Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya (book)

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Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya
Author Imam al-Sajjad (a)
Original title الصحیفة الکاملة السجادیة
Language Arabic
Series 1 vol
Subject Prayer and Supplication
English translation
En. title The Psalms of Islam (As-Sahifa Al-Kamilah Al-Sajjadiyya)
Translator William Chittick
En. publisher Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Al-Ṣaḥīfa al-Sajjādīyya (Arabic: الصَّحيفَة السَّجَّاديَّة) is a book containing Imam al-Sajjad's supplications and du'as.

Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya contains 54 supplications. After the Qur'an and Nahj al-balagha, this book has an important position among the Shi'a school of thought and is known as "Zabur Al Muhammad" [the Psalms of the family of Muhammad (s)] and "Injil Ahl al-Bayt (a)" [the Gospel of the Household of the Prophet (s)]. Many commentaries have been written on it; in al-Dhari'a, Aqa Buzurg Tihrani mentioned around 50 commentaries, among the most famous of which is Riyad al-salikin. Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya has been translated into many languages including English, French, Turkish, Urdu, Spanish, Bosnian, Albanian, Tamil, etc. As well as the status of this book among Shi'a, some Sunni scholars have also praised the eloquence of this book.

Although this book is in the form of supplications, it also contains many Islamic teachings mentioned alongside the supplications. In this book, topics surrounding different issues are explained in the form of supplications such as, theology, ideology, anthropology, the Unseen world, angels, the nubuwwa, the position of the Prophet Muhammad(s) and the Ahl al-Bayt (a), Imamate, moral virtues and vices, honoring Eids, social and economic issues, historical points, different blessings of God, manners of supplication, recitation, dhikr, prayer, worship, etc. The most famous supplication of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is Makarim al-Akhlaq.

Names

Prayer
مسجد جامع خرمشهر.jpg

Some Muslim scholars believe that al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is the greatest treasure of divine knowledge and truth after the Qur'an and Nahj al-balagha, and thus it has been called Ukht al-Qur'an (sister of the Qur'an), Injil Ahl al-bayt (a) [gospel of the Ahl al-bayt (a)], Zabur Al Muhammad [psalms of the family of Muhammad] and al-Sahifat al-kamila [complete Sahifa]. It is said that the book is called Sahifat al-kamila since Zaydis have a version of the book which is incomplete, rather it is around half of Sahifat al-kamila. Therefore, Twelver Shi'a have called the version they have, as al-Sahifat al-kamila.

Reference

Regarding reference, al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is about tawatur [frequent] in narration. Relatively, Aqa Buzurg Tahrani says, "the first Sahifa, the reference of which reaches Imam al-Sajjad (a), is among mutawatir [frequently narrated] hadiths and Qat'iyyat (definite narrated) before the companions; since one of its qualities is that [from their teachers, all companions] took the permission for narrating it among different classes [of Rijal] in all times."

Also, Muhammad Taqi al-Majlisi claimed that he has one million references as narrations of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya.

Al-Shaykh al-Mufid in al-Irshad, 'Ali b. Muhammad al-Khazzaz al-Qummi, a student of al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Ahmad b. 'Ayyashi, Abu al-fadl al-Shaybani, etc. narrated it. Also, among Sunni scholars, Ibn al-Jawzi in Khasa'is al-a'imma and Sulayman b. Ibrahim al-Qunduzi in Yanabi' al-mawadda have mentioned al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya and have narrated some parts of its supplications.

Abu l-Ma'ali Muhammad b. Ibrahim al-Kalbasi (d. 1315/1898) has briefly explained the reference of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya in Risala fi sanad al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya.

Content

Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya does not only contain supplications to God and stating one's needs before God; rather, it is a collection of Islamic sciences and teachings in which ideological, cultural, social, political and some natural rules and religious rulings are in the form of supplication.

For the connection with God, some supplications are mentioned regarding different times and situations; some of its supplications such as 'Arafa and Wida' [farewell] with Ramadhan are recited every year and some are recited every month, such as the supplication of sighting the new moon, every week or every day.

Supplications of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya have different names and many Islamic teachings are stated in them. In this book, many topics are mentioned in supplications such as theology, ontology, world of the Unseen, angels, the Prophet's missions, position of the Prophet (s) and the Ahl al-Bayt (a), Imamate, moral virtues and vices, honoring Eids, social and economic issues, historical points, different blessings of God, manners of supplication, recitation, Dhikr, prayer, worship, etc. The most famous supplication of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is Makarim al-Akhlaq.

One of the most important religious-political topics is imamate. Also, the theory of Tashbih is rejected in it.

Approach

Shi'a
Usul al-Din (Beliefs)
Main Beliefs TawhidProphethoodResurrection'AdlImamate
Other Beliefs 'IsmaWilayaMahdawiyya: Occultation (Minor Occultation, Major Occultation), Intizar, Zuhur, and Raj'aBada'
Furu' al-Din (Practical Orders)
'Ibadi Orders PrayerFastingKhumsZakatHajjJihad
Non-'Ibadi Orders Forbidding the EvilEnjoining the GoodTawalliTabarri
Sources of Ijtihad Qur'anSunnaReasonIjma'
Ethics
Virtues ForgivenessGenerosityGenerous help
Vices Greater SinsKibr'UjbGhururJealousy
Sources Nahj al-BalaghaAl-Sahifa al-SajjadiyyaLetter of Imam 'Ali to Imam al-Hasan
Challenging Issues
Succession of the Prophet (s)Shafa'aTawassulTaqiyyaMourningMut'aCompanions
Figures
Shi'a Imams Imam 'Ali (a)Imam al-Hasan (a)Imam al-Husayn (a)Imam al-Sajjad (a)Imam al-Baqir (a)Imam al-Sadiq (a)Imam al-Kazim (a)Imam al-Rida (a)Imam al-Jawad (a)Imam al-Hadi (a)Imam al-'Askari (a)Imam al-Mahdi (a)
Companions

Men: HamzaJa'far b. Abi TalibSalman al-FarsiMiqdad b. AswadAbudhar al-Ghifari'Ammar YasirMalik al-AshtarMuhammad b. Abi Bakr'Aqil'Uthman b. HunayfAbu Ayyub al-AnsariJabir b. 'Abd Allah al-AnsariIbn 'Abbas'Abd Allah b. Ja'farKhuzayma b. ThabitBilalYasir

Women: KhadijaLady Fatima (a)ZaynabUmm KulthumAsma' bt. 'UmaysUmm AymanUmm Salama
Scholars LitterateursScholars of UsulPoetsScholars of RijalFaqihsPhilosophersBibliographersExegetes
Shrines
Mecca: Al-Masjid al-Haram
Medina: Al-Masjid al-NabawiAl-Baqi'
Al-Quds: Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa
Najaf: Shrine of Imam 'Ali (a)Masjid al-Kufa
Karbala: Shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a)
Kadhimiya: Shrine of al-Kazimayn (a)
Samarra: Shrine of al-'Askariyyayn (a)
Mashhad: Shrine of Imam al-Rida (a)
Damascus: Zaynabiyya
Qom: Shrine of Lady Fatima al-Ma'suma
Shiraz: Shah Chiragh
Rey: Shrine of 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani
Eids
Eid al-FitrEid al-AdhaEid al-GhadirMab'athProphet's birthdayImams' birthdays
Mournings
FatimiyyaMuharram (Mournings of Muharram), Tasu'a, 'Ashura and Arba'in)
Events
MubahalaEvent of GhadirEvent of Saqifa Bani Sa'idaFadakEvents of Lady Fatima's HouseBattle of JamalBattle of SiffinBattle of NahrawanEvent of KarbalaHadith al-ThaqalaynAshab al-Kisa'Tathir VerseKilling Shi'as
Literature
Qur'anNahj al-balaghaal-Sahifa al-SajjadiyyaThe Four Books: (al-Istibsaral-KafiTahdhib al-ahkamKitab man la yahduruh al-faqih) • Mushaf of Fatima (a)Mushaf Imam 'Ali (a)Asrar-i Al-i Muhammad (s)Wasa'il al-Shi'aBihar al-anwaral-GhadirMafatih al-jinanMajma' al-bayanal-MizanOther Books
Sects
Ithna 'AshariyyaIsma'iliyyaZaydiyyaKaysaniyya

In the first supplication, Imam al-Sajjad (a) praises God and then the family of the Prophet (s), so that most supplications of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya contain the phrases of Salawat. In the end of the supplication, he (a) requests his needs from God.

Titles of the Supplications

  • In Praise of God
  • Blessing upon Muhammad (s)
  • Archangels
  • Attesters to the Messengers
  • Himself and the People under his Guardianship
  • Morning and Evening
  • Worrisome Tasks
  • Blameworthy Acts
  • Yearning for Forgiveness
  • Seeking Asylum with God
  • Good Outcomes
  • Confession
  • Seeking Needs
  • When Hostility was Shown
  • When Sick
  • Asking for Release from Sins
  • Against Satan
  • When Perils were Repelled
  • Asking for Rain During a Drought
  • Noble Moral Traits (Makarimul Akhlaq)
  • In Sorrow
  • In Hardship
  • For Well-Being
  • For his Parents
  • For his Children
  • For his Neighbors and Friends
  • For the People of the Frontiers (Thugoor)
  • In Fleeing to God
  • When his Provision was Stinted
  • For Help in Repaying Debts
  • In Repentance
  • In the Night Prayer
  • In Asking for the Best
  • When Afflicted
  • In Satisfaction with the Decree
  • Upon Hearing Thunder
  • In Giving Thanks
  • In Asking Pardon
  • In Seeking Pardon and Mercy
  • When Death was Mentioned
  • In Asking for Covering and Protection
  • Upon Completing a Reading of the Qur'an
  • When he Looked at the New Crescent Moon
  • For the Coming of the Month of Ramadhan
  • In Bidding Farewell to the Month of Ramadhan
  • On the Eid of Fitr [Fast-Breaking] and on Friday
  • On the Day of 'Arafa
  • On the Eid of Qurban [Sacrifice] and on Friday
  • In Repelling Enemies
  • In Fear from God
  • Pleading and Abasement Before God
  • Imploring God
  • In Abasing himself Before God
  • For the Removal of Worries

Translations

Thus far, al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya has been translated into different languages, among which are 60 translations and commentaries in Farsi. Some of the languages of translations include: English, French, Turkish, Urdu, Spanish, Bosnian, Albanian, Tamil, etc.

Some of these translations are:

  • Husayn Ansariyan's translation into Farsi, published in 2001 in 248 pages by Azadi publications.
  • Kazim Khalkhali's translation into Farsi with a preface written by Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, published by Kazimi publication in 1984 in 658 pages.
  • 'Abd al-Hamid Ayati's translation into Farsi published by Sida wa simay-i jumhuri-i Islami-i Iran (Surush).
  • Javad Fadil Lahiji's translation into Farsi published by Parsayan publications in 380 pages.
  • Mahdi Ilahi Qumshi'i's translation into Farsi published by Danish Hushyar in 2006 in 344 pages and also Wafa'i publications in 2006 in 352 pages.
  • Muhammad Mahdi Fuladvand's translation into Farsi titled as Pishva-i chehre bar khak sayan published by Sazman-i Tablighat-i Islami in 2001 in 419 pages.
  • English translation titled as The Treatise on Rights, by 'Ali Piravi and Lisa Zaynab Morgan published by Ansariyan Publications between 2002 and 2006.
  • French translation by Farida Mahdavi Damghani published by al-Hadi Publications in 2003. According to the translator, this was the first French translation of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya.
  • Spanish translation titled as "Las INNVO Caciones del Imam sayyad" by Dr. Muhammad 'Ali Morales in 1997 published by Islamic Propagation Organization in one volume.
  • Azeri Turkish translation by Rasul Isma'ilzada published by al-Huda Publications in 2003 in one volume.

Commentaries

In al-Dhari'a, Aqa Buzurg Tihrani mentioned about 50 commentaries of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya. Some have counted these commentaries to be more than 80.

Farsi Commentaries

  • Riyad al-salikin fi sharh Sahifat Sayyid al-Sajidin written by Sayyid 'Alikhan Madani.
  • Shuhud wa shinakht, written in 4 volumes by Hasan Mamduhi Kermanshahi with a preface by Ayatullah Javadi Amuli, published by Bustan-i Kitab publications of Islamic Propagation Office of the Seminary of Qom.
  • Diyar-i 'ashiqan written by Husayn Ansariyan.
  • Translation and commentary of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya written by Sayyid 'Ali Naqi Fayd al-Islam published by the Center for the Works of Fayd al-Islam.

Arabic Commentaries

  • Amal al-'arifin fi sharh Sahifat Sayyid al-Sajjidin written by Mirza 'Abd al-Wahhab b. Muhammad Salih Baraghani Qazwini (d. 1249/1833). It is a comprehensive commentary on al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya which is compiled considering the opinions and comments of Sayyid 'Ali Khan Kabir in Riyad al-salikin. It mentions narrations and views of famous philosophers and mystics and tries to link philosophical principles with religious opinions.
  • Asfar al-da'in 'ala sharh Sahifat Sayyid al-'Abidin written by Muhammad b. Ali b. Ahmad al-Shami (12th/18th century)
  • Al-Tuhfat al-Radawiyya fi sharh Sahifat al-Sajjadiyya written by Qadi b. Kashif al-Din Muhammad Ardakani Yazdi (after 1057/1647) is a comprehensive commentary compiled in the name of Shah Abbas II Safavi. The author only interpreted the first two supplications of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya and then decided to translate a summary of his commentary into Farsi in order for more people to benefit from its delicate points. However, both the commentary and its translation were left unfinished and the commentary in Farsi only includes 11 supplications.
  • Tibyan al-lugha written by Mirza Muhammad 'Ali b. Muhammad Nasir Gilani Chahardehi (d. 1334/1916)

Glosses and Marginal Notes

  • Ta'liqat 'ala al-Sahifat al-Sajjadiyya written by Mulla Muhsin b. Murtada Fayd Kashani. This is a short gloss on al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya explaining the literary and lexical points only, which is published in 1055/1645. This book has also been listed as Sharh Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya and Hashiya Sahifat al-Sajjadiyya.
  • Hashiyat al-Sahifat al-Sajjadiyya written by Sayyid Muhammad Baqir b. Muhammad Husayni Astarabadi, Mirdamad (d. 1041/1632). This is a brief commentary with the title "Qawlahu-Qawluh" including lexical and philosophical discussions which is sometimes prolonged in Rijal and astronomy. This commentary includes explaining delicate points and the language of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya. Mirdamad wrote it after his other piece, al-Sab' al-shidad.
  • Hashiyat 'ala al-sahifat al-kamila written by Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Mansur b. Ahmad b. Idris al-Hilli (d. 598/1202). This is a short gloss on al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya which explains its difficult terms. The importance of Ibn Idris's gloss, is that it is the first and oldest commentary on al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya.

Mustadraks (Supplemented Works)

Several supplements have been written for al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya which include Imam al-Sajjad's attributed supplications. These have not been included in al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya. Some of these supplements are:

Views of Sunni Scholars

In his al-Manaqib, Ibn Shahr Ashub says, "once sitting with one of the top scholars in literature, a discussion surrounding the eloquence of Sahifat al-Sajjadiyya came up. He said, 'I can write a similar one for you too!' Then he took the pen and dropped his head thinking [and became speechless] and passed in that state."

In 1353/1934, Ayatullah Mar'ashi Najafi sent a copy of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya for Tantawi, the Sunni scholar and the author of Tafsir Tantawi (Mufti of Alexandria). He appraised the book with this sentence, "[It is] a speech higher than the words of creation and lower than the Words of the Creator."

In Khasa'is al-a'imma, Ibn Jawzi says, "'Ali b. al-Husayn, Zayn al-'Abidin (a) has the right to teach Muslims in writing, quality of speech and stating demands before God; because if it was not for him, Muslims would not know the manner of speech and the manner of stating their needs before the Almighty God. Hence, Imam (a) taught people how to speak with God in asking for forgiveness, in asking for rain in drought, how to take refuge before God in fear and in asking God to repel the evil of enemies."

In al-Tasawwuf al-Islami wa al-adab wa al-akhlaq, Zaki Mubarak has considered "al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya as similar to the Bible in all aspects with the only difference that the Bible turns the heart toward Jesus Christ and al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya turns the heart towards God."

References