Aqa Buzurg Tihrani
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Shaykh Agha Buzurg Tihrani
|Full Name||Muhammad Mohsin Munzawi Tirana|
|Well-Known As||Aqa Buzura Tihrani|
|Residence||Tehran, Najaf, Kadhimayn, Samarra|
|Studied in||Tehran, Najaf|
|Works||al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a, Tabaghat a'lam al-Shi'a, Musaffa al-maghal fi musannifi 'ilm al-rijal, and other book|
Muḥammad Muḥsin b. ʿAlī al-Munzawī al-Tihrānī (Arabic:محمدمحسن بن علي المنزوي الطهراني) known as Āqā Buzurg Tihrānī (Arabic:آقا بزرك الطهراني), (b.1293/1876- d.1389/1970) was a twelver Shi'a faqih and bibliographer and the author of al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a, an encyclopedia about Shi'a books ,and Tabaghat a'lam al-Shi'a, an encyclopedia about Shi'a scholars from 4/10 to 14/20 century.
He was born in Rabi' I 11, 1293/April 7,1876 in Tehran. His father and grandfather were of scholars of the city. His great grandfather Haj Muhsin was a businessman. With the help of Manuchihrkhan I'timad al-dawla Gorji, he founded the first print shop of Iran. Agha Buzurg married two times and had 5 sons and 4 daughters.
Agha Buzurg started his primary lesson in Dangi school, continued it in Paminar school, and then in Fakhriyya school (Marvi school).
He learned Arabic literature from Shaykh Muhammad Husayn Khurasani and Shaykh Muhammad Baghir Mu'izz al-Dawla, learned logic from Mirza Muhammad Taqi, learned usul from Sayyid 'Abd al-Karim Mudarrisi, Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Gurgani and Shaykh Ali Noor Ilka'i and learned some mathematics from Mirza Ibrahim Zanjani. Also he studied history of literature and rijal.
On 10th of Jumada II 1315/ 6th of November 1898 he went to Najaf for further studies and from this date until 1329/1911 he educated under scholars like Mirza Husayn Nuri, Shaykh Muhammad Taha Najaf, Sayyid Murtada Kashmiri, Mirza Husayn Mirza Khalil, Mulla Muhammad Kazim Khurasani, Sayyid Ahmad Ha'iri Tihrani, Mirza Muhammad Ali Chahardahi, Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi and Shaykh al-Shari'a Isfahani.
Compilation of al-Dhari'a
- Main article: al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a
The need for a listing of Shi'a books was being felt for a long time. In similar listings of books of Muslim writers, collected by writers of other Islamic sects, writings of Shi'a scholars was being ignored. Jurji Zaydan, the Christian Arab literary, in his book Tarikh adab al-lugha al-'Arabiyya (The History of Arabic literature), had considered the impact of Shi'a scholars in Islamic culture very little. This was tough for Shi'a faqih's, so three of them decided to introduce Shi'a scholars and their books and confront Jurji Zaydan's claim. Explaining the effect of Shi'a'a scholars in Islamic sciences was given to al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr, so he wrote his book Ta'sis al-Shi'a al-kiram li-funun al-Islam (The foundation of Islamic Sciences by the respectable Shi'as). Shaykh Muhammad Husayn Kashif al-Ghita' describing errors of the Zaydan's book, wrote the book al-Muraji'at al-Rayhaniyya and Aqa Buzurg wrote the al-Dhari'a.
He went to Kadhimiya in 1329/1911 and started the research for compilation of al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a the greatest encyclopedia of Shi'a bibliography. Later he went to Samarra and while continuing his work on his book, attended the class of Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi.
He came back to Kadhimiya in 1335/1917 and stayed there for two years, then went to Samarra again. In 1354/1936 he came back to Najaf and founded a print shop named "Matba'at al-Sa'ada" for publication of al-Dhari'a, but the imperial government of Iraq prevented his work with various excuses. He printed the first volume of al-Dhari'a in "Matba'a al-Ghura" but again its publication delayed 6 months due to resistance of the Iraqi government.
Agha Buzurg went to long travels in order to research and complete this encyclopedia. He visited most of public and private libraries of Iraq, Iran, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Hijaz and studied their books. He personally searched 62 libraries and studied the listings of many other libraries.
Permission for Hadith Transmission
Aqa Buzurg has permission for hadith transmission from narrators of different Islamic sects:
- Mirza Husayn Nuri
- Sayyid Muhammad Ali Shah 'Abd al-Azimi
- Shaykh Ali Khaqani
- Shaykh Muhammad Salih Al Ta'an al-Bahrani
- Shaykh Musa Kirmanshahi
- Sayyid Abu Turab Khwansari
- Shaykh 'Ali Kashif al-Ghita'
- Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr
- Shaykh Muhammad Ali al-Azhari al-Maliki (the head of Masjid al-Haram teachers)
- Shaykh 'Abd al-Wahhab al-Shafi'i (Imam of congregational prayer of Masjid al-Haram)
- Shaykh Ibrahim b. Ahmad al-Ahmadi (one of faqihs of Medina)
- Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir al-Tirablusi (teacher in Masjid al-Haram)
- Shaykh 'Abd al-Rahman 'Alish al-Hanafi (teacher in al-Azhar)
Some of scholars who have permission for narration from Aqa Buzurg are:
- Sayyid Husayn Burujirdi
- 'Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din al-'Amili
- Shaykh 'Abd al-Husayn Amini
- Sayyid 'Abd al-Hadi Shirazi
- Shaykh Muhammad Rida Al Yasin
- Shaykh Muhammad Hasan al-Muzaffar
- Sayyid Hibat al-Din Shahristani
- Mirza Muhammad Ali Urdubari
- Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i
- Sayyid Muhammad Sadiq Bahr al-'Ulum
- Sayyid Shahab al-Din Mar'ashi
His major works are as follows:
- Al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-shi'a in 29 volumes. Published in 1357/1938-1397/1977 in Najaf and Beirut.
- Tabaghat a'lam al-shi'a including:
- Nawabigh al-ruwat fi rabi'a al-mi'at, Beirut, dar al-kitab al-Arabi, 1391/1971
- Al-Thiqat wa al-'uyun fi sadis al-qurun, Beirut, dar al-kitab al-Arabi, 1392/1972
- Al-Dia' al-lami' fi 'abaqira al-qarn al-tasi', Tehran university, 1983
- Ihya' al-dathir fi ma'athir ahl al-qarn al-'ashir, Tehran university
- Rawda al-nadra fi tarajim 'ulama' al-mi'a al-hadia 'ashara
- Al-Kawakib al-muntashira fi l-qarn al-thani ba'd al-'ashara, handwritten
- Al-Kiram al-barara fi l-qarn al-thalith ba'd al-'ashara Najaf, 1373/1954-1377/1958
- Nuqba' al-bashar fi l-qarn al-rabi' 'ashar, Najaf, 1373/1954
- Musaffa al-maghal fi musannifi 'ilm al-rijal, Tehran, 1958
- Al-Mashikha, Najaf, 1356/1938
- Hadiyya al-razi ila al-mujaddid al-shirazi, Karbala, 1383/1963
- Al-Naqd al-latif fi nafy al-tahrif 'an al-Qur'an al-sharif, handwritten
- Tawdih al-rashad fi tarikh hasr al-ijtihad, Qom, 1401/1981
- Tafnid qawl al-'awam bi qidam al-kalam, handwritten
- Dhayl al-Mashikha, Najaf, 1355/1937
- Diya' al-mafazat fi tariq mashayikh al-ijazat, handwritten
- Ijazat al-Tusi, Najaf, 1376/1956 (also published in the introduction of Tafsir al-tibyan, Beirut, Dar Ihya' al-Turath al-'Arabi)
- Mustadrak kashf al-zunun or Dhayl kashf al-zunun, Tehran, maktaba al-Islamiyya and also Ja'fari Tabrizi, 1387/1967
Aqa Buzurg Tihrani had a comprehensive library which contained more than 5000 volumes of books in history, biography, public indexes, private indexes, encyclopedias, etc. During his life, students and researchers benefitted from this library. Aqa Buzurg himself, even with being old, very busy and weak helped and guided those who referred to the library. He established his library in 1354/1935. To keep his library from disorder and wastage, Aqa Buzurg gave it as a religious endowment in 1375/1955-56. Later in 1380/1960-61, he revised the bill of endowment and mentioned that if the keeper could not manage to keep it, they should move the library and leave it to the library of Imam Amir al-Mu'minin (a).
- The material for this article is mainly taken from آقا بزرگ تهرانی in Farsi WikiShia.