'Abd al-Jalil al-Qazwini al-Razi
|Full Name||'Abd al-Jalil b. Abi l-Husayn b. Abi l-Fadl al-Qazwini al-Razi|
|Religious Affiliation||Twelver Shi'a|
|Birth||Late 5th/11th Century|
|Students||Muntajab al-Din al-Razi|
|Works||al-Naqd, Al-Barahin fi Imama Amir al-Mu'minin (a) etc.|
|He tried to respond to anti-Shi'a material in some books authored by Sunni scholars.|
ʿAbd al-Jalīl b. Abī l-Ḥusayn b. Abī l-Faḍl al-Qazwīnī al-Rāzī (Arabic: عبدالجلیل بن ابی الحسین بن ابی الفضل القزوینی الرازی) (b. late 5th/11th century) was a scholar in jurisprudence and theology from Rey in the 6th/12th century. His most important work is al-Naqd which has been considered important both regarding content (as Shi'a beliefs) and the text (Persian prose). Muntajab al-Din al-Razi was among his students.
Birth and Demise
'Abd al-Jalil was son of Abu l-Husayn b. Abu al-Fadl al-Qazwini. The exact date and place of his birth is not known, but there are evidences showing that he was born toward the end of the 5th/11th century. Regarding his writing of the famous book Tanzih Aisha in 533/1138-39, al-Barahin fi Imama Amir al-Mu'min (a) in 537/1142-43 and also his mentioning in al-Naqd that in 550/1155-56, he had a session of giving speech in his grand school, adds up to this possibility that he was a middle-aged person in these years and well-known in Rey and thus time of his birth can be estimated around the end of 5th/11th century. 'Abd al-Jalil was originally from Qazvin, but due to living in Rey and being among the Shi'a scholars of that city, he was also called 'Abd al-Jalil al-Razi.
The common stress of biographers speaking about the life 'Abd al-Jalil al-Razi is his writing of al-Naqd and have ignored about recording the exact date of his birth, death and other issues in his life.
There cannot be much found about the beginning of his education and also his teachers in references of biographies. Perhaps, he began his education from Qazvin and after moving to Rey, he completed his education there. In al-Naqd, he has mentioned about his studying under Awhad al-Din al-Qazwini (elder brother of 'Abd al-Jalil) and Abu Mansur al-Muzaffar al-'Ibadi. However, there are evidences suggesting that he also acquired knowledge from other scholars of that time such as Abu l-Wafa' 'Abd al-Jabbar Razi, Shaykh Mu'in al-Din Amir Ka'ijli, etc.
Most biographers have mentioned him as "al-Wa'iz" ["speaker"] and in his life, have stressed on his eloquence in making speeches.
In the accounts of biographers, if a person is introduced as "Wa'iz", it would mean that he must have all the requirements including clarity, eloquence, logic, etc. for making speech and also pointing to the perfection of the person in the subject [i.e. making speech].
Many great personalities such as al-'Allama al-Majlisi, al-Shaykh Hurr al-'Amili in Amal al-Amil, Muhammad Baqir Khwansari in Rawdat al-Jannat, Shaykh 'Abd Allah Afandi Isfahani in Riyad al-'ulama, Shaykh 'Abd Allah Mamaqani in Tanqih al-maqal, Shaykh 'Abbas Qummi in Al-Fawa'id al-Radawiyya, etc. have described 'Abd al-Jalil as an eloquent speaker. Of course, they based their descriptions on Muntajab al-Din al-Razi's al-Fihrist and have often repeated his comments and have mentioned their own personal comments after quoting from al-Fihrist.
At the time of 'Abd al-Jalil, because of the Sunni power and government, most intra-faith conflicts led to problems for Shi'a. The struggles of 'Abd al-Jalil as one of the famous scholars of Rey was mostly directed toward the mentioned issue. Some of his writings show his efforts toward this issue.
In Rey, 'Abd al-Jalil was very much respected by Sunnis, so that some of his writings were referred to by Sunni scholars and copied by them and even wrote comments on them. About the faith of 'Umar, 'Abd al-Jalil has written some points which may be considered a moderation of the atmosphere between Shi'as and Sunnis.
'Abd al-Jalil himself has also implicitly mentioned about his fame in Rey.
There cannot be a definitive view about the number of his students but it seems that the following ones were among his students:
- Muntajab al-Din b. Babawayh
- Sayyid Wathiq Billah b. Ahmad Jibilli, the Zaydi scholar was converted by Shaykh 'Abd al-Jalil.
'Abd al-Jalil al-Qazwini was among experts in writing and some works which are mostly in theology have been attributed to him. His writings include:
- Main article: Al-Naqd
The most important and most lasting role al-Qazwini has had in Shi'a history was writing a book to answer slanders and writings void of politeness, ethics and faith by a prejudiced Nasibi. Al-Qazwini wrote al-Naqd to reject Ba'd fara'id al-rawafid written by a Sunni writer living in Rey in Muharram 555 /February 1160 and apparently 'Abd al-Jalil was writing his book until 559/1162.
- Al-Barahin fi Imama Amir al-Mu'minin (a): he wrote this book in 537/1142-43 which contains the reasons for Imamate of Imam Ali (a).
- Al-Su'alat wa al-jawabat (in 7 vols.) is a collection of questions which he has answered in written forms.
- Miftah al-raha fi funun al-hikayat (Miftah al-tadhkir). In this book, he has explained about Shi'a beliefs regarding the ascetics, worshipers and commentators.
- Tanzih Aisha which is about removing the attribute of adultery of Aisha and other wives of the Prophet (s) and proving their chastity.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from عبدالجلیل قزوینی رازی in Farsi WikiShia.