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Diya' al-Din al-'Iraqi

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Personal Information
Full Name Ḍīyaʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Mulla Muḥammad al-ʿIrāqī
Well-Known As Agha Diya' al-'Iraqi
Birth 1278/1861-62
Residence Arak
Studied in Isfahan, Najaf
Death Dhu l-Qa'da 28, 1361/December 7, 1942
Burial Place The holy shrine of Imam Ali (a), Najaf
Scholarly Information
Professors Sayyid Muhammad Fisharaki, Akhund Khurasani, Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi
Students Sayyid Muhammad Taqi khwansari, Sayyid Abu al-Qasim Khoei, Sayyid 'Ali Kashani Yathribi etc.
Works Maqalat al-usul

Ḍīyaʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-ʿIrāqī (Arabic: ضياء الدين علي بن محمد العراقي) (b. 1278/1861 - d. 1361/1942), famous as Aqa Diya' al-'Iraqi (Arabic: آغا ضياء العراقي), was a great shi'a jurist and expert in usul al-fiqh (principles of jurisprudence) in the 14th/20th century. He was born in Sultanabad, Arak, Iran. He immigrated to Isfahan and then Najaf and was a student of Fisharaki, Akhund Khurasani, al-Sayyid al-Yazdi.

His great scholarly endeavor made him recognized as an undisputed master in usul al-fiqh and a renewer of this discipline and Maqalat al-usul is his famous work.

Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari, Al-Sayyid al-Khoei, Al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim and Mirza Hashim Amuli are few of his students.

Birth and Demise

He was born in Sultanabad of Arak in 1278/1861-62, Iran. His father was Akhund Mulla Muhammad Kabir 'Iraqi (Araki). He passed away on Dhu l-Qa'da 28, 1361/December 7, 1942 in Najaf and was buried in the holy shrine of Imam Ali (a).

Education and Professors

He was given elementary education by his father and some other teachers in his hometown. Seeking more Knowledge, he first immigrated to Isfahan and then to Najaf. There, he participated in courses of great scholars of Najaf:

From early years of education, he was known for his talent and a genius and soon, he became famous for his comprehensive knowledge and profound theories and gained the attention and respect of his teachers. He was known as one of Akhund Khurasani's pupils and had a high position among teachers the Shi'a Seminary.

Status as a Professor

After the demise of Akhund Khurasani (d. 1329/1911) Aqa Diya' started his advanced level (kharij) classes and became an undisputed master and a renewer of usul al-fiqh. Many of Akhund Khurasani's students attended Aqa Diya's classes. Soon afterward, he became a marja'.

He was famous for his patience and his classes were widely popular, not only because of his comprehensive and profound knowledge but also because of the atmosphere in which students could freely express their ideas, especially in comparison to the classes of his great contemporaries who would give less chance to their students for giving different ideas in the class.

Students

Aqa Diya' was a patient and welcoming teacher for over 30 years and naturally gained a great popularity and hundreds of students benefited his classes and reached the level of ijtihad. Following are some of his famous students:

Maqalat al-usul, the most important work of Aqa Diya 'Iraqi

Some of his students transcribed his classes on usul al-fiqh. Mirza Hashim Amuli and Shaykh Muhammad Taqi Burujirdi wrote two books of those transcriptions in Najaf.

Works

Aqa Diya' wrote several works in Arabic, most of which are commentaries on different fields of Shi'a jurisprudence. Some of his important works are as follows:

  • Maqalat al-usul
  • Al-Hashia 'ala bay' al-makasib (comments on the chapter of bay' of al-Maksib regarding the rulings of buying and selling)
  • Al-Hashia 'ala al-'urwat al-wuthqa (annotations on al-'Urwa al-wuthqa)
  • Risalat fi istishab al-'adam al-'azali
  • Risalat fi l-libas al-mashkuk
  • Rawa'i' fi bayan madarik furu' l-'ilm al-ijmali
  • Sharh Tabsira of Allama (chapter of Bay')
  • Sharh Tabsirat al-Muta'allimin (chapter of Mu'amilat)

References

The material for this article is mainly taken from آقا ضیاء عراقی in Farsi WikiShia.