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Difference between revisions of "Tabaristan"

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==Naming==
 
==Naming==
According to some historians, the early inhabitants of Tabaristan were called Tāpūr or Tapūr; so the region was called Tapūristan (the land of Tapurs), which gradually changed to Tabaristan. Others believe that in the local language Tabar means mountain and Tabaristan means the land of mountains. Some other historians have written that due to the dense forest and wildlife using tabar (axe) was common among the inhabitants; so this area was called Tabaristan.
+
According to some historians, the early inhabitants of Tabaristan were called Tāpūr or Tapūr; so the region was called Tapūristan (the land of Tapurs), which gradually changed to Tabaristan. Others believe that in the local language Tabar means mountain and Tabaristan means the land of mountains. Some other historians have written that due to the dense forest and wildlife using tabar (axe) was common among the inhabitants; so this area was called Tabaristan.<ref>[http://af.samta.ir/atlas/index.php?title=پیشینه_تاریخی_استان_مازندران Historical background of Mazandaran (Persian)]</ref>
  
 
==Geographical Features==
 
==Geographical Features==
 
===Boundaries===
 
===Boundaries===
Tabaristan is a part of the land located between the Alborz mountains and the Caspian Sea. It would cover all the province of Mazandaran, parts of the province of Golestan, north and east of the province of Tehran and north of the province of Semnan.
+
Tabaristan is a part of the land located between the Alborz mountains and the Caspian Sea. It would cover all the province of Mazandaran, parts of the province of Golestan, north and east of the province of Tehran and north of the province of Semnan.<ref>[http://www.bonyadtabari.ir/انجمن-تحقیق-و-پژوهش/83-مازندران-یا-تبرستان-یا-تپورستان-یا-تپوران.html Mazandaran or Tabaristan or Tapuristan or Tapuran (Persian)]</ref>
  
 
===Natural Barriers===
 
===Natural Barriers===
Impassable mountains, numerous rivers, dense forests and countless swamps are counted as the most considerable natural barriers for this land. In addition, there were only two routes connecting Tabaristan to other regions: from [[Amol]] to Gorgan and from Amol to [[Ray]]. Due to the mountains, it was very difficult for merchant caravans and military troops to pass these routes. These natural barriers protected the inhabitants of Tabaristan against various attacks by the great governments in [[Iraq]] and [[Syria]].
+
Impassable mountains, numerous rivers, dense forests and countless swamps are counted as the most considerable natural barriers for this land. In addition, there were only two routes connecting Tabaristan to other regions: from [[Amol]] to Gorgan and from Amol to [[Ray]]. Due to the mountains, it was very difficult for merchant caravans and military troops to pass these routes.<ref>Shūrmīj, ''ʿIlal-i wurūd-i ʿalawīyān bi Ṭabaristān tā tashkīl-i dawlat-i ʿalawī'', p. 65.</ref> These natural barriers protected the inhabitants of Tabaristan against various attacks by the great governments in [[Iraq]] and [[Syria]].<ref>Shūrmīj, ''ʿIlal-i wurūd-i ʿalawīyān bi Ṭabaristān tā tashkīl-i dawlat-i ʿalawī'', p. 67.</ref>
  
 
==Islam in Tabaristan==
 
==Islam in Tabaristan==
 
===Resistance against Muslims===
 
===Resistance against Muslims===
Years after the Muslim conquest of [[Iran]], Tabaristan was still an independent region, which no Muslim army could conquer completely. Even during the times that Muslim armies defeated the Tabaristan army and take control of the region, the local rulers would stay in charge and just pay taxes to the central government.
+
Years after the Muslim conquest of [[Iran]], Tabaristan was still an independent region, which no Muslim army could conquer completely. Even during the times that Muslim armies defeated the Tabaristan army and take control of the region, the local rulers would stay in charge and just pay taxes to the central government.<ref>[http://af.samta.ir/atlas/index.php?title=پیشینه_مذهبی_استان_مازندران Religious background of Mazadaran (Persian)]</ref>
  
* [[29]]/649-650: A Muslim army commanded by Nu'aym b. Muqrin aiming to conquer Tabaristan, defeated the Iranian army in Vajird, a region between [[Hamadan]] and [[Qazvin]]. Although Mutha the commander of Dailamites was killed, Muslims could not conquer Tabaristan.
+
* '''[[29]]/649-650:''' A Muslim army commanded by Nu'aym b. Muqrin aiming to conquer Tabaristan, defeated the Iranian army in Vajird, a region between [[Hamadan]] and [[Qazvin]]. Although Mutha the commander of Dailamites was killed,<ref>''Lughatnāma-yi Dehkhudā'', vol. 15.</ref> Muslims could not conquer Tabaristan.
* [[30]]/650-651: During the [[caliphate]] of [['Uthman]], Sa'id b. al-'As was the governor of [[Kufa]]. He attacked Tabaristan from the east of the Caspian Sea and conquered Tamshiya located in the easternmost Gorgan. However, after the death of 'Uthman this region became independent again.
 
* [[48]]/668: During the reign of [[Mu'awiya]] in Syria, Masqalat b. Habirat al-Shaybani claimed that he can add Tabaristan to the Muslim territory by a four-thousand army. He started the battle with Tabaristan army in 48/668. Although he scored some victories, he was eventually defeated and all his army were killed in 50/670.
 
* [[98]]/716-717: During the reign of Sulayman b. 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan, Yazid b. al-Muhallab attacked Tabaristan with an army of nearly 100 thousand consisting of Arab Muslims, Turks of Transoxiana and new Muslims of [[Khorasan]]. But because of unfamiliarity with the region they were defeated; so he did not have any choice but to reconcile with the chief commander of Tabaristan. However, on his way back, he plundered Gorgan and massacred its people: beheading 40 thousand and hanging four thousand.
 
* [[167]]/783-784: After three decades of [[Abbasid]] reign over Tabaristan, Vandad Hurmuz from Sukhra tribe led the rebellion against Abbasid rulers and killed many Arabs and even new Muslims of Tabaristan. After Vandad's rise to power, the efforts of the Abbasid Caliph for retaking Tabaristan failed, until 'Umar b. 'Ala retook it in the fifth attack.
 
* [[224]]/838-839: Maziyar - whom [[al-Ma'mun]], the Abbasid Caliph, had converted to Islam - was the governor of Tabaristan. In 224/838-839, he revolted against the Caliph and a lot of people accompanied him. After that he came to power and claimed independence, he acted tyrannically, dismissed Muslim governors from all over Tabaristan and appointed Zoroastrian governors instead and destroyed mosques and Muslim's holy places. The Muslims of Tabaristan wrote a letter to the Caliph and Maziyar was captured and hanged in 225/839-40. Muslims again became rulers of Tabaristan. During these years all regions in Iran were trying to gain independence; Tahirid, Saffarid and [[Buyid]] had emerged, likewise, people of Tabaristan sought independence.
 
  
After nearly two centuries of ruling Caliphs from Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties, Islam could not penetrate very much in Tabaristan and Zoroastrian rulers were powerful enough to retake that region for several times from Abbasid government.
+
* '''[[30]]/650-651:''' During the [[caliphate]] of [['Uthman]], Sa'id b. al-'As was the governor of [[Kufa]]. He attacked Tabaristan from the east of the Caspian Sea and conquered Tamshiya located in the easternmost Gorgan. However, after the death of 'Uthman this region became independent again.<ref>[http://af.samta.ir/atlas/index.php?title=پیشینه_تاریخی_استان_مازندران Historical background of Mazandaran (Persian)]</ref>
 +
 
 +
* '''[[48]]/668:''' During the reign of [[Mu'awiya]] in Syria, Masqalat b. Habirat al-Shaybani claimed that he can add Tabaristan to the Muslim territory by a four-thousand army. He started the battle with Tabaristan army in 48/668. Although he scored some victories, he was eventually defeated and all his army were killed in 50/670.<ref>[http://af.samta.ir/atlas/index.php?title=پیشینه_مذهبی_استان_مازندران Religious background of Mazandaran (Persian)]</ref>.<ref>[http://af.samta.ir/atlas/index.php?title=پیشینه_مذهبی_استان_مازندران Religious background of Mazandaran (Persian)]</ref>
 +
 
 +
* '''[[98]]/716-717:''' During the reign of Sulayman b. 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan, Yazid b. al-Muhallab attacked Tabaristan with an army of nearly 100 thousand consisting of Arab Muslims, Turks of Transoxiana and new Muslims of [[Khorasan]]. But because of unfamiliarity with the region they were defeated; so he did not have any choice but to reconcile with the chief commander of Tabaristan. However, on his way back, he plundered Gorgan and massacred its people: beheading 40 thousand and hanging four thousand.<ref>[http://af.samta.ir/atlas/index.php?title=پیشینه_مذهبی_استان_مازندران Religious background fo Mazandaran (Persian)]</ref>
 +
 
 +
* '''[[167]]/783-784:''' After three decades of [[Abbasid]] reign over Tabaristan, Vandad Hurmuz from Sukhra tribe led the rebellion against Abbasid rulers and killed many Arabs and even new Muslims of Tabaristan. After Vandad's rise to power, the efforts of the Abbasid Caliph for retaking Tabaristan failed, until 'Umar b. 'Ala retook it in the fifth attack.<ref>[http://af.samta.ir/atlas/index.php?title=پیشینه_مذهبی_استان_مازندران Religious background fo Mazandaran (Persian)]</ref>
 +
 
 +
* '''[[224]]/838-839:''' Maziyar - whom [[al-Ma'mun]], the Abbasid Caliph, had converted to Islam - was the governor of Tabaristan. In 224/838-839, he revolted against the Caliph and a lot of people accompanied him. After that he came to power and claimed independence, he acted tyrannically, dismissed Muslim governors from all over Tabaristan and appointed Zoroastrian governors instead and destroyed mosques and Muslim's holy places. The Muslims of Tabaristan wrote a letter to the Caliph and Maziyar was captured and hanged in 225/839-40. Muslims again became rulers of Tabaristan. During these years all regions in Iran were trying to gain independence; Tahirid, Saffarid and [[Buyid]] had emerged, likewise, people of Tabaristan sought independence.<ref>[http://af.samta.ir/atlas/index.php?title=پیشینه_مذهبی_استان_مازندران Religious background fo Mazandaran (Persian)]</ref>
 +
 
 +
After nearly two centuries of ruling Caliphs from Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties, Islam could not penetrate very much in Tabaristan and Zoroastrian rulers were powerful enough to retake that region for several times from Abbasid government.<ref>[http://af.samta.ir/atlas/index.php?title=پیشینه_مذهبی_استان_مازندران Religious background fo Mazandaran (Persian)]</ref>.<ref>[http://af.samta.ir/atlas/index.php?title=پیشینه_مذهبی_استان_مازندران Religious background fo Mazandaran (Persian)]</ref>
  
 
===Formation of Alawi Government and Embracing Islam===
 
===Formation of Alawi Government and Embracing Islam===
* In [[170]]/786-787, Yahya b. 'Abd Allah, a descendant of [[Imam al-Hasan (a)]], fled to Tabaristan from [[Harun al-Rashid]], the Abbasid Caliph. He was one of the first Alawis (Shi'a) who emigrated to Tabaristan and was called Yahya al-Daylami. In 175/791-792, he revolted against Harun al-Rashid and was accompanied by a lot of people. His uprising and unity of Alawis and people of Tabaristan, forced the Abbasid Caliph to send al-Fadl b. Yahya al-Barmaki to grant Yahya b. 'Abd Allah a safe conduct (immunity from arrest or harm when passing through an area) and bring him to the Caliph. Yahya b. 'Abd Allah accepted that; however, after a while, he was killed in Harun al-Rashid's prison. It was after this incident that many Alawis emigrated to northern region of [[Iran]] and especially Tabaristan.
+
* In [[170]]/786-787, Yahya b. 'Abd Allah, a descendant of [[Imam al-Hasan (a)]], fled to Tabaristan from [[Harun al-Rashid]], the Abbasid Caliph. He was one of the first Alawis (Shi'a) who emigrated to Tabaristan and was called Yahya al-Daylami. In 175/791-792, he revolted against Harun al-Rashid and was accompanied by a lot of people. His uprising and unity of Alawis and people of Tabaristan, forced the Abbasid Caliph to send al-Fadl b. Yahya al-Barmaki to grant Yahya b. 'Abd Allah a safe conduct (immunity from arrest or harm when passing through an area) and bring him to the Caliph. Yahya b. 'Abd Allah accepted that; however, after a while, he was killed in Harun al-Rashid's prison. It was after this incident that many Alawis emigrated to northern region of [[Iran]] and especially Tabaristan.<ref>[http://af.samta.ir/atlas/index.php?title=پیشینه_مذهبی_استان_مازندران Religious background fo Mazandaran (Persian)]</ref>.<ref>[http://af.samta.ir/atlas/index.php?title=پیشینه_مذهبی_استان_مازندران Religious background fo Mazandaran (Persian)]</ref>
* In [[250]]/864-865, invited by the people of Tabaristan, al-Hasan b. Zayd, famously known as [[al-Da'i l-Kabir]], went to Tabaristan from Ray to lead their uprising against Abbasid and Tahirid. Al-Da'i l-Kabir raised to power in Tabaristan and invited people to Shi'a Islam. In 252/866, al-Hasan b. Zayd gave the order of saying "Hayy 'ala khayr al-'amal" in [[Adhan]] and pronouncing "Bism Allah al-Rahman al-Rahim" loudly in daily prayers. But, his reign only lasted until 260/873-874, when Ya'qub b. al-Layth al-Saffar attacked Tabaristan. Nevertheless, al-Hasan b. Zayd returned to power again three years later in the month of Safar 263/876 and passed away in 270/883-884. His brother, Muhammad b. Zayd succeeded him. The time of Alawis' (Tabaristan) reign was the period of general tendency towards Islam and Shi'a in Tabaristan.
+
 
 +
* In [[250]]/864-865, invited by the people of Tabaristan, al-Hasan b. Zayd, famously known as [[al-Da'i l-Kabir]], went to Tabaristan from Ray to lead their uprising against Abbasid and Tahirid. Al-Da'i l-Kabir raised to power in Tabaristan and invited people to Shi'a Islam. In 252/866, al-Hasan b. Zayd gave the order of saying "Hayy 'ala khayr al-'amal" in [[Adhan]] and pronouncing "Bism Allah al-Rahman al-Rahim" loudly in daily prayers. But, his reign only lasted until 260/873-874, when Ya'qub b. al-Layth al-Saffar attacked Tabaristan. Nevertheless, al-Hasan b. Zayd returned to power again three years later in the month of Safar 263/876 and passed away in 270/883-884. His brother, Muhammad b. Zayd succeeded him. The time of Alawis' (Tabaristan) reign was the period of general tendency towards Islam and Shi'a in Tabaristan.<ref>[http://af.samta.ir/atlas/index.php?title=پیشینه_مذهبی_استان_مازندران Religious background fo Mazandaran (Persian)]</ref>.<ref>[http://af.samta.ir/atlas/index.php?title=پیشینه_مذهبی_استان_مازندران Religious background fo Mazandaran (Persian)]</ref>
  
== References ==
+
==Notes==
 +
{{notes}}
 +
==References ==
 
{{references}}
 
{{references}}
* The material for this article is mainly taken from {{ia|[[:fa:طبرستان|طبرستان]]}} in Farsi WikiShia.
+
* Shūrmīj, Muḥammad. ''ʿIlal-i wurūd-i ʿalawīyān bi Ṭabaristān tā tashkīl-i dawlat-i ʿalawī''. Tārīkh-i Islām dar Aʾyīna-yi Pazhūhish, No 17. Spring 1387.  
 
{{end}}
 
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Latest revision as of 13:15, 1 August 2020

In this map, Tabaristan is singled out in navy blue.

Ṭabaristān (Persian: طبرستان) is the former name of the region between Alborz mountains and Caspian sea. Many Islamic scholars belonged to this region and were known by the surname al-Tabari, including Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari and Muhammad b. Jarir b. Rustam al-Tabari.

Natural features and being away from the center of Abbasid Caliphate, made Tabaristan one of the best sanctuaries for 'Alawis and the seat of their government. The first Iranian Shi'a government was founded in this region. After the Mongol invasion, it was gradually called Mazandaran.

Naming

According to some historians, the early inhabitants of Tabaristan were called Tāpūr or Tapūr; so the region was called Tapūristan (the land of Tapurs), which gradually changed to Tabaristan. Others believe that in the local language Tabar means mountain and Tabaristan means the land of mountains. Some other historians have written that due to the dense forest and wildlife using tabar (axe) was common among the inhabitants; so this area was called Tabaristan.[1]

Geographical Features

Boundaries

Tabaristan is a part of the land located between the Alborz mountains and the Caspian Sea. It would cover all the province of Mazandaran, parts of the province of Golestan, north and east of the province of Tehran and north of the province of Semnan.[2]

Natural Barriers

Impassable mountains, numerous rivers, dense forests and countless swamps are counted as the most considerable natural barriers for this land. In addition, there were only two routes connecting Tabaristan to other regions: from Amol to Gorgan and from Amol to Ray. Due to the mountains, it was very difficult for merchant caravans and military troops to pass these routes.[3] These natural barriers protected the inhabitants of Tabaristan against various attacks by the great governments in Iraq and Syria.[4]

Islam in Tabaristan

Resistance against Muslims

Years after the Muslim conquest of Iran, Tabaristan was still an independent region, which no Muslim army could conquer completely. Even during the times that Muslim armies defeated the Tabaristan army and take control of the region, the local rulers would stay in charge and just pay taxes to the central government.[5]

  • 29/649-650: A Muslim army commanded by Nu'aym b. Muqrin aiming to conquer Tabaristan, defeated the Iranian army in Vajird, a region between Hamadan and Qazvin. Although Mutha the commander of Dailamites was killed,[6] Muslims could not conquer Tabaristan.
  • 30/650-651: During the caliphate of 'Uthman, Sa'id b. al-'As was the governor of Kufa. He attacked Tabaristan from the east of the Caspian Sea and conquered Tamshiya located in the easternmost Gorgan. However, after the death of 'Uthman this region became independent again.[7]
  • 48/668: During the reign of Mu'awiya in Syria, Masqalat b. Habirat al-Shaybani claimed that he can add Tabaristan to the Muslim territory by a four-thousand army. He started the battle with Tabaristan army in 48/668. Although he scored some victories, he was eventually defeated and all his army were killed in 50/670.[8].[9]
  • 98/716-717: During the reign of Sulayman b. 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan, Yazid b. al-Muhallab attacked Tabaristan with an army of nearly 100 thousand consisting of Arab Muslims, Turks of Transoxiana and new Muslims of Khorasan. But because of unfamiliarity with the region they were defeated; so he did not have any choice but to reconcile with the chief commander of Tabaristan. However, on his way back, he plundered Gorgan and massacred its people: beheading 40 thousand and hanging four thousand.[10]
  • 167/783-784: After three decades of Abbasid reign over Tabaristan, Vandad Hurmuz from Sukhra tribe led the rebellion against Abbasid rulers and killed many Arabs and even new Muslims of Tabaristan. After Vandad's rise to power, the efforts of the Abbasid Caliph for retaking Tabaristan failed, until 'Umar b. 'Ala retook it in the fifth attack.[11]
  • 224/838-839: Maziyar - whom al-Ma'mun, the Abbasid Caliph, had converted to Islam - was the governor of Tabaristan. In 224/838-839, he revolted against the Caliph and a lot of people accompanied him. After that he came to power and claimed independence, he acted tyrannically, dismissed Muslim governors from all over Tabaristan and appointed Zoroastrian governors instead and destroyed mosques and Muslim's holy places. The Muslims of Tabaristan wrote a letter to the Caliph and Maziyar was captured and hanged in 225/839-40. Muslims again became rulers of Tabaristan. During these years all regions in Iran were trying to gain independence; Tahirid, Saffarid and Buyid had emerged, likewise, people of Tabaristan sought independence.[12]

After nearly two centuries of ruling Caliphs from Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties, Islam could not penetrate very much in Tabaristan and Zoroastrian rulers were powerful enough to retake that region for several times from Abbasid government.[13].[14]

Formation of Alawi Government and Embracing Islam

  • In 170/786-787, Yahya b. 'Abd Allah, a descendant of Imam al-Hasan (a), fled to Tabaristan from Harun al-Rashid, the Abbasid Caliph. He was one of the first Alawis (Shi'a) who emigrated to Tabaristan and was called Yahya al-Daylami. In 175/791-792, he revolted against Harun al-Rashid and was accompanied by a lot of people. His uprising and unity of Alawis and people of Tabaristan, forced the Abbasid Caliph to send al-Fadl b. Yahya al-Barmaki to grant Yahya b. 'Abd Allah a safe conduct (immunity from arrest or harm when passing through an area) and bring him to the Caliph. Yahya b. 'Abd Allah accepted that; however, after a while, he was killed in Harun al-Rashid's prison. It was after this incident that many Alawis emigrated to northern region of Iran and especially Tabaristan.[15].[16]
  • In 250/864-865, invited by the people of Tabaristan, al-Hasan b. Zayd, famously known as al-Da'i l-Kabir, went to Tabaristan from Ray to lead their uprising against Abbasid and Tahirid. Al-Da'i l-Kabir raised to power in Tabaristan and invited people to Shi'a Islam. In 252/866, al-Hasan b. Zayd gave the order of saying "Hayy 'ala khayr al-'amal" in Adhan and pronouncing "Bism Allah al-Rahman al-Rahim" loudly in daily prayers. But, his reign only lasted until 260/873-874, when Ya'qub b. al-Layth al-Saffar attacked Tabaristan. Nevertheless, al-Hasan b. Zayd returned to power again three years later in the month of Safar 263/876 and passed away in 270/883-884. His brother, Muhammad b. Zayd succeeded him. The time of Alawis' (Tabaristan) reign was the period of general tendency towards Islam and Shi'a in Tabaristan.[17].[18]

Notes

References

  • Shūrmīj, Muḥammad. ʿIlal-i wurūd-i ʿalawīyān bi Ṭabaristān tā tashkīl-i dawlat-i ʿalawī. Tārīkh-i Islām dar Aʾyīna-yi Pazhūhish, No 17. Spring 1387.