Al-Amali (by al-Tusi)
|Al-Amali (by al-Tusi)|
|Original title||الأمالي للشيخ الطوسي|
|Subject||Islamic ethics, theology, history|
Al-ʾAmālī (Arabic: الأمالي) is an Arabic book written by al-Shaykh al-Tusi (d. 460/1067). It consists of hadiths dictated by al-Shaykh al-Tusi in Najaf to his students within some meetings. The first meeting of the book was held in 455/1063 and the last one was held in 458/1066. The 19th meeting and all the following meetings through the end of the book were held on Fridays. The exact dates are mentioned at the beginning of each meeting.
In bibliographical sources, over 30 books entitled "al-Amali " are mentioned. The best-known of these books are the ones written by al-Shaykh al-Saduq, al-Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Sayyid al-Murtada, and al-Shaykh al-Tusi.
Definition of "Amali"
- Main article: Writing Amali
"Amali" refers to what teachers read in certain meetings or on certain occasions from memory or from their books to their students, which was written down by the students. It is also called "al-Majalis" (meetings) or "'Ard al-majalis" (presentations at meetings). In bibliographical books, over 30 books entitled "al-Amali" are mentioned, including the ones by prominent scholars such as al-Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Shaykh al-Saduq, and al-Shaykh al-Tusi.
Date of Writing
Transmission and Number of Hadiths
Al-Shaykh al-Tusi's al-Amali was transmitted by his son, Abu 'Ali al-Tusi, which is why parts of the book were falsely attributed to Abu 'Ali. Indeed, the whole book was dictated by al-Shaykh al-Tusi to his students, including Abu 'Ali.
The book contains 1537 hadiths cited within 46 meetings. The hadiths have serial numbers, with the hadiths of each meeting having a successive number.
Method of Writing and Contents
The book, al-Amali, is not organized in terms of subject-matters. Thus, it is difficult to find hadiths regarding a specific topic in the book.
Al-Shaykh al-Tusi carefully cited the chains of transmissions of hadiths. There are few hadiths in the book with defective chains of transmissions, such as mursala (without a complete chain of narrators) or maqtu'a (unknown narrator) hadiths. Thus, al-Shaykh al-Tusi's al-Amali contains hadiths selected by al-Shaykh al-Tusi from among thousands of hadiths at his disposal.
Al-Amali is considerable with respect to the variety of its topics; it contains hadiths regarding such various topics as the principles of the religion, knowledge of God, virtues of the Infallibles (a), the practice of the Prophet Muhammad (s), transmitted supplications, historical and political events, such as migration to Abyssinia, the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a), and the Uprising of al-Mukhtar.
Al-Shaykh al-Tusi's al-Amali is remarkably dependent on its previous Amalis. Approximately one fourth of the book is a citation of al-Shaykh al-Mufid's al-Amali. The teachers of al-Shaykh al-Tusi from whom he transmitted the hadiths in this book include:
- Al-Shaykh al-Mufid in meetings 1 through 9 and meeting 45.
- Abu Mufaddal al-Shibani in 16 through 32 meetings, which are very short.
- Ibn Salt al-Ahwazi in meeting 4, 12, and 41 through 44.
- Ibn Ghada'iri in meetings 15, 32, 33, 34, 38, and 40.
- Sayyid Husayn b. Ibrahim al-Qazwini in meetings 35 through 38.
Other meetings contain hadiths transmitted from one or more teachers. Hadiths transmitted from each teacher is cited separately from those of others.
Translation and Publication
The book has been translated into Persian. Its Arabic version is published by Dar al-Thaqafa Publications in Qom in one volume.
- Ṭūsī, al-Amālī, p. 21.
- Anṣārī Qummī, "Amālī-yi Shaykh Ṭūsī", p. 156.
- Anṣārī Qummī, "Amālī-yi Shaykh Ṭūsī", p. 159-161.
- Pākatchī, Naqd-i matn, p, 259.
- Ṭūsī, al-Amālī, p.24.
- Anṣārī Qummī, Muḥammad riḍā. 1373 Sh. "Amālī-yi Shaykh Ṭūsī". Kiyhān-i Andīsha 56: (154-161).
- Pākatchī, Aḥmad. Naqd-i matn. Tehran: Dānishgah-i Imām Ṣādiq, 1391 Sh.
- Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Al-Amālī. Qom: Dār al-Thiqāfa, 1414 AH.