Priority: b, Quality: b

Difference between revisions of "People of Ad"

From WikiShia
Jump to: navigation, search
(Created page with "People of ‘Ad were Arab and lived in south of Arabia. They were descendants of ‘Ad b. ‘Uz who named their tribe after their forefather. They had large bodies and benefit...")
 
m (added using HotCat)
 
(29 intermediate revisions by 7 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
People of ‘Ad were Arab and lived in south of Arabia. They were descendants of ‘Ad b. ‘Uz who named their tribe after their forefather. They had large bodies and benefitted from many blessings. God sent prophet Hud (a) to them to invite them to monotheism. Most of them stood against him and did not accept his invitation and thus were afflicted with divine punishment.
+
'''People of 'Ād''' (Arabic: {{ia|قوم عاد}}) were Arab and lived in south of [[Arabia]]. They were descendants of 'Ad b. 'Aws who named their tribe after their forefather. They had large bodies and benefitted from many blessings. [[God]] sent [[Prophet Hud (a)]] to them to invite them to [[monotheism]]. Most of them stood against him and did not accept his invitation and thus were afflicted with divine punishment.
  
== In the Qur’an ==
+
== In the Qur'an ==
The glorious Qur’an has mentioned the people of ‘Ad in several verses some of which are verses 21 – 26 of sura al-Ahqaf, verses 69 – 74 of sura al-A’raf, verse 46 of sura al-Dhariyat, verse 50 of sura Hud, verse 31 of sura al-Mu’minun, verses 13 – 15 of sura Fussilat, verse 20 of sura al-Qamar, verse 7 of sura al-Haqqah, verse 8 of sura al-Fajr, verse 15 of sura al-Sajdah and verse 130 of sura al-Shu’ara.
+
The glorious Qur'an has mentioned the people of 'Ad in several [[verses]] some of which are verses 21 – 26 of [[Qur'an 46]], verses 69 – 74 of [[Qur'an 7]], verse 46 of [[Qur'an 51]], verse 50 of [[Qur'an 11]], verse 31 of [[Qur'an 23]], verses 13 – 15 of [[Qur'an 41]], verse 20 of [[Qur'an 54]], verse 7 of [[Qur'an 69]], verse 8 of [[Qur'an 89]], verse 15 of [[Qur'an 32]] and verse 130 of [[Qur'an 26]].
  
 
== Name and Time ==
 
== Name and Time ==
People of ‘Ad were Arab. They were descendants of ‘Ad b. ‘Uz b. Aram b. Shem b. Noah (a) and named their tribe after their forefather.
+
People of 'Ad were Arab.<ref>Ibn Kathīr al-Dimashqī, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 2, p. 157.</ref> They were descendants of 'Ad b. 'Aws b. Aram b. [[Sam]] b. [[Nuh (a)]] (Noah) and named their tribe after their forefather.<ref>Fakhr al-Rāzī, ''Mafātīḥ al-ghayb'', vol. 31, p. 152.</ref>
  
The glorious Qur’an considered the people of ‘Ad after Noah (a); when it says, “and that it is He who destroyed the former ‘Ad,” (53:50) “The former ‘Ad” were the people of prophet Hud (a) who lived after the people of Noah (a) and before the people of Thamud. Thus, there was a latter ‘Ad as well, whom some exegetes considered the people of Thamud.
+
The glorious Qur'an considered the people of 'Ad after Nuh (a);<ref>Qurʾān, 7:69; 51:46.</ref> when it says, "and that it is He who destroyed the former 'Ad",<ref>Qur'an 53:50.</ref> "The former 'Ad" were the people of [[Prophet Hud (a)]]<ref>Ṭabāṭabāyī, ''al-Mīzān'', vol. 19, p. 50.</ref> who lived after the [[people of Nuh (a)]] and before the [[Thamud|people of Thamud]].<ref>Miybudī, ''Kashf al-asrār'', vol. 5, p. 532.</ref> Thus, there was a latter 'Ad as well, whom some [[exegete]]s considered the people of Thamud.<ref>Miybudī, ''Kashf al-asrār'', vol. 6, p. 435.</ref>
  
 
== Place of Living ==
 
== Place of Living ==
The Qur’an calls the place where the people of ‘Ad lived “al-ahqaf, “and mention [Hūd] the brother of ʿĀd, when he warned his people at Aḥqāf” (46:21) “Al-ahqaf” means “dunes which pile up by the blow of wind in the deserts” and the land of ‘Ad was called al-ahqaf because it was a dune of such nature. Exegetes have considered al-ahqaf a region in the south of Arabia. However, there are disagreements on its accurate location. ‘Allama Tabataba’i and Tabrisi believed that al-ahqaf was a place between Yemen and ‘Oman which is a dune now. In sura al-Ahqaf which meant to warn polytheists about a painful punishment. A part of the story of ‘Ad is mentioned as an example of punished polytheists. In Tafsir Nemuneh, Makarem Shirazi believed that the name of sura al-Ahqaf is adopted from the story of ‘Ad and their place of living.
+
The Qur'an calls the place where the people of 'Ad lived [[al-Ahqaf]], and mention Prophet Hud (a) the brother of 'Ad, "when he warned his people at Ahqaf.<ref>Qur'an 46:21.</ref> "al-Ahqaf" means: dunes which pile up by the blow of wind in the deserts" and the land of 'Ad was called al-Ahqaf because it was a dune of such nature.<ref>Makārim Shīrāzī, ''Tafsīr-i nimūna'', vol. 21, p. 292.</ref> Exegetes have considered al-ahqaf a region in the south of Arabia.<ref>Qarashī, ''Qāmūs al-Qurʾān'', vol. 5, p. 65.</ref> However, there are disagreements on its accurate location.<ref>Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 18, p. 210.</ref> [['Allama Tabataba'i]] and [[al-Tabrisi]] believed that al-Ahqaf was a place between [[Yemen]] and [[Oman]] which is a dune now.<ref>Ṭabāṭabāyī, ''al-Mīzān'', vol. 10, p. 456; Ṭabrisī, ''Tarjuma-yi Tafsīr Majmaʿ al-bayān'', vol. 18, p. 218.</ref> In Qur'an 46 which meant to warn [[polytheists]] about a painful [[reward and punishment|punishment]].<ref>Ṭabāṭabāyī, ''al-Mīzān'', vol. 18, p. 283.</ref> A part of the story of 'Ad is mentioned as an example of punished polytheists. In ''[[Tafsir-i Nimuni]]'', [[Ayatollah Makarim Shirazi]] believed that the name of Sura al-Ahqaf (Qur'an 46) is adopted from the story of 'Ad and their place of living.<ref>Makārim Shīrāzī, ''Tafsīr-i nimūna'', vol. 21, p. 295.</ref>
  
 
== Apparent Characteristics ==
 
== Apparent Characteristics ==
The glorious Qur’an describes people of ‘Ad tall like palm tree, very strong and large. It is mentioned in hadiths that they grew to the height of 100 Dhara’ (“cubit” which is a measurement of length about 52 cm) and their shortest ones were about 70 Dhara’. Also, in a hadith, Imam al-Baqir (a) described them as, “they were tall like palm trees and destroyed mountains.
+
The glorious Qur'an describes people of 'Ad tall like palm tree,<ref>Qurʾān, 54:20; 69:7.</ref> very strong and large.<ref>Qurʾān, 6:69.</ref> [[Imam al-Baqir (a)]] described them as, "they were tall like palm trees and destroyed mountains".<ref>Ṭūsī, ''al-Tibyān'', vol. 4, p. 445.</ref>
 +
 
 +
It is mentioned in a hadith from [[Imam al-Sadiq (a)]] that they were tall like palm trees. in other sources it is said that the people of 'Ad were too tall. [[Al-Shaykh al-Tusi]] in ''[[al-Tibyan]]'' mentioned some of these reports. Also in some narrations it is said that they grew to the height of 100 Dhara' ("cubit" which is a measurement of length about 52 cm) and their shortest ones were about 70 Dhara'.<ref>Jazāʾirī, ''al-Nūr al-mubīn'', p. 135.</ref> There are different reports in this regard, for example another report described them as 12 Dhara'.
  
 
== Life and Civilization ==
 
== Life and Civilization ==
Some exegetes believe that from the appearance of the verses, it can be learned that these people had a civilization and a developed community. They also had developed cities and fertile lands full of gardens, palm gardens and farms. Verse 8 of sura al-Fajr describes Eram which was one of their cities, “the like of which was not created among cities” (89:8)
+
Some exegetes believe that from the appearance of the verses, it can be learned that these people had a civilization and a developed community. They also had developed cities and fertile lands full of gardens, palm gardens and farms. Verse 8 of [[Qur'an 89]] describes Eram which was one of their cities, "the like of which was not created among cities" <ref>Makārim Shīrāzī, ''Tafsīr-i nimūna'', vol. 26, p. 452; Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 10, p. 456.
‘Ad had farming and many palm trees and had built great stone houses for themselves.
+
</ref>
 +
'Ad had farming and many palm trees and had built great stone houses for themselves.<ref>Qummī, ''Tafsīr al-Qumm'', vol. 1, p. 329.</ref>
  
 
== Beliefs and Actions ==
 
== Beliefs and Actions ==
People of ‘Ad worshipped different deities. Every time, they made an idol for themselves out of fun. They made water reservoirs in their basements for they hoped to be immortal. Prophet Hud (a) was chosen to guide them. The Qur’an introduces prophet Hud (a) as the brother of ‘Ad, because he (a) was one of them. ‘Allama Tabataba’i believed that there is a possibility that ‘Ad had prophets other than Hud (a) as well who were chosen after Noah (a) and before Hud (a), but the glorious Qur’an has not mentioned them; however, the context of verses does not agree with this possibility.
+
People of 'Ad worshipped different deities.<ref>Qurʾān, 11:53.</ref> Every time, they made an idol for themselves out of fun. They made water reservoirs in their basements for they hoped to be immortal.<ref>Makārim Shīrāzī, ''Tafsīr-i nimūna'', vol. 6, p. 226-232; Ṭabāṭabāyī, ''al-Mīzān'', vol. 10, p. 457; Ṭabrisī, ''Tarjuma-yi Tafsīr Majmaʿ al-bayān'', vol. 23, p. 15.</ref> Prophet Hud (a) was chosen to guide them.<ref>Qurʾān, 11:50.</ref> The Qur'an introduces Prophet Hud (a) as the brother of 'Ad,<ref>Qurʾān, 11:50.</ref> because he (a) was one of them.<ref>Ṭabāṭabāyī, ''al-Mīzān'', vol. 10, p. 298.</ref> [['Allama Tabataba'i]] believed that there is a possibility that 'Ad had prophets other than Hud (a) as well who were chosen after Noah (a) and before Hud (a), but the Qur'an has not mentioned them; however, the context of verses does not agree with this possibility.<ref>Ṭabāṭabāyī, ''al-Mīzān'', vol. 10, p. 453.</ref>
  
Exegetes believe that from verse 59 of sura Hud which says, “and followed the dictates of every obdurate tyrant”, it can be learned that ‘Ad were had three problems of rejecting divine signs, disobeying prophets and obeying tyrants. In fact, they followed the orders of every despot and that kept them away from following Hud (a) and accepting his invitation. Then, God continues describing them in the next verse as, “they were pursued by a curse in this world and on the Day of Resurrection”, because of those three problems. The curse in this verse refers to the punishment which followed them and finally reached them.
+
Exegetes believe that from verse 59 of [[Qur'an 11]] (Sura Hud) which says, "and followed the dictates of every obdurate tyrant",<ref>Qurʾān, 11:59.</ref> it can be learned that 'Ad were had three problems of rejecting divine signs, disobeying prophets and obeying tyrants. In fact, they followed the orders of every despot and that kept them away from following Hud (a) and accepting his invitation. Then, God continues describing them in the next verse as, "they were pursued by a curse in this world and on the [[Resurrection]]", because of those three problems. The curse in this verse refers to the punishment which followed them and finally reached them.<ref>Makārim Shīrāzī, ''Tafsīr-i nimūna'', vol. 9, p. 143-144; Ṭabāṭabāyī, ''al-Mīzān'', vol. 10, p. 453.</ref>
  
 
== Divine Punishment ==
 
== Divine Punishment ==
In different verses, the Qur’an mentions the conversations between prophet Hud (a) and people of ‘Ad. ‘Ad were afflicted with drought and for many years it did not rain there. Prophet Hud (a) promised them that if they repent, drought will be gone and their power may even increase. But, they did not accept Hud’s (a) invitation.
+
In different verses, the Qur'an mentions the conversations between [[Prophet Hud (a)]] and people of 'Ad.<ref>Qurʾān, 11:50-57.</ref> 'Ad were afflicted with drought and for many years it did not rain there.<ref>Qummī, ''Tafsīr al-Qummī'', vol. 1, p. 329.</ref> Prophet Hud (a) promised them that if they repent, drought will be gone and their power may even increase.<ref>Qurʾān, 11:52.</ref> But, they did not accept Hud's (a) invitation.<ref>Qurʾān, 11:53.</ref>
 +
 
 +
They saw a great cloud in the distance and thought that it was a rain cloud, while it was actually the cloud of punishment. <ref>Qurʾān, 46:24.</ref>Finally, for seven days punishment casted upon them.<ref>Qurʾān, 69:24.</ref> After destruction of the people of 'Ad, Prophet Hud (a) and other believers left that land and went to [[Mecca]].<ref>ʿŪtabī al-Ṣaḥārī, ''al-Ansāb'', vol. 1, p. 71.</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Notes==
 +
{{Notes}}
 +
 
 +
==References==
 +
{{ref}}
 +
*Fakhr al-Rāzī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. ''Mafātīḥ al-ghayb''. Thied edition. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1420 AH.
 +
*Ibn Kathīr al-Dimashqī, Ismāʿīl b. ʿUmar. ''Al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya''. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1407 AH.
 +
*Jazāʾirī, Niʿmat Allāh b. ʿAbd Allāh. ''Al-Nūr al-mubīn fī qiṣaṣ al-anbīyāʾ wa l-mursalīn''. Edited by Aḥmad Ṣayyāḥ. Translated to Farsi by Fāṭima Mashāyikh. Tehran: Farḥān, 1381 Sh.
 +
*Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. ''Tafsīr-i nimūna''. Qom: Daftar-i Tablīghāt-i Islāmī, 1374 Sh.
 +
*Miybudī, Aḥmad b. Abī Saʿd al-. ''Kashf al-asrār wa ʿuddat al-abrār''. Fifth edition. Edited by ʿAlī Aṣghar Ḥikmat. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Amīr Kabīr, 1371 Sh.
 +
*Qarashī, Sayyid ʿAlī Akbar al-. ''Qāmūs al-Qurʾān''. Sixth edition. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1371 Sh.
 +
*Qummī, ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm al-. ''Tafsīr al-Qummī''. Edited by Musawī Jazāʾirī. Third edition. Qom: Dār al-Kutub, 1404 AH.
 +
*Ṭabāṭabāyī, Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-. ''Tarjuma-yi al-Mīzān''. Translated to Farsi by Muḥammad Bāqir Musuwī Hamidānī. Qom: Dafrar-i Nash-I īslāmī, 1374 Sh.
 +
*Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. ''Tarjuma-yi Tafsīr Majmaʿ al-bayān''. Translated to Farsi by Ḥusayn al-Nūrī wa Muḥammad Mufattiḥ. Tehran: Nashr-i Farāhānī, 1352 Sh.
 +
*Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. ''Al-Tibyān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān''. Edited by Aḥmad Qiyṣar al-ʿĀmilī. Beirut: Dār iḥyāʾ al-Turath al-ʿArabī, [n.d].
 +
*ʿŪtabī al-Ṣaḥārī. ''al-Ansāb''. Edited by Muḥammad Iḥasān. Masqat: [n.p], 1427 AH.
 +
{{end}}
 +
 
 +
{{Prophets in Qur'an}}
 +
 
 +
<onlyinclude>{{#ifeq:{{{section|editorial box}}}|editorial box|{{Editorial Box
 +
| priority =b
 +
| quality =b
 +
| links =done
 +
| photo =-
 +
| categories =done
 +
| infobox =-
 +
| navbox =done
 +
| redirects=done
 +
| references =done
 +
| good article =
 +
| featured article =
 +
}}}}</onlyinclude>
 +
 
 +
[[fa:قوم عاد]]
 +
[[ur:قوم عاد]]
 +
[[fr:Peuple de 'Âd]]
 +
[[id:Kaum 'Ad]]
  
They saw a great cloud in the distance and thought that it was a rain cloud, while it was actually the cloud of punishment. Finally, for seven days punishment casted upon them.
+
[[Category:Quranic stories]]
After destruction of the people of ‘Ad, prophet Hud (a) and other believers left that land and went to Mecca.
+
[[Category:Tribes in the Quran]]
 +
[[Category:Prophet Hud (a)]]

Latest revision as of 20:35, 13 April 2019

People of 'Ād (Arabic: قوم عاد) were Arab and lived in south of Arabia. They were descendants of 'Ad b. 'Aws who named their tribe after their forefather. They had large bodies and benefitted from many blessings. God sent Prophet Hud (a) to them to invite them to monotheism. Most of them stood against him and did not accept his invitation and thus were afflicted with divine punishment.

In the Qur'an

The glorious Qur'an has mentioned the people of 'Ad in several verses some of which are verses 21 – 26 of Qur'an 46, verses 69 – 74 of Qur'an 7, verse 46 of Qur'an 51, verse 50 of Qur'an 11, verse 31 of Qur'an 23, verses 13 – 15 of Qur'an 41, verse 20 of Qur'an 54, verse 7 of Qur'an 69, verse 8 of Qur'an 89, verse 15 of Qur'an 32 and verse 130 of Qur'an 26.

Name and Time

People of 'Ad were Arab.[1] They were descendants of 'Ad b. 'Aws b. Aram b. Sam b. Nuh (a) (Noah) and named their tribe after their forefather.[2]

The glorious Qur'an considered the people of 'Ad after Nuh (a);[3] when it says, "and that it is He who destroyed the former 'Ad",[4] "The former 'Ad" were the people of Prophet Hud (a)[5] who lived after the people of Nuh (a) and before the people of Thamud.[6] Thus, there was a latter 'Ad as well, whom some exegetes considered the people of Thamud.[7]

Place of Living

The Qur'an calls the place where the people of 'Ad lived al-Ahqaf, and mention Prophet Hud (a) the brother of 'Ad, "when he warned his people at Ahqaf.[8] "al-Ahqaf" means: dunes which pile up by the blow of wind in the deserts" and the land of 'Ad was called al-Ahqaf because it was a dune of such nature.[9] Exegetes have considered al-ahqaf a region in the south of Arabia.[10] However, there are disagreements on its accurate location.[11] 'Allama Tabataba'i and al-Tabrisi believed that al-Ahqaf was a place between Yemen and Oman which is a dune now.[12] In Qur'an 46 which meant to warn polytheists about a painful punishment.[13] A part of the story of 'Ad is mentioned as an example of punished polytheists. In Tafsir-i Nimuni, Ayatollah Makarim Shirazi believed that the name of Sura al-Ahqaf (Qur'an 46) is adopted from the story of 'Ad and their place of living.[14]

Apparent Characteristics

The glorious Qur'an describes people of 'Ad tall like palm tree,[15] very strong and large.[16] Imam al-Baqir (a) described them as, "they were tall like palm trees and destroyed mountains".[17]

It is mentioned in a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that they were tall like palm trees. in other sources it is said that the people of 'Ad were too tall. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi in al-Tibyan mentioned some of these reports. Also in some narrations it is said that they grew to the height of 100 Dhara' ("cubit" which is a measurement of length about 52 cm) and their shortest ones were about 70 Dhara'.[18] There are different reports in this regard, for example another report described them as 12 Dhara'.

Life and Civilization

Some exegetes believe that from the appearance of the verses, it can be learned that these people had a civilization and a developed community. They also had developed cities and fertile lands full of gardens, palm gardens and farms. Verse 8 of Qur'an 89 describes Eram which was one of their cities, "the like of which was not created among cities" [19] 'Ad had farming and many palm trees and had built great stone houses for themselves.[20]

Beliefs and Actions

People of 'Ad worshipped different deities.[21] Every time, they made an idol for themselves out of fun. They made water reservoirs in their basements for they hoped to be immortal.[22] Prophet Hud (a) was chosen to guide them.[23] The Qur'an introduces Prophet Hud (a) as the brother of 'Ad,[24] because he (a) was one of them.[25] 'Allama Tabataba'i believed that there is a possibility that 'Ad had prophets other than Hud (a) as well who were chosen after Noah (a) and before Hud (a), but the Qur'an has not mentioned them; however, the context of verses does not agree with this possibility.[26]

Exegetes believe that from verse 59 of Qur'an 11 (Sura Hud) which says, "and followed the dictates of every obdurate tyrant",[27] it can be learned that 'Ad were had three problems of rejecting divine signs, disobeying prophets and obeying tyrants. In fact, they followed the orders of every despot and that kept them away from following Hud (a) and accepting his invitation. Then, God continues describing them in the next verse as, "they were pursued by a curse in this world and on the Resurrection", because of those three problems. The curse in this verse refers to the punishment which followed them and finally reached them.[28]

Divine Punishment

In different verses, the Qur'an mentions the conversations between Prophet Hud (a) and people of 'Ad.[29] 'Ad were afflicted with drought and for many years it did not rain there.[30] Prophet Hud (a) promised them that if they repent, drought will be gone and their power may even increase.[31] But, they did not accept Hud's (a) invitation.[32]

They saw a great cloud in the distance and thought that it was a rain cloud, while it was actually the cloud of punishment. [33]Finally, for seven days punishment casted upon them.[34] After destruction of the people of 'Ad, Prophet Hud (a) and other believers left that land and went to Mecca.[35]

Notes

  1. Ibn Kathīr al-Dimashqī, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 2, p. 157.
  2. Fakhr al-Rāzī, Mafātīḥ al-ghayb, vol. 31, p. 152.
  3. Qurʾān, 7:69; 51:46.
  4. Qur'an 53:50.
  5. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 19, p. 50.
  6. Miybudī, Kashf al-asrār, vol. 5, p. 532.
  7. Miybudī, Kashf al-asrār, vol. 6, p. 435.
  8. Qur'an 46:21.
  9. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 21, p. 292.
  10. Qarashī, Qāmūs al-Qurʾān, vol. 5, p. 65.
  11. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 18, p. 210.
  12. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 10, p. 456; Ṭabrisī, Tarjuma-yi Tafsīr Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 18, p. 218.
  13. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 18, p. 283.
  14. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 21, p. 295.
  15. Qurʾān, 54:20; 69:7.
  16. Qurʾān, 6:69.
  17. Ṭūsī, al-Tibyān, vol. 4, p. 445.
  18. Jazāʾirī, al-Nūr al-mubīn, p. 135.
  19. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 26, p. 452; Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 10, p. 456.
  20. Qummī, Tafsīr al-Qumm, vol. 1, p. 329.
  21. Qurʾān, 11:53.
  22. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 6, p. 226-232; Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 10, p. 457; Ṭabrisī, Tarjuma-yi Tafsīr Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 23, p. 15.
  23. Qurʾān, 11:50.
  24. Qurʾān, 11:50.
  25. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 10, p. 298.
  26. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 10, p. 453.
  27. Qurʾān, 11:59.
  28. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 9, p. 143-144; Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 10, p. 453.
  29. Qurʾān, 11:50-57.
  30. Qummī, Tafsīr al-Qummī, vol. 1, p. 329.
  31. Qurʾān, 11:52.
  32. Qurʾān, 11:53.
  33. Qurʾān, 46:24.
  34. Qurʾān, 69:24.
  35. ʿŪtabī al-Ṣaḥārī, al-Ansāb, vol. 1, p. 71.

References

  • Fakhr al-Rāzī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Mafātīḥ al-ghayb. Thied edition. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1420 AH.
  • Ibn Kathīr al-Dimashqī, Ismāʿīl b. ʿUmar. Al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1407 AH.
  • Jazāʾirī, Niʿmat Allāh b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Nūr al-mubīn fī qiṣaṣ al-anbīyāʾ wa l-mursalīn. Edited by Aḥmad Ṣayyāḥ. Translated to Farsi by Fāṭima Mashāyikh. Tehran: Farḥān, 1381 Sh.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Qom: Daftar-i Tablīghāt-i Islāmī, 1374 Sh.
  • Miybudī, Aḥmad b. Abī Saʿd al-. Kashf al-asrār wa ʿuddat al-abrār. Fifth edition. Edited by ʿAlī Aṣghar Ḥikmat. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Amīr Kabīr, 1371 Sh.
  • Qarashī, Sayyid ʿAlī Akbar al-. Qāmūs al-Qurʾān. Sixth edition. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1371 Sh.
  • Qummī, ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm al-. Tafsīr al-Qummī. Edited by Musawī Jazāʾirī. Third edition. Qom: Dār al-Kutub, 1404 AH.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī, Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-. Tarjuma-yi al-Mīzān. Translated to Farsi by Muḥammad Bāqir Musuwī Hamidānī. Qom: Dafrar-i Nash-I īslāmī, 1374 Sh.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Tarjuma-yi Tafsīr Majmaʿ al-bayān. Translated to Farsi by Ḥusayn al-Nūrī wa Muḥammad Mufattiḥ. Tehran: Nashr-i Farāhānī, 1352 Sh.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Al-Tibyān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Edited by Aḥmad Qiyṣar al-ʿĀmilī. Beirut: Dār iḥyāʾ al-Turath al-ʿArabī, [n.d].
  • ʿŪtabī al-Ṣaḥārī. al-Ansāb. Edited by Muḥammad Iḥasān. Masqat: [n.p], 1427 AH.