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Adhan

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ʾAdhān (Arabic: أذان) is a set of phrases recited to announce the time of prayer. Adhan includes fundamental Islamic teachings such as Monotheism, the Prophethood of Muhammad (s), and an invitation to salvation by means of prayer.

Translation Adhan

Allah is the Greatest

I bear witness there is no God but Allah

I bear witness Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah

I bear witness 'Ali is the wali of Allah

Hurry toward prayer

Hurry toward salvation

Hurry toward the best of deeds

Allah is the Greatest

There is no God but Allah

(4 times) اَللّهُ اَکبَرُ

(2 times) اَشْهَدُ اَنْ لا اِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللّهُ

(2 times) اَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللّهِ

[1]اَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِیاً وَلِی اللّهِ

(2 times) حَیِّ عَلَی الصَّلاةِ

(2 times) حَیِّ عَلَی الْفَلاحِ

(2 times) حَیِّ عَلی خَیرِ الْعَمَلِ

(2 times) اَللّهُ اَکبَرُ

(2 times) لا اِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللّهُ

Terminology

Lexically, 'adhan' means announcement or declaration. The word 'adhan' has also been used in the holy Qur'an in this way.[2] Iqama literally means to keep up or to make upright. Recited after Adhen which is the first declaration, iqama is the second and last call which indicates the actual start of the prayer. Adhan is the call for gathering and iqama is for standing up and preparing for prayer.

Mustahab Worships
حسبی الله.jpg

Combined together, adhan and iqama are sometimes referred to as adhanayn (The two adhans).[3]

Origin

According to Shi'a

The practice of reciting adhan began in the first two years after Hijra, following the redirection of Qibla from al-Masjid al-'Aqsa to the Ka'ba.[4] According to Imamiyya sources, the Prophet (s) received adhan by means of divine revelation. Archangel Jabra'il recited it for the first time during the night of Mi'raj. When he recited it once again, the Prophet (s) ordered Imam 'Ali (a) to teach it to Bilal b. Rabah.[5] This has also been reported in Isma'iliyya[6] sources with slight differences.

According to Sunnis

In some Sunni accounts, it is claimed that adhan is man-made and not based on divine revelation. According to these reports, the Muslims first had various ways to call for prayer - and it was 'Umar who suggested that someone should be designated to announce the prayer time. The Prophet (s) then appointed Bilal for this task.[7]

According to other Sunni narrations, the Prophet (s) suggested that the Muslims, like the People of the Book, should use a horn or a bell to call for prayer. Then, 'Abd Allah b. Zayd b. 'Abd Rabbih had a dream in which the adhan was revealed to him. The Prophet (s) recognized it as a true dream and ordered him to teach the phrases to Bilal.[8] Shafi'i, however, believe adhan has too high a position to be revealed in the dream of an individual like 'Abd Allah b. Zayd.

Wording and Phrasing

According to Shia

Adhan consists of: Allah-u akbar (Allah is the Greatest) four times; ashhad-u an la ilah-a illa Allah (I bear witness there is no God but Allah) two times; ashhad-u ann-a Muhammad-an Rasul-u Allah (I bear witness Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah) two times; hayy-a 'ala l-salah (hurry toward prayer) two times; hayya 'ala l-falah (hurry toward salvation) two times; hayy-a 'ala khayr al-'amal (hurry toward the best of deeds) two times; Allah-u akbar two times; la ilah-a illa Allah two times.[9]

Although the phrase of wilaya i.e. ashhad-u ann-a 'Ali-yyan wali-yyu Allah, (I bear witness that 'Ali is the wali of Allah) has been recited in the adhan of some of the Shias since early times,[10] it is not presented in Shia sources as being a part of adhan. It is recited after the third phrase two times.

The sixth phrase i.e. hayy-a 'ala khayr-i l-'amal (hurry toward the best of deeds) belongs particularly to the Shi'a and is a distinctive characteristic of this sect.[11] Ibn Nubah, the mu'adhdhin of Imam 'Ali (a) used to recite this phrase in adhan without objection from Imam Ali (a).[12] According to Shi'a reports, this phrase had been a part of adhan until 'Umar omitted it due to his belief that it would weaken people's motivation for jihad.[13]

According to Sunnis

The phrasing of adhan is the same as the Shia, with the following major differences:

  • Malik believes the first phrase must be recited only twice, not four times.[14]
  • The sixth phrase i.e. hayy-a 'ala khayr-i l-'amal, is not recited.
  • Tathwib, a term referring to the addition of the phrase: assalat-u khayr-un min al-nawm (prayer is better than sleep) is recited after the fifth phrase. The use of this phrase has been narrated by Abu Mahdhura; however, it is disputed whether it was taught to him by the Prophet (s) or was his own addition.[15] Tathwib was never accepted by the Imamiyya.[16]
  • According to all four Sunni schools, the final phrase is recited only once, not twice.[17]

Related Rulings

  • The recommendation of reciting adhan is particularly stressed for maghrib (evening) and fajr (dawn) prayers.
  • The emphasis on reciting adhan is so great that in some Shi'a and Sunni schools of thought, it is considered to be wajib kifa'i (a collective duty).[19]
  • In reciting adhan, Tartib (sequence of phrases) and Muwalat (continuity between them) must be observed. That is, it should be recited in its original order and with no unusual interruption or pause.[21]
  • According to the Hanbali and Shafi'i schools, reciting adhan does not require a particular intention (niyya); however, according to Shi'a and other Sunni schools, such an intention is obligatory.[22]
  • According to the Imamiyya and Hanbali schools, adhan must be recited in Arabic; however, in other Sunni schools, it is permissible for non-Arabs to recite adhan in their own language.[23]
  • The mu'adhdhin (reciter of adhan) must be a sane mature Muslim male. It is also preferable that he is just, has a loud voice and is aware of exact prayer times. It is recommended that the mu'adhdhin is in the state of Wudu or Ghusl and that he stands in an elevated place while reciting adhan.[24]
  • Some scholars have explicitly mentioned that when heard only by a female audience, it is permissible for a female to recite adhan.[25]
  • The Maliki school and some Shafi'i jurists hold that a Mu'adhin can be paid for his recitation of adhan; on the contrary, Imamiyyah, Hanifiyya, Hanabila and some other Shafi'i jurists believe it is not permissible for a Mu'adhin to receive money for the recitation of adhan, they argue for their opinion by citing a broader ruling that states "no one is allowed to take his religious duties (in this case, adhan recitation) as a source for earning money". however, by distinguishing between the practice (which is a religious obligation and should not be paid for) and the position (which shouldn't remain vacant) these scholars believe such an individual must be provided with some sort of salary from the bayt al-mal (treasury of Muslim community). this changes the equation of practice-payment to that of position-payment which has different jurisprudential dynamics and consequences.[26]
  • According to the Maliki and Shafi'i schools, there should be Tarji' in Shahadatayn (the second and third phrases). That is, each phrase should be recited once in a whispering fashion and then repeated again loudly.
  • It is not permissible to recite adhan prior to the time of Fajr (dawn) in order to awaken people for its performance. If recited early, the adhan must be repeated at the proper time of Fajr.[27]

Other Uses for Adhan

According to the tradition of the Prophet (s), adhan is whispered into the right ear - and iqama into the left ear - of every newly born Muslim child.[28]

In the past, adhan has also been used to call for public gathering in situations such as announcing the demise of a well-known figure, warning of a nearby fire, or demanding for justice.[29]

See Also

Notes

  1. this phrase is not a part of adhan
  2. Quran, 9: 3.
  3. See: Abu 'Ubayd, Qasim. Gharib al-Hadith. vol. 4. p. 320
  4. Abu Dawud, Sunan Abu Dawud. vol. 1. 348
  5. Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi. vol. 3. p. 392; Shaykh al-Saduq. Man la yahduruh al-faqih. vol. 1. p. 183; Shaykh al-Tusi. al-Tahdhib. vol. 2. p. 277
  6. Qadi Nu'man.vol. 1. p. 143
  7. Bukhari, Muhammad. Sahih al-Bukhari. vol. 1. p. 150; al-Muslim al-Nishaburi. Sahih Muslim. vol. 1. p. 285
  8. Ibn Maja. Sunan. vol. 1. p. 232-233; Abu Dawud, Sunan Abu Dawud. vol. 1. 336-338; Tirmidhi, Muhammad. Sunan al-Tirmidhi. vol. 1. p. 359; Nasa'i, Ahmad. Sunan al-Nasa'i. vol. 3. p. 2-3
  9. Shaykh al-Tusi. al-Khilaf. vol. 1. p. 9
  10. Shaykh al-Saduq. 'Man la yahduruh al-faqih. vol. 1. p. 18-189; al-Shaykh al-Tusi. al-Nihaya. p. 80
  11. Sayyid Murtada. al-Intisar. p. 38-39
  12. Shaykh al-Saduq. 'Man la yahduruh al-faqih. vol. 1. p. 18-189
  13. Qadi Nu'man. vol. 1. p. 143; Abu 'Abd Allah 'Alawi. al-Adhan bi-hayy 'ala khayr al-'amal. p. 16
  14. Ibn Qasim, 'Abd al-Rahman. al-Mudawwanat al-kubra. vol. 1. p. 312
  15. Dar Qutni, 'Ali. Sunan .vol. 1. p. 233-235
  16. Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi. vol. 3. p. 303; Sayyid Murtada. al-Intisar. p. 39
  17. Jaziri, 'Abd l-Rahman. al-Fiqh 'ala l-madhahib al-arba'a. vol. 2 p. 312
  18. Muhaqqiq al-Hilli. Shara'i' al-Islam. vol. 1. p. 74
  19. al-Shaykh al-Tusi. al-Khilaf. vol. 1. p. 93; Ibn Humam. Fath al-qadir. vol. 1. p. 209; Mahali, Jalal al-din. Sharh minhaj al-talibin. vol. 1. p. 125
  20. Yazdi, Muhammad Kazim. al-'Urwat al-wuthqa. vol. 1. p. 601
  21. Muhaqqiq al-Hilli. Shara'i' al-Islam. vol. 1. p. 75
  22. Jaziri, 'Abd l-Rahman. al-Fiqh 'ala l-madhahib al-arba'avol. 1. p. 314; Shahid al-Thani. al-Rawda al-Bahiya vol. 1. p. 239
  23. Jaziri, 'Abd l-Rahman. al-Fiqh 'ala l-madhahib al-arba'avol. 1. p. 314; Shahid al-Thani. al-Rawda al-Bahiya vol. 1. p. 239
  24. Muhaqqiq al-Hilli. Shara'i' al-Islam. vol. 1. p. 74; Ibn Hubayra. al-Ifsah an ma'ani al-sihah. vol. 1. p. 82
  25. Muhaqqiq al-Hilli. Shara'i' al-Islam. vol. 1. p. 74; Ibn Hubayra. al-Ifsah an ma'ani al-sihah. vol. 1. p. 80
  26. Shaykh al-Tusi. al-Khilaf. vol. 1. p. 96; Ibn Hubayra. al-Ifsah an ma'ani al-sihah. vol. 1. p. 83
  27. Shaykh al-Mufid.al-Muqni'a. p. 98
  28. Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi. vol. 6. p. 233-24; al-Shaykh al-Tusi. al-Tahdhib. vol. 7. p. 436-437
  29. Jaziri, 'Abd l-Rahman. al-Fiqh 'ala l-madhahib al-arba'a. vol. 1 p. 325; Nizam al-mulk, Hasan. Siasat nama. p. 66 ff

References

  • Abu 'Abd allah 'Alawi. Al-adhan bi Hayya 'ala khayril'amal. Ed. Yahya 'Abd al-karim. Damascus, 1989.
  • Abu Dawud, Sunan Abu Dawud. Istanbul, 1981.
  • Abu 'Ubayd, Qasim. Gharib al-Hadith. Hyderabad, 1965.
  • Bukhari, Muhammad al-. Sahih al-Bukhari. Istanbul, 1981.
  • Muhaqqiq al-Hilli, Ja'far al-. Shara'i' al-Islam. Najaf, 1969.
  • Shaykh al-Mufid, Muhammad b. Muhammad -al. Al-Muqni'a. Qom, 1401AH.
  • Shaykh al-SaduQuran, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh al-. Man la yahduruh al-faqih. Beirut, 1981.
  • Shaykh al-Tusi, Muhammad b. Hasan al-. Al-Khilaf. Tehran, 1377AH.
  • Shaykh al-Tusi, Muhammad b. Hasan al-. Al-Nihaya. Cairo. 1389AH.
  • Shaykh al-Tusi, Muhammad b. Hasan al-. Al-Tahdhib. Najaf, 1379AH.
  • Dar Qutni, 'Ali .Sunan . Beirut, 1986.
  • Ibn Hubayra, Yahya. Al-Ifsah an ma'ani al-sihah. Halab, 1947.
  • Ibn Humam, Muhammad. Fath al-qadir. Cairo: 1391AH.
  • Ibn Maja, Muhammad. Sunan. Istanbul, 1981.
  • Ibn Qasim, 'Abd al-Rahman. Al-Mudawwanat al-kubra. Baghdad: Maktabat al-Muthanna.
  • Jaziri, 'Abd l-Rahman. al-Fiqh 'ala l-madhahib al-arba'a. Cairo: al-Tab'at al-Tijariya.
  • Mahali, Jalal al-din. Sharh minhaj al-talibin. Cairo: Mat'abat 'Isa al-babi al-Halabi
  • Nasa'i, Ahmad. Sunan al-Nasa'I. Istanbul, 1981.
  • Nizam al-mulk, Hasan. Siasat nama. Ed. Hiyubirt Dark. Tehran, 1347Sh.
  • Sayyid Murtada, 'Ali. Al-Intisar. Najaf, 1971.
  • Shahid al-Thani, zayn al-din. Al-Rawda al-Bahiya. Beirut, 1983.
  • Tirmidhi, Muhammad. Sunan al-Tirmidhi.Istanbul, 1981.
  • Yazdi, Muhammad Kazim. Al-'Urwat al-wuthqa. Beirut: Mu'assisa A'lami lill matbuat.