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Daniel (a)

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Daniel (a)
مقبره دانیال تصویر جدید.jpg
Daniel's (a) grave in Susa, Iran
Name in
the Bible:
Daniel
Place of Birth: Jerusalem
Place(s) of
Residence:
Jerusalem, Babil, Iran
Burial place: Susa, Iran
Name of People: Banu Israel
Before: Prophet Jesus (a)
After: Prophet Moses (a)
Book: Book of Daniel in Torah
Well known
Relatives:
Jacob (a)
Miracle(s): Interpretation of the dream of Nebuchadnezzar
Contemporary
Prophet:
Jeremiah (a)
Followers: Banu Israel
Repeat in
the Qur'an:
No name in the Qur'an

Daniel (a) was among the prophets of Banu Israel. The name of this prophet is not mentioned in the Qur'an, but he has been mentioned in Islamic traditions and historical sources of Muslims especially in the famous story of the captivity of Banu Israel. The Prophet Daniel (a) was famous for his knowledge of interpreting dreams and excellent judgments. It is famous that his grave is in Susa, Iran.

Life

Based on a famous report, in the invasion of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, some chosen youths of Jews surrendered themselves as captives to the victors of the war, due to the tradition at that time and one of them was Daniel (a). Daniel (a) reached ministry by interpreting the dream of the king of Babylon. Later, the king of Persia attacked Babylon and released the captives of Banu Israel. Daniel (a) went to the court of Persians and there he reached a high position too. Finally, he passed away in Susa, the winter capital of Achaemenids and was buried there.[1]

In their commentaries on the first verses of Qur'an 17 which points to the rebellion and punishment of Banu Israel, some exegetes have mentioned the story of Nebuchadnezzar's invasion of Jerusalem and the captivity of Jews by him.[2] In a relatively extensive discussion, 'Allama Tabataba'i, without mentioning the name of Daniel (a), mentioned Cyrus's attack to Babylon as the cause of Jews' survival, return to Jerusalem and regaining their religious growth. According to 'Allama Tabataba'i, these accidents were happened around 450 BC.[3]

al-'Allama al-Majlisi reported his life through several hadiths. Many of those hadiths approved the famous report (of the captivity of Daniel (a) in Nebuchadnezzar's attack to Jerusalem) and some others are different.[4] Qutb al-Din al-Rawandi too, mentioned the story of the captivity of Daniel (a) by Nebuchadnezzar and narrated the story his dream and its interpretation by Daniel (a) in several reports.[5]

However, the story of Daniel (a) and Nebuchadnezzar has also been narrated in a completely different way as well. In a report, Abu Ishaq Nishaburi mentioned in his Qisas al-anbiya' that Daniel (a) told Nebuchadnezzar when he was a child, "you have to give me a promise that when you become a king, you do not annoy my people." The report continues saying, "…so, when he [Nebuchadnezzar] arrived in Jerusalem, asked to search for Daniel (a), but they could not find him because he had passed away; so, he summoned Daniel's (a) great grandson and assigned him as his courtier."[6] In the Old Testament, there is a book titled "Daniel (a)", which deals with his life. The reports of this book match with the famous report.

Judgement and Interpretation of Dreams

There is no disagreement about Daniel's (a) knowledge of interpretation of dreams. Although, no independent book is left from him on this topic, almost all the books Muslims have written on interpretation of dreams mention Daniel's (a) interpretations. It is said that the book of his interpretations of dreams had been available in Hebrew and was translated into Arabic at the time of Abbasids.[7] Beside the interpretation of dreams, historians have recorded cases of his excellent judgments.[8]

Grave

Based on the famous view among historians, Daniel's (a) grave is in the current tomb in Susa. However, beside this famous opinion, some other opinions have been mentioned as well; according to which, Iraq, Egypt and Turkey have been mentioned as the burial place of Daniel (a). According to another opinion, after Timur attacked Iran, took the remaining of Daniel's (a) body to Samarkand and built the current tomb attributed to this prophet there.[9]

Notes

  1. Rāwandī, Qiṣaṣ al-anbīyāʾ, p. 224-226.
  2. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 12, p. 26; Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 6, p. 220; Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 13, p. 44.
  3. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 13, p. 44.
  4. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 14, p. 351-379.
  5. Rāwandī, Qiṣaṣ al-anbīyāʾ, p. 224, 226.
  6. Niysābūrī, Qiṣāṣ al-anbīyāʾ, p. 360-361.
  7. Tiflīsī, Taʿbir-i khāb, p. 5.
  8. Rāwandī, Qiṣaṣ al-anbīyāʾ, p. 228.
  9. Bilādhurī, Futūḥ al-buldān (Iran section), p. 134.

References

  • Bilādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Futūḥ al-buldān (Iran section). Translated to Farsi by Ādhartāsh Ādharnūsh. Tehran: Surūsh, 1364 Sh.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Second edition. Beirut: Dār al-Wafāʾ, 1403 AH.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Qom: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1370 Sh.
  • Niysābūrī, Abū Isḥāq. Qiṣāṣ al-anbīyāʾ. Edited by Ḥabbīb Yaghmāyī. Tehran: ʿIlmī wa Farhangī, 1382 Sh.
  • Rāwandī, Quṭb al-Dīn Saʿīd b. Hibat Allah. Qiṣaṣ al-anbīyāʾ. Edited Ghulām Riḍā ʿIrfānīyān. Mashhad: Majmaʿ al-Buḥūth al-Islāmīyya, 1409 AH.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī, Muḥammad Ḥusayn. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Qom: Daftar al-Nashr al-Islāmī, 1430 AH.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1415 AH.
  • Tiflīsī, Ḥubaysh b. Ibrāhīm al-. Taʿbir-i khāb. Edited by Fāṭima Amānī. Qom: Quds, 1384 Sh.