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*Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. ''Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān''. Edited by Hāshim Rasūlī & Yazdī Ṭabāṭabāyī. Third edition. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Nāṣir Khusru, 1372 Sh.
 
*Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. ''Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān''. Edited by Hāshim Rasūlī & Yazdī Ṭabāṭabāyī. Third edition. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Nāṣir Khusru, 1372 Sh.
 
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{{Mufassalat suras}}
 
{{Suras of Qur'an}}
 
{{Suras of Qur'an}}
 
{{The Qur'an}}
 
{{The Qur'an}}

Latest revision as of 12:11, 4 December 2019

This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Jinn; to read its text see text:Sura al-Jinn.
Sura al-Jinn
Noah← →al-Muzzammil
سوره جن.jpg
Sura Number 72
Juz' 29
Revelation
Revelation Number 40
Makki/Madani Makki
Information
Verse Count 28
Word Count 286
Letter Count 1109

Sūra al-Jinn (Arabic: سورة الجن) is the seventy second sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' twenty nine. Naming this sura "al-Jinn" is due to the existence of the word "al-Jinn" in the first verse of this sura and discussions about jinns in this sura. Sura al-Jinn mentions some superstitions people had about jinns, gives answers to them and suggests that invitation of the Prophet (s) to Islam included jinns as well as humans. Verse eighteen titled as "al-masajid li Allah" and also verses twenty six and twenty seven about the infallibility of the prophets (a) are among the famous verses of this sura.

About the merits and benefits of reciting this sura, it is mentioned that whoever recites Sura al-Jinn, God will give him rewards for freeing slaves equal to the number of all jinns and devils who accepted the Prophet (s) and rejected him.

Introduction

  • Naming

Naming this sura as "al-Jinn" is due to the existence of the word "al-Jinn" in the first verse of this sura and discussions about jinns in this sura.[1] In some hadiths, this sura is mentioned as "Qul awha" because it begins with this expression.[2] Jinns are considered mysterious creatures which have cognition, volition and obligations like humans; and due to their nature, they are hidden to humans' perceptions and are not perceptible to humans in normal conditions.[3] According to some verses and hadiths, jinns are created from fire or a mixture of fire and has obligations like humans and the same as humans, the goal of their creation is servitude of God. They will be resurrected in the hereafter and include obedient and disobedient, believer and disbeliever ones.[4]

  • Order and Place of Revelation

Sura al-Jinn is a Makki sura and was the fortieth sura revealed to the Prophet (s). In the current order of compilation, It is the seventy second sura of the Qur'an, located in juz' twenty nine.[5]

  • Number of Verses and Other Features

Sura al-Jinn has twenty eight verses, 286 words and 1109 and regarding volume, it is among Mufassalat suras which are relatively small suras. It is at the beginning of the third hizb of juz' twenty nine.[6] This sura is the first of five Maqulat suras which begin with "Qul" (Say). This sura is counted among Mumtahinat suras,[7] because it is related with the Qur'an 60 regarding content.[8]

Content

The first part of Sura al-Jinn is the story of a tribe of jinns who were astonished by the eloquence of the Qur'an after hearing its recitation, and then they admitted to its magnificence and guidance. They believed in the Prophet (s) and the hereafter and expressed their humility before the Qur'an.[9] In this sura, it is mentioned that there are two groups of believer and disbeliever jinns and also it is mentioned that like humans, some of them are righteous and some others make corruptions. Sura al-Jinn mentioned some superstitions among people and gave answers to them and notes this point that the invitation of the Prophet (s) included both humans and jinns.[10]

In another part of Sura al-Jinn, the Unity of God and the hereafter are mentioned and the last part of the sura speaks about the knowledge of the Unseen World, no one has the knowledge of except some of which God wills.[11]

Content of Sura al-Jinn[12]
 
 
Happiness of jinns and humans depends on believing in God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First speech: verses 1-15
Happiness of believer jinns
 
Second speech: verses 16-28
Invitation of polytheists to monotheism and following the Prophet (s)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First issue: verses 1-2
Believing of jinns in the Prophet (s)
 
First issue: verse 16-18
Reminding the benefits of faith
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second issue: verses 3-12
Repentance of believer jinns is among deviated beliefs
 
Second issue: verses 19-28
Polytheists' excuses for not believing in the Prophet (s):
The goal of the Prophet (s) is inviting to himself;
the power and number of us is more;
maybe the Prophet (s) has changed the words of God
 
 
 
Third issue: verse 13-15
Reward of believer jinns

Occasion of Revelation

Exegetes considered the story of a group of jinns listening to the recitation of the Prophet (s) which is mentioned in the Qur'an 46 (verses 29–32) as the occasion of revelation of this sura.[13] About the Sura al-Jinn, some other occasions of revelation are also mentioned:

  • In Tafsir al-Qummi, it is mentioned that the Prophet (s) went from Mecca to the market of Akkaz in Ta'if to invite people to Islam, but he (s) did not receive a positive answer. On his return, he (s) began reciting the Qur'an in a place known as Wadi l-Jinn and a group of jinns heard his voice and believed in him and returned to their people to invite them to Islam as well.[14]
  • It is transmitted from Ibn Abbas that the Prophet (s) was reciting the Qur'an in his fajr prayer and a group of jinns who were searching the cause of not receiving news from the skies, heard the Prophet's (s) recitation of the Qur'an and said, "The reason we do not receive news from the skies is this" and then, they returned to their people and invited them to Islam.[15]
  • Also, it is transmitted from Abd Allah b. Mas'ud that "one night, we did not find the Prophet (s) and became worried". After searching a lot, we found him coming from Hira' mountain. He (s) said, "An inviter from jinns came to me and I went to recite the Qur'an to them."[16]

Famous Verses

  • Verse eighteen

In Majma' al-bayan, al-Tabrisi transmitted from Khalil that in this verse, polytheism is prohibited contrary to polytheists who practice polytheism in the Ka'ba. Al-Tabrisi also interpreted "masajid" as "the parts of the body used in the prostration" transmitting from Sa'id b. Jubayr, Zujaj and Farra' and said that it is not correct to use them for prostrating for anyone other than God.[17]


  • Infallibility of the Prophets (a)

These verses mention a rule about the knowledge of the Unseen God does not give any of which He knows, then "the chosen Prophet (s)" is excluded from this rule.[18] Also, these verses are one of the arguments for the infallibility of the Prophets (s) who stay safe from slips and errors and the evils of devils among the jinns and humans, their temptations and whatever damages the authenticity of revelation through divine and unseen assistance and protection of the angels.[19]

Merits and Benefits

Main article: Merits of suras

About the merits of reciting this sura, it is transmitted from the Prophet (s) that God will give whoever recites Sura al-Jinn, rewards for freeing slaves equal to the number of all jinns who accepted the Prophet (s) and rejected him.[20] It is also transmitted from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that a person who frequently recites sura "Qul awha", will be safe from evil eyes, magic, tricks and harassment of jinns and will be with the Prophet (s).[21]

In some hadiths, for recitation of this sura, some benefits are mentioned such as meeting the Prophet (s) in dream,[22] increase of understanding and intelligence,[23] returning the debt[24] and going the jinns away.[25]

External Links

Notes

  1. Ṣafawī, "Sura al-Jinn", p. 717.
  2. Ibn ʿĀshūr, al-Taḥrīr wa l-tanwīr, vol. 29, p. 216.
  3. Kūshā, "Jinn", p. 595.
  4. Kūshā, "Jinn", p. 595.
  5. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1259.
  6. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1259.
  7. Rāmyār, Tārīkh-i Qurʾān, p. 360, 596.
  8. Farhangnāma-yi ʿulūm-I Qurʾān, vol. 1, p. 2612.
  9. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 97.
  10. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 1, p. 590.
  11. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 97.
  12. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  13. Suyūṭī, al-Durr al-manṣūr, vol. 6, p. 270.
  14. Qummī, Tafsīr al-Qummī, vol. 2, p. 299.
  15. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 101.
  16. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 554.
  17. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 560.
  18. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 140-141.
  19. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 20, p. 54.
  20. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 140.
  21. Ṣadūq, Thawāb al-aʿmāl, p. 120.
  22. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 53, p. 33.
  23. Kafʿamī, al-Miṣbāḥ, p. 459.
  24. Kafʿamī, al-Miṣbāḥ, p. 459.
  25. Baḥrānī, al-Burhān, vol. 5, p. 505.

References

  • Baḥrānī, Sayyid Hāshim b. Sulaymān. Al-Burhān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Qom: Bunyād-i Biʿthat, 1416 AH.
  • Group of authors. Farhangnāma-yi ʿulūm-I Qurʾān. Qom: Daftar-i Tablīghāt, [n.d].
  • Ibn ʿĀshūr, Muḥammad Ṭāhir. Al-Taḥrīr wa l-tanwīr. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Tārīkh al-ʿArabī, 1420 AH.
  • Kafʿamī, Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Miṣbāḥ. Qom: Muḥibbīn, 1423 AH.
  • Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
  • Kūshā, Muḥammad ʿAlī. 1396 Sh. "Jinn." Dānishnāma-yi Muʿāṣir-i Qurʾān.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Wafāʾ, 1403 AH.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1371 Sh.
  • Qummī, ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm al-. Tafsīr al-Qummī. Edited by Mūsawī Jazāʾirī. Third edition. Qom: Dār al-Kitab, 1404 AH.
  • Rāmyār, Maḥmūd. Tārīkh-i Qurʾān. Tehran: Intishārāt-i ʿIlmī wa Farhangī, 1362 Sh.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Thawāb al-aʿmāl wa ʿiqāb al-aʿmāl. Edited by Ṣādiq Ḥasanzāda. Tehran: Armaghān-i Ṭūbā, 1382 Sh.
  • Ṣafawī, Salmān. 1396. "Sura al-Jinn." Dānishnāma-yi Muʿāṣir-i Qurʾān.
  • Suyūṭī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Bakr al-. Al-Durr al-manthūr fī tafsīr al-maʾthūr. Qom: Kitābkhāna-yi Āyatollāh Marʿashī al-Najafī, 1404 AH.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī, Mūhammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Second edition. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1974.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Edited by Hāshim Rasūlī & Yazdī Ṭabāṭabāyī. Third edition. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Nāṣir Khusru, 1372 Sh.