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Difference between revisions of "Haram (holy site)"

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[[File:Al-Haram al-Makki.jpg|300px|thumbnail|right|Al-Haram al-Makki, the most important haram for Muslims; the green line shows the boundaries of al-Haram al-Makki]]
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'''Ḥaram''' (Arabic:{{iarabic| حَرَم}}, Holy Site), is the area surrounding a holy place with a special holiness due to its association with an Islamic sacred concept and therefore is treated differently.  
 
'''Ḥaram''' (Arabic:{{iarabic| حَرَم}}, Holy Site), is the area surrounding a holy place with a special holiness due to its association with an Islamic sacred concept and therefore is treated differently.  
  
The most important haram for Muslims is [[al-Haram al-Makki]] in which [[Ka'ba]] and [[al-Masjid al-Haram]] are located. The next important haram is al-Haram al-Madani which houses the [[Prophet (s)]]'s burial place ([[al-Masjid al-Nabawi]]) and his house. These two are called al-Haramayn al-Sharifayn (the two sanctuaries) among Muslims.  
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The most important haram for Muslims is [[al-Haram al-Makki]] in which [[al-Masjid al-Haram]] and [[Ka'ba]] are located. The next important haram is al-Haram al-Madani which houses the [[Prophet (s)]]'s burial place ([[al-Masjid al-Nabawi]]) and his house. These two are called al-Haramayn al-Sharifayn (the two sanctuaries) among Muslims.  
  
 
In a broad sense of the term, haram is also used for the holy shrines of [[Imams (a)]] and even for the descendants of Imams (a). The terms [[al-haram al-'Alawi]], [[al-haram al-Husayni]] are used in accordance with this broad meaning. Haram, among [[Shi'a]], is used for the Masjid or building which is built around a tomb.  
 
In a broad sense of the term, haram is also used for the holy shrines of [[Imams (a)]] and even for the descendants of Imams (a). The terms [[al-haram al-'Alawi]], [[al-haram al-Husayni]] are used in accordance with this broad meaning. Haram, among [[Shi'a]], is used for the Masjid or building which is built around a tomb.  
  
One of the especial rulings of [[al-Masjid al-Haram]], the [[shrine of the Prophet (s)]], [[shrine of Imam al-Husayn]], and [[Mosque of Kufa]] is that [[pilgrim]]s coming from other places are allowed and even [[recommended]] to do their prayers in the complete form, even though travelers normally have to do their prayers in short form.  
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One of the special rulings of al-Masjid al-Haram, the [[shrine of the Prophet (s)]], [[shrine of Imam al-Husayn]], and [[Mosque of Kufa]] is that [[pilgrim]]s coming from other places are allowed and even [[recommended]] to do their prayers in the complete form, even though travelers normally have to do their prayers in [[Qasr Prayer|short form]].  
  
 
== Literal Meaning ==
 
== Literal Meaning ==
The Arabic word "{{ia|حرم}}" (Haram) is derived from the root form "{{iarabic|ح ر م}}" (ḥ r m). It means one's household or their residence that he protects from any harm. <ref>Ibn Athir. ''al-Nihaya''. under the word "{{ia|دعمص}}"; Ibn Manzur. ''Lisan al-'Arab''. under the word "{{ia|حرم}}"; Al-Jabarti, 'Abd al-Rahman. ''Tarikh 'aja'ib al-athar''. vol. 2. p. 143</ref> In Islamic texts, this word is applied to the area surrounding the Islamic holy sites that entering and attending there requires observation of certain rules. For example, the words "Haram", "Haram َAllah" or "al-Haram al-Makki" usually refer to a specific area around [[Ka'ba]]. <ref>Al-Jawhari. ''al-Sihah''. under the word "{{ia|حرم}}"; Al-Zubaydi, Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Murtada. ''Taj al-'arus''. under the word "{{ia|حرم}}"</ref> Some believe that calling such an area "Haram", is because some acts are [[ḥarām]] (forbidden) in that area. <ref>Al-Kurdi, Muhammad Tahir. ''al-Tarikh al-qawim li-makka wa bayt Allah al-karim''. vol. 1. p. 101; Burujirdi, Murtada. ''Mustanad al-'urwat al-wuthqa''. vol. 8. p. 423</ref>
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The Arabic word "{{ia|حرم}}" (Haram) is derived from the root form "{{iarabic|ح ر م}}" (ḥ r m). It means one's household or their residence that he protects from any harm.<ref>Ibn Athir. ''al-Nihaya''. under the word "{{ia|دعمص}}"; Ibn Manzur. ''Lisan al-'Arab''. under the word "{{ia|حرم}}"; Al-Jabarti, 'Abd al-Rahman. ''Tarikh 'aja'ib al-athar''. vol. 2. p. 143</ref> In Islamic texts, this word is applied to the area surrounding the Islamic holy sites that entering and attending there requires observation of certain rules. For example, the words "Haram", "Haram Allah" or "al-Haram al-Makki" usually refer to a specific area around [[Mecca]].<ref>Al-Jawhari. ''al-Sihah''. under the word "{{ia|حرم}}"; Al-Zubaydi, Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Murtada. ''Taj al-'arus''. under the word "{{ia|حرم}}"</ref> Some believe that calling such an area "Haram", is because some acts are [[ḥarām]] (forbidden) in that area.<ref>Al-Kurdi, Muhammad Tahir. ''al-Tarikh al-qawim li-makka wa bayt Allah al-karim''. vol. 1. p. 101; Burujirdi, Murtada. ''Mustanad al-'urwat al-wuthqa''. vol. 8. p. 423</ref>
  
 
== Usage ==
 
== Usage ==
Titles such as "Haram al-Rasul" or "al-Haram al-Nabawi" refer to the shrine of [[the Prophet (s)]] in [[Medina]].  
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Titles such as "Haram al-Rasul" or "al-Haram al-Nabawi" refer to the shrine of the [[Prophet (s)]] in [[Medina]].  
  
Also, the title "al-Haramayn al-Sharifayn" either refers to [[al-Masjid al-Haram]] and the shrine of the Prophet (s), respectively in [[Mecca]] and [[Medina]], or the [[Shirne of Imam Ali (a)]] and [[Shrine of Imam al-Husayn]], or the two holy sites of [[al-Aqsa Mosque]] in [[Bayt al-Maqdis]] and [[al-Haram al-Ibrahimi]] in [[al-Khalil]].  
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Also, the title "al-Haramayn al-Sharifayn" either refers to [[al-Masjid al-Haram]] and the shrine of the Prophet (s), respectively in [[Mecca]] and [[Medina]], or the [[Shirne of Imam Ali (a)]] and [[Shrine of Imam al-Husayn]], or the two holy sites of [[al-Aqsa Mosque]] in [[Jerusalem al-Quds]] and [[al-Haram al-Ibrahimi]] in [[Hebron]] (al-Khalil).  
  
It is to note that sometimes the word "Haram" is used more specifically for al-Masjid al-Haram or Masjid al-Nabawi; and sometimes used more generally for the two cities of [[Mecca]] and [[Medina]]. Also, this word frequently is used for the shrines of [[Shi'a]] Imams (a) such as [[al-Ha'ir al-Husayni]] which is a title for the shrine of [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] and al-Haram al-Radawi which is the title for the [[Holy shrine of Imam al-Rida (a)]]. <ref>Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. ''al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira''. vol. 7. p. 317-318 & vol. 11. p. 455; Al-Baghdadi, Isma'il. ''Hadiyat al-'arifin''. vol. 2. column. 541; Agha Buzurg, Tihrani. ''al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a''. vol. 6. p. 194 & vol. 8. p. 224 & vol. 21. p. 299</ref>
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It is to note that sometimes the word "haram" is used more specifically for al-Masjid al-Haram or Masjid al-Nabawi, and sometimes used more generally for the two cities of [[Mecca]] and [[Medina]]. Also, this word frequently is used for the shrines of [[Shi'a]] Imams (a) such as [[al-Ha'ir al-Husayni]] which is a title for the [[shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a)]] and al-Haram al-Radawi which is the title for the [[Holy shrine of Imam al-Rida (a)]].<ref>Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. ''al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira''. vol. 7. p. 317-318 & vol. 11. p. 455; Al-Baghdadi, Isma'il. ''Hadiyat al-'arifin''. vol. 2. column. 541; Agha Buzurg, Tihrani. ''al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a''. vol. 6. p. 194 & vol. 8. p. 224 & vol. 21. p. 299</ref>
  
 
== Al-Haram al-Makki ==
 
== Al-Haram al-Makki ==
 
{{main|Al-Haram al-Makki}}
 
{{main|Al-Haram al-Makki}}
  
[[File:Ka'ba.jpg|250px|thumbnail|Al-Ka'ba located at the center of al-Haram al-Makki in Hijaz]]
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Al-Haram al-Makki is the most famous example of the word "haram". People who belong to this area are called ''Hirmi'' (people of Haram) and those who enter this place and put on [[ihram]] are called [[muhrim]]. The area outside of haram is called ''hill''.<ref>Al-Farahidi, Khalil b. Ahmad. ''Kitab al-'ayn''. under the word "{{iarabic|حرم}}"; Ibn Athir. ''al-Nihaya''. under the word "{{iarabic|حرم}}"</ref> Holiness of the Haram of [[Mecca]] has a very long history. According to a [[hadith]] by the [[Prophet (s)]], this area has become haram since the creation of skies and the earth and according to another hadith, [[Dahw al-Ard]] (expansion of earth) began from the place of al-Haram al-Makki.<ref>Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. ''Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha''. vol. 2. p. 270; Al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. ''Man la yahduruh al-faqih''. vol. 2. p. 241; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. ''Wasa'il al-Shi'a''. vol. 13. p. 241-242</ref>
  
Al-Haram al-Makki is the most famous example of the word "Haram". People who belong to this area are called ''Hirmi'' (people of Haram) and those who enter this place and put on [[Ihram]] are called [[Muhrim]]. The area outside of Haram is called ''Hill''. <ref>Al-Farahidi, Khalil b. Ahmad. ''Kitab al-'ayn''. under the word "{{iarabic|حرم}}"; Ibn Athir. ''al-Nihaya''. under the word "{{iarabic|حرم}}"</ref> Holiness of the Haram of [[Mecca]] has a very long history. According to a [[hadith]] by [[the Prophet (s)]], this area has become Haram since the creation of skies and the earth and according to another hadith, [[Dahw al-Ard]] (expansion of earth) began from the place of al-Haram al-Makki. <ref>Al-Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. ''Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha''. vol. 2. p. 270; Al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. ''Man la yahduruh al-faqih''. vol. 2. p. 241; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. ''Wasa'il al-Shi'a''. vol. 13. p. 241-242</ref>
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==Al-Haram al-Madani==
 
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{{main|Al-Haram al-Madani}}
=== History ===
 
Except for the [[hadith]] quoted from [[the Prophet (s)]] in which [[Abraham (a)]] is considered the one who made [[Mecca]] a Haram, some exegetes believe that before Abraham (a), [[Mecca]] was the same as other lands, but after beginning of his mission as a prophet and when he prayed to [[God]] for [[Mecca]] to be a safe land,<ref>Q 2:126; Q 14:35</ref> it became holy. Some others have considered it possible that the holiness of Mecca didn't start with Abraham's prayer, but it was revived after a period of ignorance. <ref>Al-Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir. ''Jami' al-bayan''. vol. 1. p. 542; Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. Hasan. ''al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an''. vol. 1. p. 456</ref> It's been also said that observing its holiness became obligatory after Abraham's prayer. <ref>Al-Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir. ''Jami' al-bayan''. vol. 1; Al-Fasi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. ''Shifa' al-gharam bi-akhbar al-balad al-haram''. vol. 1. p. 139; Al-Asadi al-Makki, Ahmad b. Muhammad. ''Ikhbar al-kiram bi-akhbar al-masjid al-haram''. p. 183</ref>
 
 
 
Before [[Islam]], "Haram" of [[Mecca]] was known for [[Arabs]] and they avoided war, wounding and revenge in that area to observe its holiness and follow the tradition of Abraham (a) and [[Isma'il (s)]] and thus, they called Mecca, ''Bacca'' (where breaks the neck of oppressors), ''Bassasa'' (where repels mischief makers and disbelievers) and ''Silah'' (a safe place). <ref>Ibn Hisham. ''al-Sira al-nabawiyya''. p. 114; Al-Mawardi, 'Ali b. Muhammad. ''al-Ahkam al-sultaniyya wa al-wilayat al-diniyya''. p. 246-248; ''Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. ''al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an''. vol. 4. p. 32; Ibn Jawzi. ''al-Muntazam fi tarikh al-muluk wa al-umam''. vol. 2. p. 31</ref> Some Arabs used to take their clothes off when entering al-Haram al-Makki believing that they have sinned in their clothes. Also some Jews used to draw their shoes as a symbol of respect to Haram. Also, it's been said that Companions of [[Jesus (s)]] walked on feet when arriving in Haram as a sign of respect. <ref>Al-Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. ''Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha''. vol. 2. p. 267; Al-Tabari, Ahmad b. 'Abd Allah. ''al-Qira li-qasid umm al-qura''. p. 169; Al-Fasi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. ''Shifa' al-gharam bi-akhbar al-balad al-haram''. vol. 1. p. 140</ref>
 
 
 
The holiness of Haram continued to be observed after Islam. For example, Companions of [[the Prophet (s)]] avoided committing any sins in Haram and prohibited each other from harassing or annoying others and even avoided staying there long for the fear of being disrespectful. <ref>Al-Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. ''Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha''. vol. 2. p. 259-305</ref>
 
 
 
=== In the Qur'an ===
 
The word "Haram" is used in some [[verse]]s of the Qur'an. Exegetes have suggested that "al-Haram al-Makki" is meant by the word "Haram" most of the time in the Qur'an. <ref>Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. ''al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an''. vol. 8. p. 165; Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ansari. ''al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an''. vol. 13. p. 264; Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn. ''al-Mizan fi tafsir al-Qur'an''. vol. 6. p. 271</ref> They have also said that [[al-Masjid al-Haram]], [[Maqam Ibrahim]], [[Ka'ba]], and [[Mecca]] sometimes refer to the whole area of Haram. <ref>Al-Jassas, Ahmad b. 'Ali. ''Ahkam al-Qur'an''. vol. 1. p. 88 & vol. 3. p. 253, 317; Al-Sharif al-Radi. ''Haqa'iq al-ta'wil fi mutashabih al-tanzil''. p. 180; Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. ''al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an''. vol. 6. p. 446 & vol. 8. p. 165; Al-Zarkishi, Muhammad b. Bahadur. ''al-Burhan fi 'ulum al-Qur'an''. vol. 2. p. 266; Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn. ''al-Mizan fi tafsir al-Qur'an''. vol. 3. p. 31</ref>
 
 
 
In different verses of [[the Qur'an]], the land or Haram of [[Mecca]] have been called "Safe", as it's written in [[verse]] 67 of [[Sura al-'Ankabut]]:
 
 
 
{{pull quote
 
|Have they not seen that We made [Mecca] a safe sanctuary, while people are being taken away all around them? Then in falsehood do they believe, and in the favor of [[Allah]] they disbelieve?
 
|author=Quran
 
|source=29}}
 
 
 
In some verses, [[Prophet Abraham (a)]] prayed that God makes Mecca a safe place:
 
 
 
{{pull quote
 
|And [mention] when Abraham said, "My Lord, make this a secure city and provide its people with fruits - whoever of them believes in Allah and the Last Day. "
 
|author=Quran
 
|source=2:126}}
 
 
 
In the Qur'an (2:125) the attribute "safe" is given to "al-Bayt" which has been interpreted by some exegetes as [[al-Haram al-Makki]]. There are different hadiths and interpretations about the attribute of "safety" that is mentioned in the Qur'an. Some exegetes have considered that the Qur'an talks about an objective reality which indicates that safety exists in the geographical area of Haram. In other words, they believe that the place has been created by [[God]] in a way that it's safe from disasters and tribulations, both in this world and the [[hereafter]]. <ref>Al-Sharif al-Radi. ''Haqa'iq al-ta'wil fi mutashabih al-tanzil''. p. 182, 190; Al-Tabrisi, al-Fadl b. al-Hasan. ''Majma' al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Qur'an''. vol. 2. P. 799; Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ansari. ''al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an''. vol. 4. P. 141-142</ref> In some hadiths, "safety of Haram" has been interpreted as the safety of animals for not being hunted by other animals or humans who enter that area. It can also mean the safety of people in Haram from murder, plunder, and tribulations in this world and the hereafter, etc. <ref>Al-Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. ''Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha''. vol. 2. P. 252; Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. ''al-Kafi''. vol. 4. P. 226, 528-530; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. ''Wasa'il al-Shi'a''. vol. 3. P. 35</ref>
 
 
 
Some exegetes denied the external reality of safety for Haram, and have interpreted the safety only as a legislated safety referring to the order of God regarding the observation of Haram's holiness and its rulings; Because there is no difference between Haram and other lands in the case of events like war, flood, and earthquake which could endanger its safety.
 
 
 
Exegetes believe that legislation of rulings about Haram goes back to some previous religions including the religion of [[Abraham (a)]]. <ref>Al-Jassas, Ahmad b. 'Ali. ''Ahkam al-Qur'an''. vol. 1. p. 88-89, vol. 2 . p. 27; Al-Sharif al-Radi. ''Haqa'iq al-ta'wil fi mutashabih al-tanzil''. p. 65, 192; Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ansari. ''al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an''. vol. 4. p. 140; Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn. ''al-Mizan fi tafsir al-Qur'an''. vol. 6. p. 271</ref> There are also hadiths in which the safety of Haram has been defined by examples of legislated safety and its rulings such as the prohibition of hunting and disturbing animals' safety and the prohibition of administering the punishments for crimes committed outside of Haram. <ref>Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. ''Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar''. vol. 3. p. 138-139; Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. ''al-Kafi'' . vol. 4. p. 226-227; Al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. ''Man la yahduruh al-faqih''. vol. 2. p. 262; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. ''Wasa'il al-Shi'a''. vol. 13. p. 75, 226</ref> Some exegetes have suggested that the verse 97 of the [[sura Al 'Imran]] refers to the safety of refugees to Haram before Islam which was abrogated in Islam. <ref>Al-Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir. ''Jami' al-bayan''. vol. 4. p. 11-12; Al-Sharif al-Radi. ''Haqa'iq al-ta'wil fi mutashabih al-tanzil''. p. 178; Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ansari. ''al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an''. vol. 2. p. 111, vol. 4. p. 140</ref> According to the verse 57 of the [[sura al-Qasas]], God has blessed [[Mecca]] with all the benefits of other lands. <ref>Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. ''al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an''. vol. 8. p. 165; Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ansari. ''al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an''. vol. 13. p. 300</ref>
 
 
 
===In Hadiths===
 
In [[hadith]]s, in addition to the rulings specific to Haram, its features and ethics of attending there have also been mentioned. According to hadiths, the expanse of Haram goes beyond the top of seven skies and below the seven earths. Al-Haram al-Makki will remain Haram until [[the Day of Judgment]]. <ref>Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. ''Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar''. vol. 2 . p. 124; Al-Jassas, Ahmad b. 'Ali. ''Ahkam al-Qur'an''. vol. 1 . p. 89; Al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. ''Man la yahduruh al-faqih''. vol. 2. p. 245-246</ref> One who disrespects the holiness of Haram, would be cursed by God and all the prophets (a). <ref>Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. ''Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar''. vol. 2 . p. 125</ref> According to a hadith, [[the Prophet (s)]] has guaranteed his [[intercession]] for a [[Haji]] who dies in Haram. <ref>Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. ''al-Kafi''. vol. 4. p. 256; vol. 2. p. 258</ref>
 
 
 
===Expanse ===
 
[[File:Masjid al-Haram.jpg|250px|thumbnail|Al-Masjid al-Haram]]
 
 
 
The expanse of Haram has been fixed and known since the dawn of time, therefore, there are very few narrations about it. According to one of these narrations, the length and width of Haram are one ''Barid'' (In Arabia, a unit of distance equals 4 [[Farsakhs]], and about 21.5 kilometers). Al-Masjid al-Haram is located at the center of Haram. <ref>Al-Hurr al-'Amili. ''Wasa'il al-Shi'a''. vol. 12. P. 555</ref> Based on historical reports, [[Prophet Abraham (a)]] was the first one who marked the expanse of al-Haram al-Makki with the help of [[Gabriel]], and according to the [[revelation]] he received. <ref>Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. ''Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar''. vol. 2. p. 128; Al-Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. ''Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha''. vol. 2. p. 273-275; Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. ''al-Kafi''. vol. 4. p. 195-197; Al-Tabari, Ahmad b. 'Abd Allah. ''al-Qira li-qasid umm al-qura''. p. 652-653</ref> In hadith and historical texts, the marks which indicate the expanse of al-Haram al-Makki are called ''A'lam'', ''Ansab'', ''Manar'', ''Ma'alim'', ''Azlam'', or ''Amyal'' of Haram. <ref>Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. ''al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an''. vol. 2. p. 173-174; Ibn Athir. ''al-Nihaya''. under the words "{{iarabic|علم" & "نور}}"; Ibn Manzur. ''Lisan al-'Arab''. under the word "{{iarabic|علم}}"; Al-Zubaydi, Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Murtada. ''Taj al-'arus''. under the words "{{iarabic|نصب" & "حرم}}"</ref>
 
 
 
After Abraham (a), [[Isma'il (a)]] reconstructed the indicators of Haram. In pre-Islam [[Age of Ignorance]], 'Adnan b. Udad and Qusay b. Kilab did the same at their own times. [[Quraysh]] rebuilt the indicators of Haram at the beginning of the Prophet's (s) mission. Eight years later, after conquering Mecca, Tamim b. Asad al-Khuza'i and Aswad b. Khalaf al-Qurashi al-Zuhari repaired and rebuilt the indicators of Haram by the order of [[the Prophet (s)]]. In next periods also by the order of [['Umar b. al-Khattab]] (in [[17]]/638), [['Uthman b. 'Affan]] (in [[26]]/646), [[Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan]] (ruled 41/661–60/679), [['Abd al-Malik b. Marwan]] (ruled 65/684–86/705), and [[al-Mahdi al-'Abbasi]] (ruled 158/774–169/785), some people repaired and rebuilt the indicators of Haram. <ref>Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. ''Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar''. vol. 2. p. 128-130; Al-'Asqalani, Ibn Hajar. ''al-Isaba fi tamyiz al-sahaba''. vol. 1. p. 72, 367</ref> After al-Mahdi al-'Abbasi, the signs which were on mountains were not repaired anymore and only those which were on the routes entering Mecca which were routes from [[Medina]], [[Yemen]], [[Iraq]], [[Ta'if]] and Ju'rana, and [[Jeddah (city)|Jeddah]] were repaired. <ref>Ibn Dihish, 'Abd al-Malik b. 'Abd Allah. ''al-Haram al-Makki al-sharif wa l-a'lam al-muhitat bih''. p. 51-52</ref>
 
 
 
In next periods, some others repaired or reconstructed the indicators of Haram such as al-Radi al-'Abbasi in 325/936, Muzaffar b. Abu Bakr, the Ayyubid king in 616/1219, Malik Muzaffar Yusuf b. 'Umar, the ruler of [[Yemen]] in 683/1284, the Circassian Qaitbay Mahmudi of [[Egypt]] in 874/1469, the Ottoman king Ahmad Khan I in 1023/1614, Sharif Zayd b. Muhsin, the ruler of Mecca in 1037/1627, and the Ottoman Sultan 'Abd al-Majid I in 1262/1845. <ref>Al-Fasi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. ''Shifa' al-gharam bi-akhbar al-balad al-haram''. vol. 1. p. 107; Ibn Fahd, 'Umar b. Muhammad. ''Inhaf al-wura bi-akhbar umm al-qura''. vol. 2. p. 386 & vol. 3. p. 117; Ibn Dihish, 'Abd al-Malik b. 'Abd Allah. ''al-Haram al-Makki al-sharif wa l-a'lam al-muhitat bih''. p. 52-55</ref>
 
 
 
Reconstruction of the indicators continued during the rule of [[Al Sa'ud]]. In 1343/1924, 'Abd al-'Aziz, the founder of al-Sa'udi kingdom repaired and reconstructed two indicators on the route of Jeddah and after him his son Sa'ud repaired and reconstructed two indicators in Shamisi region in 1376/1957, two indicators on the route of Ta'if in 1377/1957 and some indicators on the route of [['Arafa]] in 1383/1963. Also, Khalid b. 'Abd al-'Aziz reconstructed two signs on the route of Ta'if and two signs on the old route of Jeddah and Fahd b. 'Abd al-'Aziz constructed two new signs in 1404/1983 in the region of Tan'im. <ref>Al-Kurdi, Muhammad Tahir. ''al-Tarikh al-qawim li-Makka wa bayt Allah al-karim''. vol. 1. p. 100-101; Ibn Dihish, 'Abd al-Malik b. 'Abd Allah. ''al-Haram al-Makki al-sharif wa l-a'lam al-muhitat bih''. p. 56-62</ref> In 1380/1960, 1384/1964 and 1400/1979, some groups of scholars studied the indicators of Haram. <ref>Ibn Dihish, 'Abd al-Malik b. 'Abd Allah. ''al-Haram al-Makki al-sharif wa l-a'lam al-muhitat bih''. p. 63</ref>
 
 
 
===Rulings ===
 
[[File:مسجد ذوالحلیفه.jpg|thumbnail|[[Dhu l-Hulayfa]], one of [[miqat]]s that muslims wear [[ihram]] to enter the haram al-makki]]
 
In [[fiqh]], there are specific rulings for al-Haram al-Makki which are sometimes called "Khasa'is al-Haram". Some references call prohibiting rulings of Haram, "Mahzurat al-Haram". <ref>Al-Mawardi, 'Ali b. Muhammad. ''al-Ahkam al-sultaniyya wa al-wilayat al-diniyya''. p. 259; Al-Kasani, Abu Bakr b. Mas'ud. ''Badayi' al-sanaye' fi tartib al-sharayi'''. vol. 2. p. 446; Ibn Zuhayr. ''al-Jami' al-latif fi fadl Makka''. p. 169; Naraqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi. ''Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a''. vol. 13. p. 297</ref> However, most faqihs have mentioned these specific rulings only among other topics such as prayer, [[hajj]], punishments, and atonements. Some of the most important rulings specific to al-Haram al-Makki are as follows:
 
 
 
* Prohibition of residence in Haram for non-Muslims according to all faqihs, and also prohibition of their entrance to Haram according to all faqihs except [[Abu Hanifa]]. <ref>Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. ''al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an''. vol. 5. p. 200; Al-Zuhayli, Wahaba Mustafa. ''al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillata''. vol. 3. p. 329</ref>
 
* Obligation of putting on [[Ihram]] for those Muslims who come to [[Mecca]] any time in the year from any of the [[Miqat]]s, except for those who come frequently to these places such as drivers. Shafi'is regard putting on Ihram as recommended. <ref>Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. ''al-Mabsut fi fiqh al-imamiyya''. vol. 1. p. 355; Al-Tabari, Ahmad b. 'Abd Allah. ''al-Qira li-qasid umm al-qura''. p. 641; Al-Khatib al-Sharbini, Muhammad b. Ahmad. ''Mughni al-muhtaj ila ma'rifat ma'ani alfaz al-minhaj''. vol. 1. p. 476</ref>
 
* Prohibition of killing animals in Haram except for domestic animals (such as camel, cow, and sheep) and dangerous animals (such as scorpion and snake). <ref>Al-Sharif al-Radi. ''Haqa'iq al-ta'wil fi mutashabih al-tanzil''. p. 182; Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. ''Tadhkirat al-fuqaha''. vol. 7. p. 272-273, 277-278; Al-Zuhayli, Wahaba Mustafa. ''al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillata''. vol. 3. p. 328-329</ref>
 
* Prohibition of hunting animals or guiding hunters and damaging plants in the area of Haram due to [[verse]]s<ref>Q 5:96</ref> and narrations. <ref>Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. ''al-Kafi''. vol. 12. p. 552-557</ref> However, religious authorities of different denominations have excluded some cases such as palm trees, vegetables, Idhkhir (lemongrass), and anything people plant or grow. <ref>Al-Kasani, Abu Bakr b. Mas'ud. ''Badayi' al-sanaye' fi tartib al-sharayi'''. vol. 2. p. 446, 450-452; Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. ''Tadhkirat al-fuqaha''. vol. 7. p. 271, 282, 363-369; Al-Zuhayli, Wahaba Mustafa. ''al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillata''. vol. 3. p. 328</ref>
 
* Prohibition of eating meat of an animal which is illegitimately killed in the area of Haram. <ref>Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. ''Tadhkirat al-fuqaha''. vol. 7. p. 290; Al-Dasuqi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. ''Hashiyat al-Dasuqi 'ala al-sharh al-kabir''. vol. 2. p. 78</ref>
 
* Prohibition of engaging in wars and wounding in the expanse of Haram<ref>Al-Mawardi, 'Ali b. Muhammad. ''al-Ahkam al-sultaniyya wa al-wilayat al-diniyya''. p. 260; Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. ''al-Mabsut fi fiqh al-imamiyya''. vol. 2. p. 3</ref> and also prohibition of carrying weapons according to some religious authorities. <ref>Al-Nawawi, Yahya b. Sharaf. ''al-Majmu' sharh al-muhadhdhab''. vol. 7. p. 471; Kashif al-Ghita, Ja'far b. Khizr. ''Kashf al-ghita 'an mubhamat al-shari'at al-ghara'' . vol. 2. p. 456</ref>
 
* Prohibition of moving grits and stones from the area of Haram according to some Shi'a and Sunni faqihs. <ref>Al-Kasani, Abu Bakr b. Mas'ud. ''Badayi' al-sanaye' fi tartib al-sharayi'''. vol. 2. p. 453; Al-Shahid al-Awwal, Muhammad b. Makki. ''al-Durus al-shar'iyya fi fiqh al-imamiyya''. vol. 1. p. 473</ref> Most Shafi'is have considered it [[Makruh|disliked]] to enter dust or stones from [[Hill]] (outside Haram) to Haram. <ref>Al-Fasi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. ''Shifa' al-gharam bi-akhbar al-balad al-haram''. vol. 1. p. 138</ref>
 
* Prohibition or reprehension of picking any left or lost object in the area of Haram. <ref>Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. ''Tadhkirat al-fuqaha''. vol. 8. p. 442; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. ''Wasa'il al-Shi'a''. vol. 13. p. 259-262; Al-Zuhayli, Wahaba Mustafa. al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillata''. vol. 3. p. 329</ref>
 
* Prohibition of performing punishment or retribution for someone who has committed a crime outside Haram and has taken refuge in Haram<ref>Q 3: 97</ref> and to apply some limitations for him, for example, by forbidding others to give him any food or to make any business with him, in order to force him go out of Haram so the punishment on him would be possible there. However, According to Hanafis and [[Shi'a]], someone who commits a crime in Haram cannot benefit from this privilege, because he has disrespected Haram's holiness. <ref>Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. ''Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar''. vol. 2. p. 139; Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. ''Tadhkirat al-fuqaha''. vol. 8. p. 441-442; Ibn 'Abidin. ''Radd al-muhtar 'ala al-durr al-mukhtar''. vol. 2. p. 256; Al-Khoei, Abu l-Qasim. ''Mabani takmilat al-minhaj''. p. 184</ref>
 
* Increase of [[Diya]] (atonement) in case of intentional or unintentional murder taken place in Haram, which is one third more than a complete Diya. <ref>Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. ''al-Kafi''. vol. 4. p. 139; Al-Zuhayli, Wahaba Mustafa. ''al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillata''. vol. 3. p. 329</ref>
 
* Prohibition of burying non-Muslims in the area of Haram. Shafi'is consider it obligatory to move the body of non-Muslims out of Haram. <ref>Al-Shafi'i, Muhammad b. Idris. ''al-Umm''. vol. 4. p. 188; Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. ''Tadhkirat al-fuqaha''. vol. 9. p. 337</ref>
 
* Prohibition of selling, buying or renting houses in Haram in general or during [[hajj]] according to some religious authorities with reference to the verse 25 of the sura al-Hajj and some narrations. <ref>Al-Nawawi, Yahya b. Sharaf. ''al-Majmu' sharh al-muhadhdhab''. vol. 9. p. 250; Ibn 'Abidin. ''Radd al-muhtar 'ala al-durr al-mukhtar''. vol. 6. p. 711</ref>
 
 
 
====Kaffara for Committing Some Forbidden Acts====
 
Based on some hadiths, most faqihs believe that to commit certain forbidden acts in Haram, bears the penalty of paying [[Kaffara]] (atonment). However, the amount of Kaffara has been disputed about between jurists. Some [[Sunni]] authorities have only considered it forbidden and have not agreed with the necessity of paying Kaffara. In addition to religious prohibitions for those who enter Haram, there are also specific rulings for those who go for [[Hajj]] or [['Umra]] and put on [[Ihram]].
 
 
 
====Duplication of Punishments and Rewards====
 
According to some narrations, the punishments for [[sin]]s and the rewards for good deeds are multiplied in Haram due to its holiness. Even the intention of committing sins in Haram, without doing it, will be questioned by [[God]]. Instead, some good acts and worships such as reciting [[the Qur'an]], performing [[prayer]]s and [[fasting]] in Haram are recommended by hadiths, and according to narrations these acts would be rewarded by God 100 thousands times more than the rewards for doing the same acts in other places. <ref>Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. ''Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar''. vol. 2. p. 132; Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. ''Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha''. vol. 2. p. 266; Al-Fasi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. ''Shifa' al-gharam bi-akhbar al-balad al-haram''. vol. 1. p. 131-132</ref> With reference to narrations, religious authorities have regarded these acts [[recommended]]:
 
* To enter Haram walking on bare feet
 
* Performing ritual bath ([[ghusl]])
 
* Making [[Wudu]] before entering Haram and after leaving it
 
* Making the breath smell well and reciting certain supplications
 
* Burying Muslims in Haram is also recommended<ref>Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. ''Tadhkirat al-fuqaha''. vol. 8. p. 79; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. ''Wasa'il al-Shi'a''. vol. 13. p. 195-198, 287</ref>
 
 
 
====Neighboring al-Haram al-Makki ====
 
According to most [[Shi'a]], Maliki and Hanafi religious authorities, living in and neighboring [[Mecca]] is [[Makruh|disliked]] due to people's lack of [[faith]] and failure in observing the rulings of Haram. Shafi'is and Hanbalis have regarded it recommended for one to neighbor Haram if they are not likely to commit any forbidden acts there. <ref>Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. ''Tadhkirat al-fuqaha''. vol. 8. p. 442-447; Ibn 'Abidin. ''Radd al-muhtar 'ala al-durr al-mukhtar''. vol. 2. p. 187; Al-Zuhayli, Wahaba Mustafa. ''al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillata''. vol. 3. p. 322-323</ref>
 
 
 
====Disliked (Makruh) Acts ====
 
Some [[Makruh|disliked]] acts are as follows:
 
* Asking someone to pay his debt back, unless the debt is taken place in Haram
 
* Requesting others for anything
 
* Reciting poems
 
* Hitting the servant<ref>Al-Azraqi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. ''Akhbar Makka wa ma ja'a fiha min al-athar''. vol. 2. p. 137; Al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. ''al-Muqni'''. p. 369-370; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. ''Wasa'il al-Shi'a''. vol. 12. p. 564-565, vol. 13. p. 265, 555</ref>
 
 
 
==Al-Haram al-Nabawi==
 
{{main|Al-Haram al-Nabawi}}
 
 
[[File:Al-Masjid al-Nabawi.jpg|250px|thumbnail|right|Al-Haram al-Nabawi in [[Medina]]]]
 
[[File:Al-Masjid al-Nabawi.jpg|250px|thumbnail|right|Al-Haram al-Nabawi in [[Medina]]]]
This is another important Haram for which there are special rulings according to hadiths and jurisprudential laws. According to a [[hadith]], [[the Prophet (s)|the noble Prophet (s)]] has guaranteed his [[intercession]] for the people of [[Medina]] on [[the Day of Judgment]]. <ref>Ahmad b. Hanbal . ''Musnad Ahmad''. vol. 6. p. 370; Muslim b. al-Hajjaj. ''Sahih Muslim''. vol. 4. p. 113</ref> Hanafis do not consider Medina to hold a Haram with its specific rulings. <ref>Ibn 'Abidin. ''Radd al-muhtar 'ala al-durr al-mukhtar''. vol. 2. p. 256; Raf'at Basha, Ibrahim. ''Mirat al-haramayn aw al-rahalat al-hijaziyya wa al-hajj''. vol. 1. p. 447</ref> Some contemporary Shi'a authorities have also doubted about Medina to be considered a Haram the same way as Mecca. They interpret the famous hadith from the Prophet (s) which ascribes the Haram of Medina to himself and the Haram of Mecca to [[Abraham (a)]] referring only to the necessity of respecting this city and the Prophet's (s) holy grave. <ref>Al-Bukhari, Muhammad b. Isma'il. ''Sahih al-Bukhari''. vol. 5. p. 40; Muslim b. al-Hajjaj. ''Sahih Muslim''. vol. 4. p. 113</ref> However, Such faqihs have considered some rulings of Haram for Medina too. <ref>Al-Hakim, Muhsin. ''Dalil al-nasik''. vol. 493; Khalkhali, Rida. ''Mu'tamid al-'urwat al-wuthqa''. vol. 5. p. 513</ref> Some Malikis and Shafi'is including [[Malik b. Anas]] refer to the mentioned hadith and as a new reason, added the fact that Medina has been the destination for [[Muhajirun]] and [[Ansar]]. He concluded that [[al-Haram al-Nabawi]] is more important than [[al-Haram al-Makki]];<ref>Ibn 'Abidin. ''Radd al-muhtar 'ala al-durr al-mukhtar''. vol. 2. p. 688</ref> however, most religious authorities have regarded al-Haram al-Makki higher than Medina, other than the Prophet's (s) grave which has been introduced in hadiths as the best of all tombs in the world. <ref>Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. ''al-Khilaf''. vol. 2. p. 451-452; Ibn 'Abidin. ''Radd al-muhtar 'ala al-durr al-mukhtar''. vol. 2. p. 256; Al-Zuhayli, Wahaba Mustafa. ''al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillata''. vol. 3. p. 323</ref>
+
This is another important haram for which there are special rulings according to hadiths and jurisprudential laws. According to Sunni hadith sources, the noble [[Prophet (s)]] has guaranteed his [[intercession]] for the people of [[Medina]] on the [[Day of Judgment]].<ref>Ahmad b. Hanbal. ''Musnad Ahmad''. vol. 6. p. 370; Muslim b. al-Hajjaj. ''Sahih Muslim''. vol. 4. p. 113</ref> There are different views regarding the expanse of al-Haram al-Nabawi.
  
===Expanse===
+
==Al-Haram al-Husayni ==
In some narrations, the expanse of al-Haram al-Nabawi has been defined as one Barid (In Arabia, a unit of distance which equals 4 [[farsakh]]s, and about 21.5 kilometers) to each of four directions. <ref>Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. ''Tahdhib al-ahkam''. vol. 6 p. 13; Al-Nawawi, Yahya b. Sharaf. ''al-Majmu' sharh al-muhadhdhab''. vol. 7. p. 499; Al-Haythami, 'Ali b. Abi Bakr. ''Kashf al-astar 'an zawa'id al-bazzar 'ala al-kutub al-sita''. vol. 2. p. 54</ref> According to another [[hadith]], narrated by both [[Shi'a]] and [[Sunni]], al-Haram al-Nabawi is located between two lands of black stones in the East and the West of [[Medina]]. <ref>Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. ''al-Kafi''. vol. 4. p. 564; Al-Nawawi, Yahya b. Sharaf. ''al-Majmu' sharh al-muhadhdhab''vol. 7. p. 487; Al-Tabari, Ahmad b. 'Abd Allah. ''al-Qira li-qasid umm al-qura''. p. 670-671</ref> Shi'a Marja's have defined the expanse of al-Haram al-Nabawi from the mount 'Ayr ('Ayir) to the mount Wa'ir, according to a hadith. <ref>Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. ''Tadhkirat al-fuqaha''. vol. 1. p. 651; Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. ''al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira''. vol. 11. p. 302; Khalkhali, Rida. ''Mu'tamid al-'urwat al-wuthqa''. vol. 5. p. 512</ref> But some Sunni authorities have referred to another hadith and have defined this expanse from the mount 'Ayr to the [[mount Thawr]] which is 12 "Mils" (12 mils equals 4 farsakhs, which is 21.5 kilometers). They have considered the mount 'Ayr in [[Miqat]] and Thawr behind [[the mount Uhud]]. <ref>Ibn Qudama. ''al-Mughni''. vol. 3. p. 376; Al-Khatib al-Sharbini, Muhammad b. Ahmad. ''Mughni al-Muhtaj ila ma'rifat ma'ani alfaz al-minhaj''. vol. 1. p. 529; Al-Bahuti al-Hanbali, Mansur b. Yunus. ''Kashshaf al-qina' 'an matn al-aqna'''. vol. 2. p. 551</ref> Regarding the location of the mount Thawr in [[Mecca]], some others have interpreted the mentioned hadiths differently and considered it possible that narrators have mistaken the mount Thawr with the mount Uhud or maybe the previous name of Uhud has been Thawr. <ref>Al-Nawawi, Yahya b. Sharaf. ''al-Majmu' sharh al-muhadhdhab''. vol. 7. p. 486</ref> It is also possible that the noble Prophet (s) actually meant the distance between the two mounts of 'Ayr and Thawr in Mecca or that the Prophet (s) figuratively called the two mountains around Medina 'Ayr and Thawr. <ref>Ibn Qudama. ''al-Mughni''. vol. 3. p. 370</ref>
+
{{main|al-Ha'ir al-Husayni}}
 
 
===Manners and Rulings===
 
Most important manners and rulings of al-Haram al-Nabawi are:
 
* Recommendation of performing ritual bath ([[ghusl]]) before entering
 
* Recommendation of residing in Medina
 
* Recommendation of [[fasting]] some days of the week
 
* Prohibition of damaging plants and cutting trees specially saplings, except for animals' feeding.
 
* Prohibition of hunting animals. <ref>Al-Hilli, Ibn Idris. ''al-Sara'ir al-hawi li-tahrir al-fatawa''. vol. 1. p. 651-652; Al-Zarkishi, Muhammad b. Bahadur. ''al-Burhan fi 'ulum al-Qur'an''. p. 243-245, 261; Gulpayigani, Muhammad Rida. ''Manasik al-haj''. p. 187, 210; Al-Zuhayli, Wahaba Mustafa. ''al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillata''. vol. 3. p. 335-336</ref>
 
  
Some earlier Sunni authorities have mentioned some punishments for one who doesn't observe the prohibitions in al-Haram al-Nabawi. <ref>Al-Tabari, Ahmad b. 'Abd Allah. ''al-Qira li-qasid umm al-qura''. p. 675-676</ref>
+
Haram (holy shrine) of [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] is greatly venerated by [[Shi'a]]. Shi'a [[jurist]]s have different opinions about the expanse of the Haram for which there are certain rulings. For example, some of them include Imam al-Husayn's (a) grave and his family members and [[Companions of Imam al-Husayn (a)|companions]] except [[al-'Abbas (a)]] in the Haram,<ref>Al-Mufid, Muhammad b. Muhammad. ''al-Muqni'a''. p. 126; Al-Hilli, Ibn Idris. ''al-Sara'ir al-hawi li-tahrir al-fatawa''. vol. 1. p. 342</ref> while some others believe that the whole city of [[Karbala]] including Imam al-Husayn's (a) holy [[darih]] is Haram.<ref>Yahya b. Sa'id. ''al-Jami' li-l-Shara'i'''. p. 93; Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. ''al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira''. vol. 11. p. 436; Naraqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi. ''Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a''. vol. 8. p. 316</ref> There is even a hadith quoted from [[Imam Ali (a)]] in which [[Kufa]] is also called his Haram.<ref>Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. ''al-Kafi''. vol. 4. p. 563</ref>
 
 
==Al-Haram al-Husayni ==
 
{{main|Holy Shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a)}}
 
[[File:Al-Ha'ir al-Husayni.jpg|250px|thumbnail|right|Holy shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a) in [[Karbala]], Iraq]]
 
Haram (holy shrine) of [[Imam al-Husayn (a)]] is greatly venerated by [[Shi'a]]. Shi'a faqihs have different opinions about the expanse of the Haram for which there are certain rulings. For example, some of them include Imam al-Husayn's (a) grave and his family members and companions except [[al-'Abbas (a)]] in the Haram,<ref>Al-Mufid, Muhammad b. Muhammad. ''al-Muqni'a''. p. 126; Al-Hilli, Ibn Idris. ''al-Sara'ir al-hawi li-tahrir al-fatawa''. vol. 1. p. 342</ref> while some others believe that the whole city of [[Karbala]] including Imam al-Husayn's (a) holy [[Darih]] is Haram. <ref>Yahya b. Sa'id. ''al-Jami' li-l-Shara'i'''. p. 93; Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. ''al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira''. vol. 11. p. 436; Naraqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi. ''Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a''. vol. 8. p. 316</ref> There is even a hadith quoted from [[Imam Ali (a)]] in which [[Kufa]] is also called his Haram. <ref>Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. ''al-Kafi''. vol. 4. p. 563</ref>
 
  
 
==Specific Rulings==
 
==Specific Rulings==
According to most Shi'a faqihs, one of the rulings specific to al-Haramayn (al-Haram al-Makki and al-Haram al-Nabawi), [[Masjid al-Kufa]] and [[al-Ha'ir al-Husayni]] is the permission and even [[recommendation]] of performing prayer in the complete form for pilgrims coming from other places (passengers), although as pilgrims, they normally have to perform their prayers in the short form ([[Salat al-Qasr]]). <ref>Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. ''al-Nihaya fi mujarad al-fiqh wa al-fatawa''. p. 124; Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. ''Mukhtalaf al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a''. vol. 1. p. 333; Al-Shahid al-Thani, Zayn al-Din. ''al-Rawdat al-Bahiyya''. vol. 1. p. 787-788</ref>
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According to most Shi'a jurists, one of the rulings specific to al-Haramayn (al-Haram al-Makki and al-Haram al-Nabawi), [[Masjid al-Kufa]] and [[al-Ha'ir al-Husayni]] is the permission and even [[recommendation]] of performing prayer in the complete form for pilgrims coming from other places (passengers), although as pilgrims, they normally have to perform their prayers in the short form ([[al-Qasr prayer]]).<ref>Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. ''al-Nihaya fi mujarad al-fiqh wa al-fatawa''. p. 124; Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. ''Mukhtalaf al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a''. vol. 1. p. 333; Al-Shahid al-Thani, Zayn al-Din. ''al-Rawdat al-Bahiyya''. vol. 1. p. 787-788</ref>
  
Religious authorities regard these rulings as the conclusion of two different groups of hadiths; one which indicates that performing prayer in short or complete form in the four mentioned places are optional. And the other group which recommends the complete form of prayer in these places. <ref>Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. ''al-Kafi''. vol. p. 542; Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. ''Tahdhib al-ahkam''. vol. 5. p. 470-475</ref> In some of these hadiths, the terms "al-Haramayn al-Sharifayn", [[Mecca]] and [[Medina]], "al-Masjidayn" (the two [[mosque]]s) are used;<ref>Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. ''al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira''. vol. 11. p. 456-459</ref> thus, some scholars consider only [[al-Masjid al-Haram]] and Masjid al-Nabawi the subject to the mentioned rulings, not the whole expanses of al-Haram al-Makki and al-Haram al-Nabawi. <ref>Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. ''Mukhtalaf al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a''. vol. 3. p. 132; Al-Shahid al-Thani, Zayn al-Din. ''al-Rawdat al-Bahiyya''. vol. 1. p. 787; Burujirdi, Murtada. ''Mustanad al-'urwat al-wuthqa''. vol. 8. p. 411-412</ref>
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[[Religious authorities]] regard these rulings as the conclusion of two different groups of hadiths; one which indicates that performing prayer in short or complete form in the four mentioned places are optional. And the other group which recommends the complete form of prayer in these places.<ref>Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. ''al-Kafi''. vol. p. 542; Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. ''Tahdhib al-ahkam''. vol. 5. p. 470-475</ref> In some of these hadiths, the terms "al-Haramayn al-Sharifayn", [[Mecca]] and [[Medina]], "al-Masjidayn" (the two [[mosque]]s) are used;<ref>Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. ''al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira''. vol. 11. p. 456-459</ref> thus, some scholars consider only [[al-Masjid al-Haram]] and Masjid al-Nabawi the subject to the mentioned rulings, not the whole expanses of al-Haram al-Makki and al-Haram al-Nabawi.<ref>Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. ''Mukhtalaf al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a''. vol. 3. p. 132; Al-Shahid al-Thani, Zayn al-Din. ''al-Rawdat al-Bahiyya''. vol. 1. p. 787; Burujirdi, Murtada. ''Mustanad al-'urwat al-wuthqa''. vol. 8. p. 411-412</ref>
  
[[Ibn Babawayh]] believed in obligation of performing prayer in short form in the mentioned places and did not consider any higher value for them. <ref>Al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. ''al-Muqni'''. p. 262</ref> Apparently, his opinion is based on general reasons for the obligation of performing prayer in short form for passengers and the hadiths which have regarded it obligatory to perform prayer in short form in the mentioned places. <ref>Naraqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi. ''Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a'' . vol. 8. p. 309</ref> However, other faqihs have considered these hadiths as cases of [[Taqiyya]]<ref>Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. ''al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira''. vol. 2. p. 441, 448, 452; Naraqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi. ''Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a'' . vol. 8. p. 310; Burujirdi, Murtada. ''Mustanad al-'urwat al-wuthqa''. vol. 8. p. 406-410</ref> and referring to some other reasons, have rejected the mentioned conclusion. <ref>Muqaddas Ardabili, Ahmad b. Muhammad. ''Majma' al-fa'idat wa l-burhan''. vol. 3. p. 424-425; Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. ''al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira''. vol. 11. p. 440-442; Al-Najafi, Muhammad Hasan b. Baqir. ''Jawahir al-kalam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam''. vol. 14. p. 336</ref> There are also some other faqihs who have believed out of caution, in necessity of performing the short form of prayer in the mentioned Harams. <ref>Musawi 'Amili, Sayyid Muhammad. ''Madarik al-ahkam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam''. vol. 4. p. 468; Mirza-yi Qumi, Abu l-Qasim b. Muhammad Hasan. ''Jami' al-shitat''. vol. 1. p. 73; Al-Najafi, Muhammad Hasan b. Baqir. ''Jawahir al-kalam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam''. vol. 14 p. 337; Bahjat, Muhammad Taqi. Jami' al-masa'il'' p. 599</ref>
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[[Ibn Babawayh]] believed in obligation of performing prayer in short form in the mentioned places and did not consider any higher value for them.<ref>Al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. ''al-Muqni'''. p. 262</ref> Apparently, his opinion is based on general reasons for the obligation of performing prayer in short form for passengers and the hadiths which have regarded it obligatory to perform prayer in short form in the mentioned places.<ref>Naraqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi. ''Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a'' . vol. 8. p. 309</ref> However, other jurists have considered these hadiths as cases of [[taqiyya]] (precautionary dissimulation)<ref>Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. ''al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira''. vol. 2. p. 441, 448, 452; Naraqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi. ''Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a'' . vol. 8. p. 310; Burujirdi, Murtada. ''Mustanad al-'urwat al-wuthqa''. vol. 8. p. 406-410</ref> and referring to some other reasons, have rejected the mentioned conclusion.<ref>Muqaddas Ardabili, Ahmad b. Muhammad. ''Majma' al-fa'idat wa l-burhan''. vol. 3. p. 424-425; Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. ''al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira''. vol. 11. p. 440-442; Al-Najafi, Muhammad Hasan b. Baqir. ''Jawahir al-kalam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam''. vol. 14. p. 336</ref> There are also some other jurists who have believed out of caution, in necessity of performing the short form of prayer in the mentioned Harams.<ref>Musawi 'Amili, Sayyid Muhammad. ''Madarik al-ahkam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam''. vol. 4. p. 468; Mirza-yi Qumi, Abu l-Qasim b. Muhammad Hasan. ''Jami' al-shitat''. vol. 1. p. 73; Al-Najafi, Muhammad Hasan b. Baqir. ''Jawahir al-kalam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam''. vol. 14 p. 337; Bahjat, Muhammad Taqi. Jami' al-masa'il'' p. 599</ref>
  
Some earlier scholars including [[Ibn al-Junayd al-Iskafi]] and [[Al-Sharif al-Murtada|'Alam al-Huda]] have considered it obligatory for passengers to perform their prayers in complete form in the four mentioned places and even Harams (the holy shrines) of all Imams (a) of Shi'a. <ref>Ibn al-Junayd al-Iskafi, ''Majmu'at fatawa Ibn al-Junayd'' p. 89-90; Al-Sharif al-Murtada, 'Ali b. al-Husayn. ''Rasa'il al-Sharif al-Murtada''. vol. 3. p. 47; Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. ''al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira''. vol. 11. p. 438, 465</ref> [[Ibn Idris al-Hilli]] have only added the shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a) to al-Haram al-Makki and al-Haram al-Nabawi for this ruling. Shi'a faqihs have also discussed whether the above mentioned optionality in choosing short or complete form of prayer is only about the [[Masjid al-Kufa]] and the shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a) or it also includes the two whole cities of [[Kufa]] and [[Karbala]]. <ref>Burujirdi, Murtada. ''Mustanad al-'urwat al-wuthqa''. vol. 8. p. 414-420; Ruhani, Muhammad Sadiq. ''Fiqh al-sadiq''. vol. 6. p. 427-428</ref> Hanafis, who considered it obligatory to perform the prayer in short form while travelling like Twelver Shi'a, have regarded performing the prayer in complete form in al-Haram al-Makki as following the noble Prophet (s). They have considered it better than performing the prayer in short form due to multiplicity of rewards for good deeds in Haram. <ref>Al-Kasani, Abu Bakr b. Mas'ud. ''Badayi' al-sanaye' fi tartib al-sharayi'''. vol. 1. p. 91-92; Ibn Qudama. ''al-Mughni''. vol. 2. p. 107</ref>
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Some earlier scholars including [[Ibn al-Junayd al-Iskafi]] and [[Al-Sharif al-Murtada|'Alam al-Huda]] have considered it obligatory for passengers to perform their prayers in complete form in the four mentioned places and even Harams (the holy shrines) of all Imams (a) of Shi'a.<ref>Ibn al-Junayd al-Iskafi, ''Majmu'at fatawa Ibn al-Junayd'' p. 89-90; Al-Sharif al-Murtada, 'Ali b. al-Husayn. ''Rasa'il al-Sharif al-Murtada''. vol. 3. p. 47; Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. ''al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira''. vol. 11. p. 438, 465</ref> [[Ibn Idris al-Hilli]] have only added the shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a) to al-Haram al-Makki and al-Haram al-Nabawi for this ruling. Shi'a jurists have also discussed whether the above mentioned optionality in choosing short or complete form of prayer is only about the [[Masjid al-Kufa]] and the shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a) or it also includes the two whole cities of [[Kufa]] and [[Karbala]].<ref>Burujirdi, Murtada. ''Mustanad al-'urwat al-wuthqa''. vol. 8. p. 414-420; Ruhani, Muhammad Sadiq. ''Fiqh al-sadiq''. vol. 6. p. 427-428</ref> Hanafis, who considered it obligatory to perform the prayer in short form while travelling like Twelver Shi'a, have regarded performing the prayer in complete form in al-Haram al-Makki as following the Prophet (s). They have considered it better than performing the prayer in short form due to multiplicity of [[reward]]s for good deeds in Haram.<ref>Al-Kasani, Abu Bakr b. Mas'ud. ''Badayi' al-sanaye' fi tartib al-sharayi'''. vol. 1. p. 91-92; Ibn Qudama. ''al-Mughni''. vol. 2. p. 107</ref>
  
 
===Other Rulings and Manners===
 
===Other Rulings and Manners===
 
Other rulings and manners are mentioned for these Harams and holy shrines of Shi'a Imams (a) in Shi'a jurisprudential references, such as:
 
Other rulings and manners are mentioned for these Harams and holy shrines of Shi'a Imams (a) in Shi'a jurisprudential references, such as:
  
* Prohibition of entering menstruating woman or [[Junub]] to these places<ref>Musawi 'Amili, Sayyid Muhammad. ''Madarik al-ahkam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam''. vol. 1. p. 282; cf: Naraqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi. ''Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a''. vol. 2. p. 292</ref>
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* Prohibition of entering [[Menstruation|menstruating]] women or [[junub]] to these places<ref>Musawi 'Amili, Sayyid Muhammad. ''Madarik al-ahkam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam''. vol. 1. p. 282; cf: Naraqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi. ''Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a''. vol. 2. p. 292</ref>
* Prohibition of making these places [[Najis]] (religiously unclean) and obligation of cleaning off them<ref>Tabataba'i Yazdi, Muhammad Kazim. ''al-'Urwat al-wuthqa''. vol. 1. p. 89-90</ref>
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* Prohibition of making these places [[najis]] (religiously unclean) and obligation of cleaning off them<ref>Tabataba'i Yazdi, Muhammad Kazim. ''al-'Urwat al-wuthqa''. vol. 1. p. 89-90</ref>
* Recommendation of doing [[Ghusl]] (ritual bath) before entering these places and [[|Makruh|Kiraha]] of moving dead people elsewhere from these place to bury, unless to another of these places<ref>Musawi 'Amili, Sayyid Muhammad. ''Madarik al-ahkam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam''. vol. 2. p. 152; Tabataba'i Yazdi, Muhammad Kazim. ''al-'Urwat al-wuthqa''. vol. 1. p. 447</ref>
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* Recommendation of doing [[ghusl]] (ritual bath) before entering these places
* Prohibition of performing punishments or [[retribution]]s in these Harams<ref>Al-Hilli, Ibn Idris. ''al-Sara'ir al-hawi li-tahrir al-fatawa''. vol. 3. p. 363-364; cf: al-Khoei, Abu l-Qasim. ''Mabani takmilat al-minhaj''. vol. 2. p. 184-185</ref>
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*[[Makruh|Kiraha]] of moving dead people elsewhere for burial, except to one of these places.<ref>Musawi 'Amili, Sayyid Muhammad. ''Madarik al-ahkam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam''. vol. 2. p. 152; Tabataba'i Yazdi, Muhammad Kazim. ''al-'Urwat al-wuthqa''. vol. 1. p. 447</ref>
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* Prohibition of performing punishments or [[retribution]]s in these harams.<ref>Al-Hilli, Ibn Idris. ''al-Sara'ir al-hawi li-tahrir al-fatawa''. vol. 3. p. 363-364; cf: al-Khoei, Abu l-Qasim. ''Mabani takmilat al-minhaj''. vol. 2. p. 184-185</ref>
  
 
== Notes ==
 
== Notes ==
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==References==
 
==References==
* The material for this article is mainly taken from {{ia|[[:fa:حرم|حرم]]}} in Farsi Wikishia.
 
 
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{{references}}
 
* Agha Buzurg, Tihrani. ''Al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a''. Beirut: Dar al-Adwa', 1403 AH
 
* Agha Buzurg, Tihrani. ''Al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a''. Beirut: Dar al-Adwa', 1403 AH
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[[ar:الحرم]]

Latest revision as of 11:39, 16 January 2019

Al-Haram al-Makki, the most important haram for Muslims; the green line shows the boundaries of al-Haram al-Makki

Ḥaram (Arabic: حَرَم, Holy Site), is the area surrounding a holy place with a special holiness due to its association with an Islamic sacred concept and therefore is treated differently.

The most important haram for Muslims is al-Haram al-Makki in which al-Masjid al-Haram and Ka'ba are located. The next important haram is al-Haram al-Madani which houses the Prophet (s)'s burial place (al-Masjid al-Nabawi) and his house. These two are called al-Haramayn al-Sharifayn (the two sanctuaries) among Muslims.

In a broad sense of the term, haram is also used for the holy shrines of Imams (a) and even for the descendants of Imams (a). The terms al-haram al-'Alawi, al-haram al-Husayni are used in accordance with this broad meaning. Haram, among Shi'a, is used for the Masjid or building which is built around a tomb.

One of the special rulings of al-Masjid al-Haram, the shrine of the Prophet (s), shrine of Imam al-Husayn, and Mosque of Kufa is that pilgrims coming from other places are allowed and even recommended to do their prayers in the complete form, even though travelers normally have to do their prayers in short form.

Literal Meaning

The Arabic word "حرم" (Haram) is derived from the root form "ح ر م" (ḥ r m). It means one's household or their residence that he protects from any harm.[1] In Islamic texts, this word is applied to the area surrounding the Islamic holy sites that entering and attending there requires observation of certain rules. For example, the words "Haram", "Haram Allah" or "al-Haram al-Makki" usually refer to a specific area around Mecca.[2] Some believe that calling such an area "Haram", is because some acts are ḥarām (forbidden) in that area.[3]

Usage

Titles such as "Haram al-Rasul" or "al-Haram al-Nabawi" refer to the shrine of the Prophet (s) in Medina.

Also, the title "al-Haramayn al-Sharifayn" either refers to al-Masjid al-Haram and the shrine of the Prophet (s), respectively in Mecca and Medina, or the Shirne of Imam Ali (a) and Shrine of Imam al-Husayn, or the two holy sites of al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem al-Quds and al-Haram al-Ibrahimi in Hebron (al-Khalil).

It is to note that sometimes the word "haram" is used more specifically for al-Masjid al-Haram or Masjid al-Nabawi, and sometimes used more generally for the two cities of Mecca and Medina. Also, this word frequently is used for the shrines of Shi'a Imams (a) such as al-Ha'ir al-Husayni which is a title for the shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a) and al-Haram al-Radawi which is the title for the Holy shrine of Imam al-Rida (a).[4]

Al-Haram al-Makki

Main article: Al-Haram al-Makki

Al-Haram al-Makki is the most famous example of the word "haram". People who belong to this area are called Hirmi (people of Haram) and those who enter this place and put on ihram are called muhrim. The area outside of haram is called hill.[5] Holiness of the Haram of Mecca has a very long history. According to a hadith by the Prophet (s), this area has become haram since the creation of skies and the earth and according to another hadith, Dahw al-Ard (expansion of earth) began from the place of al-Haram al-Makki.[6]

Al-Haram al-Madani

Main article: Al-Haram al-Madani
Al-Haram al-Nabawi in Medina

This is another important haram for which there are special rulings according to hadiths and jurisprudential laws. According to Sunni hadith sources, the noble Prophet (s) has guaranteed his intercession for the people of Medina on the Day of Judgment.[7] There are different views regarding the expanse of al-Haram al-Nabawi.

Al-Haram al-Husayni

Main article: al-Ha'ir al-Husayni

Haram (holy shrine) of Imam al-Husayn (a) is greatly venerated by Shi'a. Shi'a jurists have different opinions about the expanse of the Haram for which there are certain rulings. For example, some of them include Imam al-Husayn's (a) grave and his family members and companions except al-'Abbas (a) in the Haram,[8] while some others believe that the whole city of Karbala including Imam al-Husayn's (a) holy darih is Haram.[9] There is even a hadith quoted from Imam Ali (a) in which Kufa is also called his Haram.[10]

Specific Rulings

According to most Shi'a jurists, one of the rulings specific to al-Haramayn (al-Haram al-Makki and al-Haram al-Nabawi), Masjid al-Kufa and al-Ha'ir al-Husayni is the permission and even recommendation of performing prayer in the complete form for pilgrims coming from other places (passengers), although as pilgrims, they normally have to perform their prayers in the short form (al-Qasr prayer).[11]

Religious authorities regard these rulings as the conclusion of two different groups of hadiths; one which indicates that performing prayer in short or complete form in the four mentioned places are optional. And the other group which recommends the complete form of prayer in these places.[12] In some of these hadiths, the terms "al-Haramayn al-Sharifayn", Mecca and Medina, "al-Masjidayn" (the two mosques) are used;[13] thus, some scholars consider only al-Masjid al-Haram and Masjid al-Nabawi the subject to the mentioned rulings, not the whole expanses of al-Haram al-Makki and al-Haram al-Nabawi.[14]

Ibn Babawayh believed in obligation of performing prayer in short form in the mentioned places and did not consider any higher value for them.[15] Apparently, his opinion is based on general reasons for the obligation of performing prayer in short form for passengers and the hadiths which have regarded it obligatory to perform prayer in short form in the mentioned places.[16] However, other jurists have considered these hadiths as cases of taqiyya (precautionary dissimulation)[17] and referring to some other reasons, have rejected the mentioned conclusion.[18] There are also some other jurists who have believed out of caution, in necessity of performing the short form of prayer in the mentioned Harams.[19]

Some earlier scholars including Ibn al-Junayd al-Iskafi and 'Alam al-Huda have considered it obligatory for passengers to perform their prayers in complete form in the four mentioned places and even Harams (the holy shrines) of all Imams (a) of Shi'a.[20] Ibn Idris al-Hilli have only added the shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a) to al-Haram al-Makki and al-Haram al-Nabawi for this ruling. Shi'a jurists have also discussed whether the above mentioned optionality in choosing short or complete form of prayer is only about the Masjid al-Kufa and the shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a) or it also includes the two whole cities of Kufa and Karbala.[21] Hanafis, who considered it obligatory to perform the prayer in short form while travelling like Twelver Shi'a, have regarded performing the prayer in complete form in al-Haram al-Makki as following the Prophet (s). They have considered it better than performing the prayer in short form due to multiplicity of rewards for good deeds in Haram.[22]

Other Rulings and Manners

Other rulings and manners are mentioned for these Harams and holy shrines of Shi'a Imams (a) in Shi'a jurisprudential references, such as:

  • Prohibition of entering menstruating women or junub to these places[23]
  • Prohibition of making these places najis (religiously unclean) and obligation of cleaning off them[24]
  • Recommendation of doing ghusl (ritual bath) before entering these places
  • Kiraha of moving dead people elsewhere for burial, except to one of these places.[25]
  • Prohibition of performing punishments or retributions in these harams.[26]

Notes

  1. Ibn Athir. al-Nihaya. under the word "دعمص"; Ibn Manzur. Lisan al-'Arab. under the word "حرم"; Al-Jabarti, 'Abd al-Rahman. Tarikh 'aja'ib al-athar. vol. 2. p. 143
  2. Al-Jawhari. al-Sihah. under the word "حرم"; Al-Zubaydi, Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Murtada. Taj al-'arus. under the word "حرم"
  3. Al-Kurdi, Muhammad Tahir. al-Tarikh al-qawim li-makka wa bayt Allah al-karim. vol. 1. p. 101; Burujirdi, Murtada. Mustanad al-'urwat al-wuthqa. vol. 8. p. 423
  4. Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira. vol. 7. p. 317-318 & vol. 11. p. 455; Al-Baghdadi, Isma'il. Hadiyat al-'arifin. vol. 2. column. 541; Agha Buzurg, Tihrani. al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a. vol. 6. p. 194 & vol. 8. p. 224 & vol. 21. p. 299
  5. Al-Farahidi, Khalil b. Ahmad. Kitab al-'ayn. under the word "حرم"; Ibn Athir. al-Nihaya. under the word "حرم"
  6. Al-Fakihi, Muhammad b. Ishaq. Akhbar Makka fi qadim al-dahr wa hadithiha. vol. 2. p. 270; Al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. Man la yahduruh al-faqih. vol. 2. p. 241; Al-Hurr al-'Amili. Wasa'il al-Shi'a. vol. 13. p. 241-242
  7. Ahmad b. Hanbal. Musnad Ahmad. vol. 6. p. 370; Muslim b. al-Hajjaj. Sahih Muslim. vol. 4. p. 113
  8. Al-Mufid, Muhammad b. Muhammad. al-Muqni'a. p. 126; Al-Hilli, Ibn Idris. al-Sara'ir al-hawi li-tahrir al-fatawa. vol. 1. p. 342
  9. Yahya b. Sa'id. al-Jami' li-l-Shara'i'. p. 93; Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira. vol. 11. p. 436; Naraqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi. Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a. vol. 8. p. 316
  10. Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi. vol. 4. p. 563
  11. Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. al-Nihaya fi mujarad al-fiqh wa al-fatawa. p. 124; Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. Mukhtalaf al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a. vol. 1. p. 333; Al-Shahid al-Thani, Zayn al-Din. al-Rawdat al-Bahiyya. vol. 1. p. 787-788
  12. Al-Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi. vol. p. 542; Al-Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan. Tahdhib al-ahkam. vol. 5. p. 470-475
  13. Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira. vol. 11. p. 456-459
  14. Al-Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf. Mukhtalaf al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a. vol. 3. p. 132; Al-Shahid al-Thani, Zayn al-Din. al-Rawdat al-Bahiyya. vol. 1. p. 787; Burujirdi, Murtada. Mustanad al-'urwat al-wuthqa. vol. 8. p. 411-412
  15. Al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. al-Muqni'. p. 262
  16. Naraqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi. Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a . vol. 8. p. 309
  17. Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira. vol. 2. p. 441, 448, 452; Naraqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi. Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a . vol. 8. p. 310; Burujirdi, Murtada. Mustanad al-'urwat al-wuthqa. vol. 8. p. 406-410
  18. Muqaddas Ardabili, Ahmad b. Muhammad. Majma' al-fa'idat wa l-burhan. vol. 3. p. 424-425; Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira. vol. 11. p. 440-442; Al-Najafi, Muhammad Hasan b. Baqir. Jawahir al-kalam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam. vol. 14. p. 336
  19. Musawi 'Amili, Sayyid Muhammad. Madarik al-ahkam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam. vol. 4. p. 468; Mirza-yi Qumi, Abu l-Qasim b. Muhammad Hasan. Jami' al-shitat. vol. 1. p. 73; Al-Najafi, Muhammad Hasan b. Baqir. Jawahir al-kalam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam. vol. 14 p. 337; Bahjat, Muhammad Taqi. Jami' al-masa'il p. 599
  20. Ibn al-Junayd al-Iskafi, Majmu'at fatawa Ibn al-Junayd p. 89-90; Al-Sharif al-Murtada, 'Ali b. al-Husayn. Rasa'il al-Sharif al-Murtada. vol. 3. p. 47; Al-Bahrani, Yusuf b. Ahmad. al-Hada'iq al-nadira fi ahkam al-'itrat al-tahira. vol. 11. p. 438, 465
  21. Burujirdi, Murtada. Mustanad al-'urwat al-wuthqa. vol. 8. p. 414-420; Ruhani, Muhammad Sadiq. Fiqh al-sadiq. vol. 6. p. 427-428
  22. Al-Kasani, Abu Bakr b. Mas'ud. Badayi' al-sanaye' fi tartib al-sharayi'. vol. 1. p. 91-92; Ibn Qudama. al-Mughni. vol. 2. p. 107
  23. Musawi 'Amili, Sayyid Muhammad. Madarik al-ahkam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam. vol. 1. p. 282; cf: Naraqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi. Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a. vol. 2. p. 292
  24. Tabataba'i Yazdi, Muhammad Kazim. al-'Urwat al-wuthqa. vol. 1. p. 89-90
  25. Musawi 'Amili, Sayyid Muhammad. Madarik al-ahkam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam. vol. 2. p. 152; Tabataba'i Yazdi, Muhammad Kazim. al-'Urwat al-wuthqa. vol. 1. p. 447
  26. Al-Hilli, Ibn Idris. al-Sara'ir al-hawi li-tahrir al-fatawa. vol. 3. p. 363-364; cf: al-Khoei, Abu l-Qasim. Mabani takmilat al-minhaj. vol. 2. p. 184-185

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