Heaven of Adam (a)
Heaven of Ādam (a) was the first residence of Adam (a) and Eve early after their creation. The Heaven of Adam (a) is mentioned in three Suras of the Qur'an. In this Heaven, Adam (a) and Eve enjoyed a great deal of blessings, but they were warned not to approach a certain tree and not to eat its fruit. They were, however, tempted by Satan and ate the fruit of the Forbidden Tree, and as a result, they were ousted from the Heaven.
Views about the Quality of the Heaven of Adam (a)
There are three views about the Heaven in which Adam (a) and Eve lived:
- An Earthly heaven: Some people believe that the Heaven in which Adam (a) and Eve lived was a green garden on the Earth full of trees. The view appeals to the idea that since the Satan is forbidden from entering the afterlife Heaven, people there cannot be tempted by Satan and so, they cannot make any mistakes. Also, people who enter the Heaven will live there forever and will never leave it, while Adam (a) was tempted by Satan in the Heaven in which he lived and was ousted from there. There are some hadiths according to which the Heaven of Adam (a) was not the Heaven of afterlife.
- The promised Heaven: According to some hadiths, the Heaven of Adam (a) was the afterlife Heaven. Some people appealed to the first sermon of Imam 'Ali (a) in Nahj al-balagha to argue for this view: Imam 'Ali (a) said, "God promised Adam (a) to return him to the Heaven". This remark indicates that Adam (a) will return to the Heaven, that is the place where he originally lived, and since Adam (a) will go to the afterlife Heaven in the future, it is implied that the Heaven in which he originally lived was the Heaven of afterlife.
- Barzakhi (mid-world) Heaven: according to this view, the Heaven of Adam (a) was neither the promised Heaven of the afterlife, nor an Earthly garden; rather it was a mid-world Heaven located in the middle of this world and the afterlife. This Heaven has some features of the promised Heaven such as constant liveliness and lack of pain, hunger, thirst, cold and heat, as well as some features of Earthly gardens, such as openness to Satan and his temptations. This view is a mixture of the previous two views.
Quranic Account of the Heaven of Adam
In the Suras of al-Baqara, al-A'raf, and Taha, the Qur'an mentions the Heaven of Adam (a) in the story of the creation of Adam (a) and Eve. According to Quranic verses, the original residence of Adam (a) and Eve was the Heaven.
- Fakhr al-Rāzī, Mafātīḥ al-ghayb, vol. 3, p. 452.
- Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 11, p. 143.
- Nahj al-balāgha, Sermon 1.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 1, p. 132.
- Qurʾān, 2:35; 7:19-20; 20:115, 117, 120.
- Nahj al-balāgha. Edited by Quchānī. Tehran: Bunyād-i Nahj al-Balāgha, 1413 AH.
- Fakhr al-Rāzī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Mafātīḥ al-ghayb. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1420 AH.
- Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Beirut: al-Wafāʾ, 1403 AH.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1393 AH.