'Uddat al-da'i wa najah al-sa'i (book)
|'Uddat al-da'i wa najah al-sa'i|
|Author||Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Fahd al-Hilli|
|Original title||عُدّةُ الدّاعی و نَجاحُ السّاعی|
ʿUddat al-dāʿī wa najāḥ al-sāʿī (Arabic: عُدّةُ الدّاعی و نَجاحُ السّاعی) is a book concerning supplications and ethics written by Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Fahd al-Hilli (d. 841/1437). The book is Ibn Fahd al-Hilli's best known book, and a significant book on the subject of supplications. It was frequently published with different Persian translations. The author dealt with issues such as the definition of a supplication, motivations for reciting supplications, the manners of reciting supplications, and the like under 6 parts. In each part, the author collected relevant hadiths regarding the topic. Ibn Fahd himself summarized the book.
- Main article: Ibn Fahd al-Hilli
Abu l-'Abbas Jamal al-Din Ahmad b. Shams al-Din Muhammad b. Fahd al-Hilli al-Asadi (757-841/1356-1437) was an Imami scholar of fiqh (jurisprudence) and hadiths. He is mostly known for his work on ethics, supplications and mysticism. He died in Karbala and was buried in the garden of Naqib al-'Alawiyyin.
Appellation of the Book
In the preface of the book, the author said that since supplications are means for salvation and keys to divine generosity and there are factors required for a supplication to be answered by God, he wrote the book and called it "'Uddat al-da'i wa najah al-sa'i" (preparation of the reciter of supplications and the salvation of the diligent person).
Ibn Fahd divided parts of the book as follows:
- Preface: in this part, he gave a definition of a supplication (al-du'a') and its literal and terminological meanings. He focused on hadiths according to which if someone hears a hadith to the effect that some action is recommended and performs that action, then they will be rewarded by God, even if the Prophet Muhammad (s) had not really said that.
- The first part: it is concerned with motivations for reciting supplications both rational and transmitted from the Infallibles (a). Ibn Fahd first gave a rational reason for reciting supplications, and then cited hadiths from the Prophet (s) and the Imams (a). He also appealed to verses of the Quran. He also dealt with objections that might occur to mind, and provided replies to them.
- The second part: it is concerned with factors that help supplications be responded by God. In this section, he mentioned 7 essential factors, including the supplication itself, its time, its place, and the like. He cited the relevant hadiths regarding any of these factors.
- The third part: it is concerned with the person who recites a supplication. It has two sections: the first one is concerned with people whose supplications are heard and responded by God, and the second is concerned with people whose supplications are not responded by God. He also cited the relevant hadiths regarding both.
- The fourth part: it is concerned with the manners of supplications, including preparations for supplications, such as tahara (cleanliness), wearing a perfume or an odor, being directed at the qibla and the like; the manners during the supplications, such as repetition, secret supplications, reciting supplications as a group, and the like; the manners after supplications, such as insistence on supplications, rubbing one's hands on one's face and reciting the salawat, quitting sins after the supplications and the like. In the epilogue of this part, he talked about duplicity (riya') and pride ('ujb) citing hadiths from the Infallibles (a) in which the notions and their dangerous consequences and cures are delineated.
- The fifth part is concerned with dhikr (mentioning God). Ibn Fahd pointed out that dhikr is recommended any time. He mentioned some dhikrs such as tahmid, tahlil, takbir and al-tasbihat al-arba'a.
- The sixth part is concerned with reciting the Qur'an. Ibn Fahd talked about having a copy of the Qur'an in one's house and reciting it before going to sleep, healing by appeal to the Qur'an and the like. At the end of this section, he mentioned some advantages of Qur'anic verses and chapters.
- The epilogue: it is concerned with Divine Names. It cites a hadith from the Prophet (s) and then gives short descripts of 99 names of God. At the end, the author talked about the plurality of divine names and divine unity, and a way to reconcile both views.
Researches about the Book
The author himself later summarized the book under "Nubdhat al-baghi fi ma la budda minh min adab al-da'i" to be referred to by people who needed a shorter version of the book.
The book, "'Uddat al-da'i" has been repeatedly translated into Persian.
- A lithographic print in 1274/1857 in Iran.
- It was edited by Ahmad Muwahhidi Qumi and published by the Wijdani Library in Qom.
- It was edited and published by Mu'assisa Ma'arif Islami in 1420 AH (1999) in Qom.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from عدة الداعی و نجاح الساعی (کتاب) in Farsi Wikishia.