascus
Age 57

Zaynab bt. ʿAlī (Arabic: زینب بنت علي) the daughter of Imam Ali (a) and the Lady Fatima al-Zahra' (a), and 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far's wife. She and her two sons accompanied Imam al-Husayn (a) on the Event of 'Ashura' where her two sons were martyred and she was taken as captive to Kufa and then to Damascus. Her sermons in Kufa and Damascus (in front of Yazid) are very famous. Due to many sufferings she had undergone, she was called as Umm al-Masa'ib (mother of calamities). She passed away in 62/682.

Birth, Name, Title, and Lineage

She is the daughter of Imam 'Ali (a) and the Lady Fatima al-Zahra' (a).[1] Her most famous name is "Zaynab", which literally means "a scenic tree with a beautiful fragrance"[2]. Zaynab is also a compound of two words "zayn" (adornment) and "ab" (father), meaning the adornment of the father.[3]

She was born on Jumada I 5, 5 or 6/October 2, 626 or September 22, 627 in Medina.[4]

According to several hadiths, the Prophet (s) named her Zaynab. It is said that Gabriel brought this name from God to the Prophet (s).[5]

When the Prophet (s) held her for the first time, he kissed her and said, "I advise the present and the absent of my Umma to honor and respect this girl as she looks like Khadija (a)."[6]

Many titles have been reported for her such as 'Aqilat Bani Hashim (wise woman of Banu Hashim), 'Alima Ghayr Mu'allama (the knowledgeable without being taught), al-'Arifa, al-Muwaththaqa (trustworthy), al-Fadila, al-Kamila (perfect), 'Abida Al 'Ali (worshiper of the family of 'Ali), al-Ma'suma al-Sughra, Aminat Allah, Na'ibat al-Zahra' (representative of Zahra'), Na'ibat al-Husayn, 'Aqilat al-Nisa', Sharikat al-Shuhada', al-Baligha, al-Fasiha, and Sharikat al-Husayn.[7]

Due to the hardships she suffered during her life (demise of the Prophet (s), sufferings of her mother and her martyrdom, martyrdom of her father, Imam 'Ali (a), her brother, Imam al-Hasan (a), the event of Karbala, martyrdom of her brother, Imam al-Husayn (a) and her two sons and her other relatives, going to Kufa and Damascus as a captive) she was titled as Umm al-Masa'ib (lit, mother of calamities, referring to the numerous miseries she was inflicted with).[8]

Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khadija
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Mariya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Lady Fatima
 
 
 
Ibrahim
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam Ali
 
 
 
 
Umm al-Banin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Husayn
 
 
Imam al-Hasan
 
Lady Zaynab
 
Umm Kulthum
 
Muhsin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Abd Allah
 
Uthman
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
'Awn
 
Ali
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Umm Kulthum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hasan
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Fatima
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd Allah
 
Zaynab
 
Ibrahim
 
Al-Hasan
 
al-Hasan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
Ibrahim
 
Idris
 
 
 
 
 
Nafisa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sajjad
 
'Ali al-Akbar
 
'Ali al-Asghar
 
Fatima
 
Sukayna
 
Ruqayya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Baqir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sadiq
 
'Abd Allah
 
Ibrahim
 
'Ubayd Allah
 
'Ali
 
Yahya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Kazim
 
Muhammad
 
Ali
 
Ishaq
 
Umm Farwa
 
'Abd Allah
 
Isma'il
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Rida
 
Ma'suama
 
Hamza
 
Ishaq
 
Ahmad
 
Ibrahim
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Imam al-Jawad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hadi
 
Musa
 
Fatima
 
Hakima
 
Amama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-'Askari
 
Husayn
 
Muhammad
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
Imam al-Mahdi
 
 


Husband and Children

Zaynab married Abd Allah b. Ja'far al-Tayyar (her cousin) in 17/638. She gave birth to four sons named: 'Ali, 'Awn, al-'Abbas and Muhammad, and one daughter named: Umm Kulthum.[9] Muhammad and Awn were martyred in Karbala.[10]

Mu'awiya asked to marry Yazid to Umm Kulthum but Imam al-Husayn (a) married her to al-Qasim b. Muhammad b. Ja'far b. Abi Talib (Umm Kulthum's cousin).[11]

Characteristics, Virtues, and Merits

Knowledge and Eloquence

Her utterances and sermons, which are full of demonstrations from the Qur'an, in Kufa and the court of Yazid, show how knowledgeable she was.[12] She has narrated hadiths from her father, Imam Ali (a), and her mother, Lady Fatimat al-Zahra (s).[13] Muhammad b. Amr, Ata' b. Sa'ib, Fatima bt. al-Husayn, and other narrators have narrated hadiths from her.[14]

During the residence of Imam Ali (a) in Kufa, Zaynab held sessions on exegesis of the Qur'an for women of Kufa.[15]

Her sermons reminded the audience of the sermons of her father, Imam Ali (a).[16] Her sermons in Kufa, in front of Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad, and in the court of Yazid are very similar to those of Imam Ali (a), and the Fadakiyya sermon from her mother Fatima (a).

Worship

She would worship at nights. She never quit tahajjud (night vigil). She gave so much of her time to worshiping acts that she was titled as "'Abidat Al 'Ali" (the female worshiper of the family of Ali).[17]

On the tenth and eleventh eve of Muharram 61/October 680 and after the martyrdom of her brothers, her children, and many of her relatives she did not abandon her acts of worship.

Fatima bt. al-Husayn (a) said, "On the eve of Ashura, my aunt (Zaynab) was worshiping, praying and crying for all the night."[18]

It is narrated that Imam al-Husayn (a) told her at his last moment on the day of Ashura, "O, my sister! Do not forget me in your night prayers."[19]

Patience and Resistance

On the day of Ashura when she saw her brother's bloody body, she said, "O, Allah! Accept this humble sacrifice from us."[20]

She rescued Imam al-Sajjad (a) from death several times, one of which was in the court of 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad after that Imam al-Sajjad (a) debated with him, he ordered to kill the Imam (a), but Zaynab (a) put her hand around Imam's neck and said, "As long as I am alive, I do not let you kill him."[21]

In the Tragedy of Ashura

On the Eve of Ashura

Main article: Eve of Ashura

Al-Shaykh al-Mufid has narrated from Imam al-Sajjad (a), "On the eve of the day that my father was killed, I was sitting and my aunt was nursing me. My father went to his tent... and started repairing his sword while reading this poem,

"O, days! Fie upon your friendship!, How many of your fellows and seekers, are killed in mornings and evenings?, and the days are not content with substitutes (other than the lives of people). The Majestic (Allah) is in charge of this affair, and every living creature will go through this path (will die).

He repeated this poem two or three times until that I understood what he meant, I choked up but I kept silent and knew that tragedy has been sent down, but my aunt, like other women who are prevailed by their tender hearts, could not control herself. She jumped towards him and said, "Oh what pain! May demise deprive me of life! Today my mother, Fatima, my father, Ali, and my brother, al-Hasan died. You are the successor of the bygone ones and the last of the remainder." Imam al-Husayn (a) looked at her and said, "O, My dear sister! Do not let Satan take away your patience." then his eyes overflowed with tears and added, "If the bird is left alone, it will sleep."

Then she said, "Oh, woe! Do they take your soul by force? This hurts my heart more and is more painful to me." Then she slapped her face and tore her clothes and fell on the ground losing consciousness. Imam (a) went to her and sprinkled some water on her face and told her, "O, my dear sister! Be content with Allah's will and know that the inhabitant of the earth will die and the inhabitant of heavens will not remain and everything will perish except Allah who has created all the creatures by His omnipotence and will resurrect them, they will return to Him and He is Single and the Only One. My father was better than me, my mother was better than me, my brother was better than me, and for me and for every Muslim there is good exemplar in the Prophet of God."

He consoled her with this and other similar sentences and said, "O, my dear sister! I put you under this oath and please do not break it: never tear a piece of your clothes (as a sign of your sorrow) for me, never slap your face (for mourning) for me, and never invoke woe and perdition when I was slain." Then he accompanied her to my tent and went to his companions."[22]

On the Day of Ashura

Main article: Day of Ashura
==

In the evening of the day of Ashura, when Zaynab saw Imam al-Husayn (a) fallen on the ground and he was surrounded by his enemies who intended to kill him, she came out of her tent and shouted at Umar b. Sa'd (the commander of the enemy's army), "O, Ibn Sa'd! Is Abu Abd Allah (Imam al-Husyan) being slain while you are watching?"[23]

He did not reply and Zaynab cried, "Oh for my brother! Oh for my master! Oh for my household! I wish the heavens had been fallen upon the earth! I wish the mountains had been crumbled and scattered on plains!"[24]

And when she came to his brother's body, she said, "O Allah! Accept from us this sacrifice."[25]

Then she faced toward Medina and started addressing the Prophet (s), "Oh, Muhammad! These are your daughters! They are being taken captives! Your children are slain! The Zephyr is blowing on their bodies! And this is al-Husayn, who has been beheaded from the back of his neck! His turban and cloak have been plundered."[26]

"May my father be the ransom for the one whom the army plundered. May my father be the ransom for the one whose tents were taken down..."[27]

Her words made both friends and enemies cry and wail.[28]

In Kufa

After Ashura, the captives were taken to Kufa. They were circulated around the city tragically.

As they entered Kufa, Zaynab delivered a sermon, which influenced the people who had come to see the captives.

Bashir b. Khuzaym al-Asadi said, "On that day, I looked at her. By Allah, I have never seen any proud and modest woman with that eloquence, it was as if she was talking with Ali's tongue. She told people to be silent. People became silent, even the bells on the camels stopped jiggling."[29] When she finished the sermon, Kufa was filled with emotions and sadness. Some people were nipping their fingers (as a sign of regret and being shocked).[30] After her sermon, there was a possibility of an uprising and riot against the government, thus, the captives were taken to Dar al-Imara (the palace of the ruler) to Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad.[31]

Zaynab spoke and debated with Ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, in his palace.[32]

Her arguments enlightened people and left Umayyads in disgrace. Then 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad ordered to imprison them. The sermon of the lady Zaynab (a) and the words of Imam al-Sajjad (a), Umm Kulthum, and Fatima bt. al-Husayn in Kufa and Dar al-Imara followed by the protests of Abd Allah b. Afif al-Azdi and Zayd b. Arqam encouraged the people of Kufa and prepared the grounds for a revolution against the government[33]

In Damascus

After the tragedy of Karbala, Yazid b. Mu'awiya asked Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad to send the caravan of captives along with the heads of the martyrs of Karbala to Damascus.[34]

Yazid's government was very strong at that time in Syria, as the people were bombarded with false information about the household of Imam 'Ali (a) and fake virtues and merits of descendants of Abu Sufyan. So it is not surprising that "when the household of the Prophet (s) entered Damascus, people had worn new clothes, decorated the city, musicians were playing songs and the city was filled with happiness."[35]

However, the sermons delivered by Imam al-Sajjad (a) and Lady Zaynab (a) changed the conditions in a very short time. They informed people about the tyranny of Umayyads and the horrifying act they did to descendants of the Prophet (s) in Karbala. Soon the enmity of the people of Damascus toward Ahl al-Bayt (a) changed to friendship and affection.

Yazid who thought that killing of Imam al-Husayn (a) will help consolidate his governing position in Islamic world, realized that it has actually damaged his popularity and weakened his authority.

In Yazid's Court

Yazid had prepared an unprecedented ceremony in his court. He had invited all the elite officials, noblemen, and army commanders of Umayyads.[36] In the presence of the captives, he recited blasphemous poems, talked about his victory and interpreted some verses of the Qur'an in support of his actions.[37]

The holy head of Imam al-Husayn (a) was put before Yazid who disrespected it by hitting on it with a stick he had in hand.[38] Meanwhile he recited these poems, which show his deep enmity and hatred of the Prophet Muhammad (s) and Islam:

"I wish my forefathers who were killed at Badr had witnessed, the worry of Khazraj from unsheathed swords. They would have been very happy and delighted, and would have said: "O Yazid! May your hand never be paralyzed". We have killed the masters of their chiefs and equated it with Badr, and it has been so, indeed. The Banu Hashim played with the Dominion, while no news from the Heaven had come, nor was there anything revealed. I am not a descendant of Khunduf if I will not seek revenge from Ahmed's descendants for what he did to us!"[39]

Reacting to these verses, Lady Zaynab uprose against him and delivered an eloquent sermon which proved the rightness of Imam al-Husayn (a) and the wrongdoing of Yazid. Her logical sermon influenced the attendance very much in a way that Yazid preferred to react gently and avoid harsh decisions.[40]

He consulted about the captives with Umayyad officials. Although some of them suggested killing the captives, Nu'man b. Bashir advised him to deal with them mildly and gently.[41]

Due to the enlightening of Zaynab, Yazid had to blame Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad for the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a) and cursed him.[42]

Yazid allowed the captives to mourn for some days in Damascus. Umayyad women, including Hind, Yazid's wife, joined Ahl al-Bayt (a) in the ruin (where the captives where held), they kissed hands and feet of Ahl al-Bayt (a) and mourned for three days.[43]

Finally the captives were returned to Medina with respect and reverence.

Demise

Lady Zaynab (a) passed away on Sunday, Rajab 15, 62/April 2, 682.[44] Some reported that she passed away on Rajab 14.[45]

Burial Place

There are three reports about her resting place:

  • Zaynabiyya: It is widely believed that she was buried in Zaynabiyya, a southern suburb of Damascus, Syria, where nowadays her shrine is.[47]

See Also

Notes

  1. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 6, p. 132.
  2. Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-ʿarab, Under the word «زنب»
  3. Zubaydī, Tāj al-ʿarūs, vol. 2, p. 60.
  4. Kaḥḥāla, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ, vol. 2, p. 91.
  5. Sharīf al-Qarashī, al-Sayyida Zaynab, p. 39.
  6. Jazāʾirī, al-Khaṣāʾiṣ al-zaynabīyya, p. 44.
  7. Jazāʾirī, al-Khaṣāʾiṣ al-zaynabīyya, p. 52-53.
  8. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 7, p. 137.
  9. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 6, p. 133.
  10. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 125.
  11. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 7, p. 137.
  12. Kaḥḥāla, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ, vol. 2, p. 92-97.
  13. Kaḥḥāla, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ, vol. 2, p. 91.
  14. Kaḥḥāla, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ, vol. 2, p. 91.
  15. Maḥallātī, Rayāḥīn al-sharīʿa, vol. 3, p. 57.
  16. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 109.
  17. Naqdī, Zaynab al-kubrā, p. 61.
  18. Maḥallātī, Rayāḥīn al-sharīʿa, vol. 3, p. 62.
  19. Maḥallātī, Rayāḥīn al-sharīʿa, vol. 3, p. 62.
  20. Fayḍ al-Islām, Khātūn-i du sarā, p. 185.
  21. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 117.
  22. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 93-94.
  23. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 112.
  24. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Luhūf, p. 159-161.
  25. Fayḍ al-Islām, Khātūn-i du sarā, p. 185.
  26. Abū Mikhnaf, Waqʿat al-ṭaff, p. 259; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 117.
  27. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 59.
  28. Abū Mikhnaf, Waqʿat al-ṭaff, p. 259; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 348-349.
  29. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 109-110.
  30. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 113.
  31. Ṣādiqī Ardistānī, Zaynab-i qahramān, p. 246.
  32. Abū Mikhnaf, Waqʿat al-ṭaff, p. 299-300; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 117.
  33. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 115-117.
  34. Hāshimīnizhād, Darsī ki Ḥusayn bi insānhā āmūkht, p. 236.
  35. Muḥammadī Ishtihārdī, Haḍrat-i Zaynab, p. 327-328.
  36. Hāshimīnizhād, Darsī ki Ḥusayn bi insānhā āmūkht, p. 330.
  37. Muḥammadī Ishtihārdī, Haḍrat-i Zaynab, p. 248.
  38. See: Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 122.
  39. Abū Mikhnaf, Waqʿat al-ṭaff, p. 305-307; Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Luhūf, p. 213.
  40. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Luhūf, p. 135; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 135.
  41. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Luhūf, p. 221; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 135.
  42. See: Suyūṭī, Tārīkh al-khulafāʾ, p. 158.
  43. Abū Mikhnaf, Waqʿat al-ṭaff, p. 311.
  44. Qazwīnī, Zaynab al-kubrā, p. 591.
  45. Sharīf al-Qarashī, al-Sayyida Zaynab, p. 298.
  46. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 7, p. 140-141.
  47. Sharīf al-Qarashī, al-Sayyida Zaynab, p. 299.
  48. Sharīf al-Qarashī, al-Sayyida Zaynab, p. 299.

References

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  • Amīn, Sayyid Muḥsin al-. Aʿyān al-Shīʿa. Edited by Ḥasan al-Amīn. Beirut: Dār al-Taʿāruf li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1406 AH.
  • Fayḍ al-Islām, Sayyid ʿAlī Naqī al-. Khātūn-i du sarā sayyidatunā Zaynab al-Kubrā. Second edition. Tehran: Nashr-i Āthār-i Fayḍ al-Islām, 1366 Sh.
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  • Ibn Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Usd al-ghāba fī maʿrifat al-ṣaḥāba. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1409 AH.
  • Ibn Manẓūr, Muḥammad b. Mukarram. Lisān al-ʿarab. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, [n.d].
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  • Kaḥḥāla, ʿUmar Riḍā. Aʿlām al-nisāʾ fī ʿālamay al-ʿarab wa l-islām. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Risāla, 2008.
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