Children of Prophet Muhammad (s)
As it is famously known Prophet Muhammad (s) had four daughters and three sons. Six of them were from Khadija (a) and one was from Maria al-Qibtiyya. All of the Prophet's (s) children died during his life time except for Lady Fatima (a). Prophet Muhammad's (s) lineage only continued by Lady Fatima (a).
According to a number of researchers, Lady Fatima (a) was the only daughter of Prophet Muhammad (s) while the others were his step-daughters.
According to Historical sources Ibrahim, Maria's son, was the last child of the Prophet (s). But there were different reports on the ages of Khadija's (a) children. It is said they were born on one of these order:
- Qasim, Zaynab, 'Abd Allah, Umm Kulthum, Fatima (a), and Ruqayya
- Zaynab, Qasim, Umm Kulthum, Fatima (a), Ruqayya and 'Abd Allah
- Qasim, Zaynab, Ruqayya, Fatima (a), Umm Kulthum, 'Abd Allah
- Zaynab, Ruqayya, Umm Kulthum, Fatima (a)
Prophet Muhammad (s) had four daughters whose mothers were Khadija (a):
Umm Kulthum passed away in 9/630 and she was buried in al-Baqi' cemetery. Some researchers including al-Sayyid Ja'far Murtada al-'Amili believe these daughters were cousins of Khadija (a) which were regarded as step-daughters of Prophet Muhammad (s).
Lady Fatima (a): It is said she was the youngest daughter of Prophet Muhammad (s). According to Shi'a sources, she was born five years after Bi'that and Sunni sources believe she was born five years before Bi'that. Lady Fatima (a) married 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and she was one of the five members of Ashab al-Kisa' (Companions of the Cloak). According to Twelver Shi'a, she is one of the Fourteen Infallibles. The second and the third Twelver Imams (a) were children of Fatima (a) as well. A large number of Shi'a scholars believe the term al-Kawthar stated in Sura al-Kawthar in Holy Qur'an refers to Lady Fatima (a), as the Prophet's (s) lineage continued by Lady Fatima (a) and her children were chosen as Imams.
The majority of sources stated that the Prophet (s) had three sons: Qasim, 'Abd Allah, and Ibrahim. However, some sources stated that Tayyib and Tahir which were titles of 'Abd Allah, were actually the names of other sons of Prophet Muhammad (s). It is clearly stated that it was only a mistake in some sources.
All the three sons of the Prophet (s) passed away in their young ages. After the demise of 'Abd Allah, or as some sources stated after the demise of Qasim, 'As b. Wa'il called the Prophet (s) "Abtar" (a person without a progeny or offspring) as he had no sons, which led to Revelation of Sura al-Kawthar.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from فرزندان پیامبر اسلام(ص) in Farsi Wikishia.