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Al-Mughira b. Shu'ba

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Al-Mughira b. Shu'ba
Attacking the house of Lady Fatima (a)
Full Name Al-Mughira b. Shu'ba b. Abi 'Amir al-Thaqafi
Teknonym Abu 'Isa or Abu 'Abd Allah
Lineage Thaqif tribe
Birth 2 or 3 years after Bi'that/612 or 613
Place of Birth Taif
Places of Residence Taif, Medina, Bahrain, Basra, Kufa, Azerbaijan
Death/Martyrdom 50/670
Burial Place Kufa
Era Early Islam
Notable roles Governor of Bahrain, Basra, Kufa, Azerbaijan
Activities Attacking the house of Lady Fatima (a), cursing Imam 'Ali (a)

Al-Mughira b. Shuʿba (Arabic: مغيرة بن شعبة) (b. 2 or 3 years after Bi'that/612 or 613 - d. 50/670) was a companion of Prophet Muhammad (s). He played a role in the attack to Lady Fatima's (a) house. Mughira was appointed as the governor of Bahrain, Basra and Kufa by the order of 'Umar b. al-Khattab. Later in the time of Mu'awiya, he became the governor of Kufa. Al-Mughira cursed 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and his followers in the Masjid al-Kufa. Abu Lu' Lu' the murderer of 'Umar b. al-Khattab was the slave of al-Mughira.

Lineage, Birth and Death

Al-Mughira b. Shu'ba b. Abi 'Amir b. Mas'ud was a member of Thaqif tribe. Abu Isa or Abu Abd Allah was the teknonym of al-Mughira.[1] He was born in the 2nd or the 3rd year after Bi'that/612 or 613[2] and he passed away in Kufa in 50/670.[3] Al-Mughira was described as a clever man.[4]

In the Time of Prophet Muhammad (s)

Al-Mughira converted to Islam in 5/626-7 and he was present in Hudaybiyya Peace Treaty and Pledge of al-Ridwan.[5] In 9/630-31 when Thaqif tribe converted to Islam, Prophet Muhammad (s) ordered al-Mughira and Abu Sufyan to go to Ta'if and break al-Lat idol.[6]

After the Demise of Prophet Muhammad (s)

According to Al-Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Mughira b. Shu'ba played a role in the attack to Lady Fatima's (a) house in order to force 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and his close companions to take oath of allegiance to the first caliph, Abu Bakr.[7] Based on al-Ihtijaj, Imam al-Hasan (a) condemned al-Mughira and said: "You hit Lady Fatima (a) so harsh that she was injured and it led to miscarry (Muhsin b. Ali)."[8]

In the Time of Caliphs

Al-Mughira attended the battles in the time of the first and the second caliphs, Abu Bakr and Umar b. al-Khattab, including the Battle of Yamama against the followers of Musaylama al-Kadhdhab and the Battle of Yarmuk against the Romans. He also fought in the battles of the conquest of Syria and Iraq.[9]

Umar b. al-Khattab appointed him as the governor of Bahrain, but people refused to accept him and complained to 'Umar. Then he was dismissed and appointed as the governor of Basra. When some people attested that al-Mughira had committed adultery, Umar removed him and appointed him as the governor of Kufa.[10] He is regarded amongst the first ones who called 'Umar b. al-Khattab, "Amir al-Mu'minin".[11] According to sources, Abu Lu' Lu' who killed 'Umar b. al-Khattab was the slave of al-Mughira.[12]

When Uthman b. Affan came to power, he removed al-Mughira from Kufa after a year[13] and sent him to Armenia and Azerbaijan as the ruler of the region.[14]

In the time of Ali b. Abi Talib (a), Mughira did not take oath of allegiance to Imam (a) and he did not attend the battles as well.[15] After the Arbitration he took oath of allegiance to Mu'awiya and again he was appointed as the governor of Kufa where he lived for the rest of his life, until 50/670.[16] In the time of the Peace Treaty of Imam al-Hasan (a) and Mu'awiya, he brought Mu'awiya's letter to Imam al-Hasan (a).[17]

Based on historical sources, al-Mughira was amongst the first ones who proposed the succession of Yazid b. Mu'awiya[18] which took place in 56/676 however as Mughira passed away in 50/670, it cannot be right.

Opposition against Ali b. Abi Talib (a)

Al-Mughira is mentioned as an opponent of Ali b. Abi Talib (a);[19] he also cursed Imam (a) When he was appointed as the governor of Kufa by Mu'awiya, he gave speeches in the Masjid al-Kufa in which he cursed Imam Ali (a) and Shi'a Muslims.[20]

Once al-Mughira addressed Sa'sa'a b. Sawhan, a companion of Imam Ali (a) and an orator, saying : "Avoid fault-finding with 'Uthman. Avoid mentioning Ali's virtues. I know his virtues more than you. But the power is in the hands of this ruler [Mu'awiya] who will punish anyone who criticizes Uthman."[21]

Notes

  1. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 6, p. 156; Maqrizī, Imtāʿ al-asmāʿ, vol. 6, p. 162.
  2. Diyār al-Bakrī, Tārīkh al-khamīs, vol. 1, p. 293.
  3. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 6, p. 157; Maqrizī, Imtāʿ al-asmāʿ, vol. 6, p. 162.
  4. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 6, p. 156.
  5. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 6, p. 156; Maqrizī, Imtāʿ al-asmāʿ, vol. 6, p. 162.
  6. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 3, p. 99.
  7. Mufīd, al-Jamal, p. 117; Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 1, p. 83-84.
  8. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 1, p. 278.
  9. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 6, p. 156.
  10. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 6, p. 157; Maqrizī, Imtāʿ al-asmāʿ, vol. 6, p. 162; Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 4, p. 121.
  11. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 6, p. 157.
  12. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 266.
  13. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 6, p. 157; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 4, p. 244.
  14. Ibn Aʿtham, al-Futūḥ, vol. 2, p. 346.
  15. Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 4, p. 121.
  16. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 6, p. 157.
  17. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 215.
  18. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 301-302.
  19. Thaqafī, al-Ghārāt, vol. 2, p. 516.
  20. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, al-Aghānī, vol. 17, p. 90; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 50.
  21. Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 3, p. 429.

References

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  • Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-. Tārīkh al-Islām. Second edition. Beirut: Dār al-Kitāb al-ʿArabī, 1409 AH.
  • Diyār al-Bakrī, Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad. Tārīkh al-khamīs fī aḥwāl anfus al-nafīs. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, [n.d].
  • Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Al-Futūḥ. Beirut: Dār al-Aḍwāʾ, 1411 AH.
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  • Maqrizī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Imtāʿ al-asmāʿ bi-mā li-l-nabīyy min al-aḥwāl wa l-amwāl wa l-ḥafdat wa l-matāʿ. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1420 AH.
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