Abu Dhar al-Ghifari
|Abu Dhar al-Ghifari|
The remains of Mosque of Abi Dhar in al-Rabadha which is said that his grave is there
|Full Name||Jundub b. Junada b. Sufyan al-Ghifari|
|Birth||33 years before Hijra/590-1|
|Place(s) of Residence||Medina, Syria, al-Rabadha|
|Known for||One of the group named "four pillars of Islam"|
|Notable Roles||Companion of Imam 'Ali (a)|
|Other Activities||Protesting against caliphs specially in the Event of Saqifa, prohibition of narrating/writing hadiths and ...|
Jundub b. Junāda b. Sufyān al-Ghifārī (Arabic: جُندُب بن جُناده بن سفیان الغِفاري) (b. 33 BH/590-1 - d. 32/652-3) known as Abū Dhar al-Ghifārī (أبوذر الغفاري) was one of the greatest companions of Prophet Muhammad (s) and a companion of Imam 'Ali (a); he was also one of those who were known as the four pillars. He was a true companion of Prophet Muhammad (s) and Ahl al-Bayt (a). Numerous virtues and excellences have been narrated for him by both Sunni and Shi'a. Scholars of rijal have considered him as one the four pillars [among the companions]. Abu Dhar complained criticized actions of 'Uthman, the thirds Caliph, and as a result, he was exiled to Syria and then to al-Rabadha where he passed away.
Birth, Lineage, and Characteristics
Abu Dhar was born twenty years before the emergence of Islam, in Banu Ghifar, a famous and noble tribe among Arab. His father, Junada, was the son of Ghifar and his mother, Ramla bt. al-Waqi'a, was from Banu Ghifar b. Malil. Historians have debates on his father's name; they mentioned Yazid, Jundub, Ishraqa, 'Abd Allah and Sakan.
As Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani has stated: Abu Dhar was a tall, thin man with tanned skin. Ibn Sa'd described him as a tall man with white hair and beard. Al-Dhahabi also described him as a bulky man with full beard.
Names and Titles
His name was Abu Dhar because of his child's name, Dhar. However his real name is not certain and it is mentioned differently in history books: Badr b. Jundub, Barir b. 'Abd Allah, Barir b. Junada, Barir b. Ishraqa, Jundub b. 'Abd Allah, Jundub b. Sakan and Yazid b. Junada. It seems Jundub b. Yazid is his real and famous name.
Wife and Child
Conversion to Islam
Abu Dhar was among the first people who converted to Islam. According to some narrations he was a monotheist before the emergence of Islam, he worshiped God three years before Bi'tha. Ibn Habib al-Baghdadi maintains that Abu Dhar considered drinking alcohol and azlam (gambling) unlawful in Jahiliyya era. After the emergence of Islam, he was among the first people who came to Prophet Muhammad (s) and converted to Islam. According to a narration, Abu Dhar said: "I was the forth one who went to Muhammad (s) and converted to Islam, which made him delighted."
As Ibn al-'Abbas said: "When Abu Dhar became aware of Prophet Muhammad's Prophethood in Mecca, he told his brother, Anis: Inform me about the knowledge of the man who thinks, he receives massages from the sky; listen to him and bring me the news." After visiting Prophet Muhammad (s) Anis returned to his brother. Then Abu Dhar himself went to Mecca to find Muhammad (s). Abu Dhar alongside 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) visited Muhammad (s) in his house. Abu Dhar was the first one who said to Prophet: "Salam upon you, O Messenger of Allah". Then Abu Dhar converted to Islam after articulating Shahadatayn (Islamic creed declaring belief in the oneness of God and acceptance of Muhammad (s) as God's messenger).
Shi'a sources reported a different story on Abu Dhar's conversion to Islam. Al-Kulayni reported a narration from Imam al-Sadiq (a), in which the story of Abu Dhar's conversion to Islam is mentioned alongside an extraordinary event.
Prophet Muhammad (s) said to Abu Dhar: "Well done Abu Dhar, you are a member of Ahl al-Bayt (a)". Elsewhere he said to the effect that Abu Dhar is the most honest person among all people. In another occasion, Prophet (s) compared piety and humbleness of Abu Dhar to that of 'Isa b. Maryam (a).
Imam al-Baqir (a) said: After Prophet Muhammad (s) had passed away, everybody became apostate and left 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) except three people: Salman al-Farsi, Abu Dar and Miqdad. 'Ammar b. Yasir was doubtful at first; however he returned to Imam 'Ali (a).
Imam al-Sadiq (a) said about Abu Dhar's worship: the main part of his worship was thinking. He cried in the fear of Allah so much that he hurt his eyes. Abu Dhar also said: I like three things that people hate: death, poverty and affliction. Imam al-Sadiq (a) explained, Abu Dhar meant death by the order of Allah is better than living a sinful life; affliction in obeying Allah is better than health in disobeying Allah; and poverty in obeying Allah is better than committing sins in a prosperous life.
In Shi'a sources Abu Dhar is considered as one of the four pillars of Islam, alongside Salman al-Farsi, Miqdad and 'Ammar b. Yasir. Al-Shaykh al-Mufid has narrated a hadith from Imam al-Kazim (a): On the Day of Judgment, a caller will call: Where are the disciples of Prophet Muhammad (s) those who did not break their promise; and then Salman, Abu Dhar and Miqdad would stand up.
Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, mentioned two books about characteristics and life of Abu Dhar: Akhbar Abi Dhar by Abu Mansur Zafar b. Hamdun Badra'i and Akhbar Abi Dhar al-Ghifari wa fada'iluh by Al-Shaykh al-Saduq.
Sayyid 'Ali Khan Madani wrote on Abu Dhar: "He was a notable scholar and a grand ascetic, who would give away 400 dinars [an old currency in Arab countries] every year and never saved any for himself."
Abu Na'im al-Isfahani also said: Abu Dhar served Prophet Muhammad (s) and learned the principles of Islam. He was against riba (usury) even before the emergence of Islam. Walking on the right path, he was never influenced by those who blamed him and the power of rulers never overwhelmed him.
Friendship with 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a)
As al-Irbili narrated, Abu Dhar chooses 'Ali b. Abi Talib as his executor of his will and said: By Allah, 'Ali b. Abi Talib is my executor. By Allah, although his right was usurped in caliphate, you will find peace and blessing with him. Ibn Abi l-Hadid said: Abu Dhar told Ibn Rafi' in al-Rabadha, fear only Allah, soon a conspiracy will happen, you should support Imam 'Ali (a). Abu Dhar also attended the funeral of Lady Fatima (a) which took place at midnight.
In the time of the second caliph, 'Umar, he refused to accept a total ban on narrating/writing hadith. In response Abu Dhar said: By Allah, if they threaten me by sword to stop narrating hadiths from Prophet Muhammad (s), I would rather die than stop narrating Prophet's hadith. That is why Abu Dhar and other narrators of hadith were imprisoned.
Exile to Syria
As Ibn Abi l-Hadid said, Abu Dhar was exiled to Syria because he complained to 'Uthman, the third caliph, about giving the treasury money to Marwan b. Hakam, Zayd b. Thabit and others as a gift. He said: "Abu Dhar was shouting in streets and complained to 'Uthman. As a result, 'Uthman exiled him to Syria."
However Abu Dhar made some social groups and informed people about the characteristics and virtues of Prophet Muhammad (s) and Ahl al-Bayt (a). On the other hand, Mu'awiya prohibited people from meeting Abu Dhar and reported his activities to 'Uthman. Therefore, he was returned to Medina.
Exile to al-Rabadha
Abu Dar met 'Uthman in Medina, where he refused his gift and criticized his actions again. Then 'Uthman lost his patience with him and exiled him to al-Rabadha in the worst possible condition, which is mentioned in many historical books.
Abu Dhar passed away in Dhu l-Hijja 32/653, in al-Rabadha, in the time of 'Uthman's caliphate. As Ibn Kathir said, no one was with him unless his wife and his child when he passed away Al-Zirikli said, when he passed away his family did not have anything for enshrouding his body. Mihran b. Maymun said: "All the property of Abu Dhar valued only about two dirhams [an old currency in Arab countries less valuable than dinar]".
It is said, when Umm Dhar was crying she said to Abu Dhar: You die in desert and I have nothing to enshroud your body. He replied: Do not cry and be happy, for Prophet Muhammad (s) said one of you will die in desert and he will be buried by a group of Muslims. The others have passed away in cities and I am the only one left, and I die in desert; Prophet Muhammad (s) was talking about me.
When he died 'Abd Allah b. Mas'ud and a number of Ansar, Hujr b. 'Adi, Malik al-Ashtar and several young Muslims, were passing the desert and coincidentally they noticed Abu Dhar. Therefore, they enshrouded his body and buried him and 'Abd Allah b. Mas'ud performed Funeral prayer on his body.
According to all sources, Abu Dhar is buried in al-Rabadha. Al-Harbi, in al-Manasik, said there was a masjid in al-Rabadha under the name of Abu Dhar; and it is said that the grave of Abu Dhar was in that masjid.
- Amin,A'yan al-Shi'a,vol. 4, p. 225.
- Ibn 'Abd al-Birr, al-Isti'ab,vol. 1, p. 252.
- Ibn Habban, Mashahir 'ulama' al-amsar,p. 30; • Ibn Habban, Al-Thiqat, vol. 3, p. 55; 'Asqalani, Taqrib al-tahdhib,vol. 2, p. 395.
- 'Asqalani, al-Isaba,vol. 7, p. 1-7.
- Dhahabi,Siyar a'lam nubala' ,vol. 2, p. 47.
- Dhahabi, Siyar a'lam al-nubala' , vol. 2, p. 23.
- Ibn Athir, Usd al-ghaba' , vol. 5, p. 186; Mizzi, Tahdhib al-kamal, vol. 33, p. 294; Dhahabi, Siyar a'lam al-nubala' , vol. 2, p. 49; Amin, A'yan al-Shi'a , vol. 4, p. 225.
- Ibn 'Abd al-Birr, al-Isti'ab, vol. 4, p. 1652.
- Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol. 3, p. 25.
- Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-bala'gha' , vol. 15, p. 99.
- Dhahabi, Tarikh al-islam, vol. 3, p. 4-6; Ibn 'Abd al-birr, al-Isti'ab, vol. 1, p. 252.
- Shushtari, Qamus al-rijal, vol. 11, p. 322.
- Muhammad b. Habib al-Baghdadi, al-Muhbar, p.237.
- Sahih Ibn Hayyan,vol.16,p83.
- Ibn 'Abd al-Birr, al-Isti'ab, vol. 4, p. 1654.
- Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol. 8, p. 297-298.
- Tusi, al-'Amali, p. 525; Tabrisi, Makarim al-akhlaq, p. 256.
- Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 22, p. 404.
- Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 22, p. 420.
- Ibn 'Abd al-Birr, al-Isti'ab, vol. 1, p. 255.
- Saduq, al-Khisal, p. 303.
- Mufid, al-Ikhtisas, p. 10.
- Al-Khisal,p40 and 42.
- Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol. 8, p. 22.
- Tusi, al-Rijal, p. 598; Mufid, al-Ikhtisas, p. 6-7.
- Mufid, al-Ikhtisas, p. 61.
- Agha Buzurg, Al-Dhari'a, vol. 1, p. 316.
- Agha Buzurg, al-Dhari'a , vol. 1, p. 317.
- Madani, al-Darajat al-rafi'a, p. 226.
- Bahr ul-'Ulum, al-Fawa'id al-rijaliyya, vol. 2, p. 49.
- Hilyat ul-awliya',vol.1,p156-157.
- Irbili, Kashf ul-ghumma, vol. 1, p. 353.
- Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-balagha, vol. 228.
- Ya'qubi, Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, vol.2, p. 115.
- Ya'qubi, Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, Translated by Ayati, vol. 1, p. 524.
- Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat al-kubra, vol. 2, p. 354.
- Ibn Habban, al-Majruhin, vol. 1, p. 35.
- Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-balagha, vol.8, p.256.
- Amin, A'yan al-Shi'a, vol.4, p. 237.
- Ya'qubi, Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, vol. 1, p. 171-172; Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat al-kubra, vol.4, p. 226; Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, vol. 3, p. 336.
- Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, vol. 3, p. 354.
- Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 7, p. 185.
- Zirikli, al-A'lam , vol. 2, p. 140.
- Amin, A'yan al-Shi'a, vol.4, p. 229.
- Amin, A'yan al-Shi'a, vol. 4, p. 241.
- Ibn 'Abd al-Birr, Al-Isti'ab, vol. 1, p. 253; Khalifa b. Khayyat, Tabaqat, p. 71; Ibn Habban, Al-Thiqat, vol. 3, p. 55.
- Hamawi, Mu'jam al-buldan, vol. 3, p. 24; Turayhi, Majma' al-bahrayn, vol. 2, p. 131.
- Harbi, al-Manasik, p. 327
- The material for this article is mainly taken fromابوذر غفاریin Farsi WikiShia.
- Irbili, 'Ali b. 'Isa al-. Kashf al-ghumma fi ma'rifat al-a'imma. Beirut: Dar al-Adwa', 1405 AH.
- Ibn Habban, Muhammad. Kitab al-majruhin. Edited by Mahmud Ibrahim Zayid. Mecca: Dar al-Baz, n.d.
- Ibn Kathir, Isma'il b. 'Umar. Al-Bidaya wa l-nihaya. Dar Ihya al-Turath al-'Arabi, 1408.
- Ibn Sa'd, Muhammad. Al-Tabaqat al-kubra, Beirut: Dar Sadir, n.d.
- Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir al-. Tarikh al-rusul wa al-muluk. Beirut: Mu'assisa A'alami li-l-Matbu'at, 1403 AH.
- Ya'qubi, Ahmad b. Ishaq. Tarikh-i Ya'qubi. Translated by Muhammad Ibrahim Ayati. Tehran: Shirkat-i Intisharat-i 'Ilmi wa Farhangi, 1378 Sh-1999.
- Amini, 'Abd al-Husayn. Al-Ghadir fi l-kitab wa al-sunna wa l-adab. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-'Arabi, 1397-1977.
- Amin, sayyid Muhsin al-. A'yan al-shi'a. Beirut: Dar al-Ta'aruf, n.d.
- 'Asqalani, Ibn Hajar al-. Al-Isaba fi tamyiz al-sahaba. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyya, 1415 AH.
- 'Asqalani, Ibn Hajar al-. Taqrib al-tahdhib. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyya, 1415 AH.
- Baghdadi, Muhammad b. Habib al-. al-Muhabbar. Matba'a al-Da'ira, 1361.
- Bahr ul-'Ulum,Muhammad Mahdi. al-Fawa'id al-rijaliyya. Tehran: Maktaba al-Sadiq, 1363 Sh.
- Ibn Abi al-Hadid. Sharh Nahj al-balagha. Dar Ihya' al-Kutub al-'Arabiyya, 1378 Sh.
- Ibn Athir. Usd al-ghaba. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-'Arabi, n.d.
- Ibn 'Abd al-Birr, Ahmad. Al-Istia'b fi ma'rifat al-ashab. Beirut: Dar al-Jil, 1412 AH.
- Ibn Habban, Muhammad. al-Thiqat. Mua'ssisa al-Kutub al-Thiqafiyya,1393 AH.
- Ibn Habban, Muhammad. Mashahir al-'ulama al-amsar. Dar al-ifa', 1411 AH.
- Ibn Habban, Muhammad. Sahih Ibn Habban. Beirut: Mua'ssisa al-Risala, 1414 AH.
- Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub al-. Al-Kafi. Tehran: Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyya, 1363 Sh.
- Madani, Sayyid 'Ali Khan. al-Darajat al-rafi'a. Qom: Basirati, 1397 AH.
- Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir al-. Bihar al-anwar li durar akhbar al-a'imma al-athar. Beirut: Mu'assisa al-Wafa', 1403 AH.
- Mizzi, Yusuf b. 'Abd al-Rahman al-. Tahdhib al-kamal. Beirut: Mua'ssisa al-Risala',1406 AH.
- Mufid, Muhammad b. Muhammad -al. Al-Ikhtisas. Dar al-Mufid, 1414 AH.
- Nahj al-bala'gha, translated by Sayyid Ja'far Shahidi, Tehran, 1377 Sh.
- Shaykh al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babiwayh al-. Al-Khisal. Qom: Jami'a Mudarrisin, 1403 AH.
- Shushtari, Nur Allah b. Sharif al-Din. Qamus al-rijal. Qom: Jami'a Mudarrisin, 1419 AH.
- Tabrisi, Hasan b. Fadhl al-. Makarim al-akhlaq. Radi, 1392.
- Tihrani, Agha Buzurg. Al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a. Beirut: Dar al-Adwa', 1403 AH.
- Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-. 'al-'Amali. Qom: Dar al-Thiqafa, 1414 AH.
- Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-. Rijal. Qom: Jami'a Mudarrisin, 1415 AH.
- Dhahabi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-. Siyar a'lam al-nubala'. Beirut: Mua'ssisa al-Risala',1413 AH.
- Dhahabi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-. Tarikh al-Islam. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-'Arabi, 1407 AH.
- Harbi, Abu Ishaq al-. Al-Manasik. Riyadh: Manshurat Dar al-Yamama li l-Bahth wa l-Tarjima wa l-Nashr, 1969.
- Hamawi, Yaqut al-. Mu'jam al-buldan. Beirut: Dar al-Ihya' al-Turath al-Arabi, 1399 AH.
- Turayhi, Fakhr al-Din al-. Majma' al-bahrayn. Wizart Irshad, 1367 Sh.
- Ibn Khayyat, Khalifa. Tabaqat Khalifa. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1414 AH.
- Zirikli, Khayr al-Din al-. Al-A'lam. Beirut: Dar al-Ilm, 1980.