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[[File:Mourning procession.jpg|thumbnail|300px|Shi'a marja's in mourning procession of Fatimiyya]]
 
[[File:Mourning procession.jpg|thumbnail|300px|Shi'a marja's in mourning procession of Fatimiyya]]
  
The exact date of [[Lady Fatima al-Zahra]]'s [[martyrdom]] remains uncertain due to different historical reports and [[narration]]s from the [[Ahl al-Bayt (a)]]. There are different and incompatible records of that date, such as: 40 days after the demise of the [[Holy Prophet (s)]], 72 or 75 days after it, 95 days, 3 or 6 months after the demise.
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The exact date of [[Lady Fatima al-Zahra]]'s [[martyrdom]] remains uncertain due to different historical reports and [[narration]]s from the [[Ahl al-Bayt (a)]]. There are different and incompatible records of that date, such as: forty days after the [[demise of the Prophet (s)]], seventy two or seventy five days after it, ninety five days, three or six months after the demise.<ref>See: Nazarī Mufarid, ''Tanhā yādigār'', p. 427-431.</ref>
  
Iraqi Shi'as hold ceremonies in three of these reports: 40 days after the demise of the Holy Prophet (s) ([[Rabi' II 8]]), 75 days after it ([[Jumada I 13]]), and 95 days ([[Jumada II 3]]). [[Iran|Iranian]] Shi'a, however, hold ceremonies in two last ones, that are called "the first Fatimiyya" and "the second Fatimiyya".
+
Iraqi Shi'as hold ceremonies in three of these reports: forty days after the demise of the Prophet (s) ([[Rabi' II 8]]), seventy five days after it ([[Jumada I 13]]), and ninety five days ([[Jumada II 3]]). [[Iran|Iranian]] Shi'a, however, hold ceremonies in two last ones, that are called "the first Fatimiyya" and "the second Fatimiyya".
  
According to what [[Abu Basir]] has narrated from [[Imam al-Sadiq (a)]], Lady Fatima al-Zahra (a) was martyred on Tuesday, third of Jumada II. This occasion has been revitalized after the establishment of the [[Islamic Seminary of Qom|Islamic Seminary in Qom]] by [[Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri]].
+
According to what [[Abu Basir]] has narrated from [[Imam al-Sadiq (a)]], Lady Fatima al-Zahra (a) was martyred on Tuesday, third of Jumada II.<ref>Ṭabarī, ''Dalāʾil al-imāma'', p. 134.</ref> This occasion has been revitalized after the establishment of the [[Islamic Seminary of Qom|Islamic Seminary in Qom]] by [[Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri]].<ref>Raḍawī, ''Ḥāj shaykh ʿAbd al-Karīm Ḥā'irī wa sāmān dādan bi tablīghāt-i dīnī'', p. 151-154.</ref>
  
 
==As a Holiday in Iran==
 
==As a Holiday in Iran==
Since 2000, [[Jumada II 3]] (the second Fatimiyya) has been declared as a national holy day in [[Iran]]. After this decision, the mourning ceremonies expanded in Iran. Some Shi'a [[marja']]s attend ritual mourning procession, walking toward the [[Holy Shrine of Imam al-Rida (a)]] in [[Mashhad]], and the [[Holy Shrine of Lady Fatima al-Ma'suma (a)]] in [[Qom]].
+
Since 2000, [[Jumada II 3]] (the second Fatimiyya) has been declared as a national holiday in [[Iran]]. After this decision, the mourning ceremonies expanded in Iran. Some Shi'a [[marja']]s attend ritual mourning procession, walking toward the [[Holy Shrine of Imam al-Rida (a)]] in [[Mashhad]], and the [[Holy Shrine of Lady Fatima al-Ma'suma (a)]] in [[Qom]].<ref>[https://www.farsnews.ir/news/13910204001186/ماجرای-تعطیل-شدن-روز-شهادت-حضرت-زهرا-س- The story of declaring Fatimiyya as a national holiday. (Persian)]</ref>
  
 
==Time of Mourning==
 
==Time of Mourning==
There is no specific period of time in Shi'a tradition for mourning and the popular titles of the "first 10-days" or the "second 10-days" of Fatimiyya in recent years has followed the tradition of the "first 10-days of Muharram" and there is no hadith or tradition recommending it. The great position of the Prophet's (s) daughter,her martyrdom defending [[Imam Ali (a)]] and her hardships are the reasons behind this tradition among Shi'a.
+
There is no specific period of time in Shi'a tradition for mourning and the popular titles of the "first 10-days" or the "second 10-days" of Fatimiyya in recent years has followed the tradition of the "first 10-days of Muharram" and there is no hadith or tradition recommending it. The great position of the Prophet's (s) daughter,her martyrdom defending [[Imam Ali (a)]] and her hardships are the reasons behind this tradition among Shi'a.<ref>Tabrīzī, ''Sīra-yi Mīrzā Jawād Tabrīzī'', p. 88-92; Mazāhirī, ''Andīshahā-yi nāb'', p. 103.</ref>
The time of these two 10-day periods is different in different cities but, usually according to the 75-day report, the second 10-days of  [[Jumada I]] (from 10th to 20th of  Jumada I) is called the "first 10-days" and based on the 95-day report, the first 10-days of [[Jumada II]] (from 10th to 20th of Jumada II) is called the "second 10-days" of Fatimiyya. Some grand Shi'a authorities have advised that in both 10-day Fatimiyya, three days should be dedicated to [[mourning ceremonies]]; so that, mourning ceremonies should be held on 13th, 14th and 15th of Jumada I in the first Fatimiyya time and 1st, 2nd and 3rd of Jumada II in the second Fatimiyya period.
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 +
The time of these two 10-day periods is different in different cities but, usually according to the 75-day report, the second 10-days of  [[Jumada I]] (from 10th to 20th of  Jumada I) is called the "first 10-days" and based on the 95-day report, the first 10-days of [[Jumada II]] (from 10th to 20th of Jumada II) is called the "second 10-days" of Fatimiyya.<ref>[http://www.soalcity.ir/node/545 When "Fatimiyya" starts? (Persian)]</ref> Some grand Shi'a authorities have advised that in both 10-day Fatimiyya, three days should be dedicated to [[mourning ceremonies]]; so that, mourning ceremonies should be held on 13th, 14th and 15th of Jumada I in the first Fatimiyya time and 1st, 2nd and 3rd of Jumada II in the second Fatimiyya period.<ref>[https://www.farsnews.ir/news/13930101001191/نظر-مراجع-و-علما-در-مورد-تقارن-ایام-فاطمیه-با-جشن-نوروز The idea of the Maraji' about coincidence of Fatimiyya and Nowruz. (Persian)]</ref>
  
 
==Making the Model of the House of Lady Fatima (s)==
 
==Making the Model of the House of Lady Fatima (s)==
In recent years, during the days of Fatimiyya, some models of Banu Hashim neighborhood, the house of Lady Fatima (s), [[Bayt al-Ahzan]], [[Baqi' cemetery]], [[Ghadir Khumm]], etc. are built for public exhibition in some cities of [[Iran]], especially in [[Qom]] and [[Tehran]].
+
In recent years, during the days of Fatimiyya, some models of Banu Hashim neighborhood, the house of Lady Fatima (s), [[Bayt al-Ahzan]], [[Baqi' cemetery]], [[Ghadir Khumm]], etc. are built for public exhibition in some cities of [[Iran]], especially in [[Qom]] and [[Tehran]].<ref>[https://www.mehrnews.com/news/2257579/سومین-نمایشگاه-کوچه-های-بنی-هاشم-در-قم-برپا-شد-ساخت-ماکت-بقیع Exhibition of models of Banu Hashim neighborhood (Persian)].[https://www.irna.ir/news/81103205/نمایش-كوچه-های-بنی-هاشم-در-ریگان Banu Hashim neighborhood in Reygan (Persian)]</ref>
  
 
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<gallery>
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==Fatimiyya in other Countries==
 
==Fatimiyya in other Countries==
 
[[file:فاطمیه-پاکستان.jpg|thumbnail|Mourning of Fatimiyya in Lahore, Pakistan, 2005.]]  
 
[[file:فاطمیه-پاکستان.jpg|thumbnail|Mourning of Fatimiyya in Lahore, Pakistan, 2005.]]  
In other countries including [[Iraq]], [[Pakistan]], [[Azerbaijan]], [[Tajikistan]] and [[Australia]], mourning ceremonies are held in Fatimiyya time. In Europe, centers such as the [[Islamic Center of Hamburg]], [[Islamic Center of England]] and [[Imam Ali (a) Islamic Center of Stockholm|Imam Ali (a) Islamic Center]] in Stockholm hold mourning ceremonies in these times. Fatimiyya ceremonies are held for 3 to 5 nights.
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In other countries including [[Iraq]], [[Pakistan]],<ref>[https://www.irna.ir/photo/2652032/ایام-شھادت-حضرت-فاطمه-الزھرا-سلام-اللہ-علیھا-در-پاکستان Mourning of Fatimiyya in Pakistan (Persian)]</ref> [[Azerbaijan]], [[Tajikistan]]<ref>[http://tajik.irib.ir/persian/news/تاجیکستان/item/18271-مراسم-سوگواري-شهادت-حضرت-فاطمه-س-در-جمهوری-آذربایجان-و-تاجیکستان Mourning of Fatimiyya in Tajikistan (Persian)]</ref> and [[Australia]],<ref>[https://fa.abna24.com/service/archive/2014/03/31/600449/story.html Mourning of Fatimiyya in Melbourne, Australia]</ref> mourning ceremonies are held in Fatimiyya time. In Europe, centers such as the [[Islamic Center of Hamburg]],<ref>[https://www.mehrnews.com/photo/3922514/مراسم-سوگواری-ایام-فاطمیه-در-مرکز-اسلامی-هامبورگ Mourning of Fatimiyya in Hamburg, Germany]</ref> [[Islamic Center of England]] and [[Imam Ali (a) Islamic Center of Stockholm|Imam Ali (a) Islamic Center]] in Stockholm hold mourning ceremonies in these times. Fatimiyya ceremonies are held for 3 to 5 nights.<ref>[https://fa.abna24.com/news/اخبار-اروپا/برنامه-مراسم-عزاداری-فاطمیه-دوم-2018-در-شهرهای-مهم-اروپا_732762.html Fatimiyya ceremonies in European cities]</ref>
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==

Revision as of 15:49, 1 August 2020

Mourning of Fatimiyya in Mashhad 2014

Fāṭimīyya (Arabic:الفاطمية) is an adjectival term, referring to the anniversary of Lady Fatima al-Zahra's martyrdom, during which Shi'a community holds mourning sessions and rituals.

According to different historical reports within Shi'a traditions, several different dates have been recorded for this incident. Among Iraqi Shi'as, especially in Najaf, three different days; and in Iran two days of the year, are held as the anniversary of her martyrdom. Out of different historical accounts, third of Jumada II is regarded as more reliable; hence it is an official holy day in Iran, as an occasion for mourning and lamentation.

Variance of Historical Reports

Shi'a marja's in mourning procession of Fatimiyya

The exact date of Lady Fatima al-Zahra's martyrdom remains uncertain due to different historical reports and narrations from the Ahl al-Bayt (a). There are different and incompatible records of that date, such as: forty days after the demise of the Prophet (s), seventy two or seventy five days after it, ninety five days, three or six months after the demise.[1]

Iraqi Shi'as hold ceremonies in three of these reports: forty days after the demise of the Prophet (s) (Rabi' II 8), seventy five days after it (Jumada I 13), and ninety five days (Jumada II 3). Iranian Shi'a, however, hold ceremonies in two last ones, that are called "the first Fatimiyya" and "the second Fatimiyya".

According to what Abu Basir has narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a), Lady Fatima al-Zahra (a) was martyred on Tuesday, third of Jumada II.[2] This occasion has been revitalized after the establishment of the Islamic Seminary in Qom by Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri.[3]

As a Holiday in Iran

Since 2000, Jumada II 3 (the second Fatimiyya) has been declared as a national holiday in Iran. After this decision, the mourning ceremonies expanded in Iran. Some Shi'a marja's attend ritual mourning procession, walking toward the Holy Shrine of Imam al-Rida (a) in Mashhad, and the Holy Shrine of Lady Fatima al-Ma'suma (a) in Qom.[4]

Time of Mourning

There is no specific period of time in Shi'a tradition for mourning and the popular titles of the "first 10-days" or the "second 10-days" of Fatimiyya in recent years has followed the tradition of the "first 10-days of Muharram" and there is no hadith or tradition recommending it. The great position of the Prophet's (s) daughter,her martyrdom defending Imam Ali (a) and her hardships are the reasons behind this tradition among Shi'a.[5]

The time of these two 10-day periods is different in different cities but, usually according to the 75-day report, the second 10-days of Jumada I (from 10th to 20th of Jumada I) is called the "first 10-days" and based on the 95-day report, the first 10-days of Jumada II (from 10th to 20th of Jumada II) is called the "second 10-days" of Fatimiyya.[6] Some grand Shi'a authorities have advised that in both 10-day Fatimiyya, three days should be dedicated to mourning ceremonies; so that, mourning ceremonies should be held on 13th, 14th and 15th of Jumada I in the first Fatimiyya time and 1st, 2nd and 3rd of Jumada II in the second Fatimiyya period.[7]

Making the Model of the House of Lady Fatima (s)

In recent years, during the days of Fatimiyya, some models of Banu Hashim neighborhood, the house of Lady Fatima (s), Bayt al-Ahzan, Baqi' cemetery, Ghadir Khumm, etc. are built for public exhibition in some cities of Iran, especially in Qom and Tehran.[8]

Fatimiyya in other Countries

Mourning of Fatimiyya in Lahore, Pakistan, 2005.

In other countries including Iraq, Pakistan,[9] Azerbaijan, Tajikistan[10] and Australia,[11] mourning ceremonies are held in Fatimiyya time. In Europe, centers such as the Islamic Center of Hamburg,[12] Islamic Center of England and Imam Ali (a) Islamic Center in Stockholm hold mourning ceremonies in these times. Fatimiyya ceremonies are held for 3 to 5 nights.[13]

See Also

References