Priority: b, Quality: b

David (a)

From WikiShia
(Redirected from David)
Jump to: navigation, search
Prophet David (a)
Name in
the Qur'an:
Dawud
Name in
the Bible:
David
Place(s) of
Residence:
Palestine
Name of People: Israelite
Book: Zabur
Well known
Relatives:
Sulayman (Solomon)
Repeat in
the Qur'an:
Three times
Enemies: Goliath
Important
Events:
Conquering Jerusalem

David or Dāwūd (Arabic: داوود) was an important Israelite prophet, who was also a king. Famously, David had a good singing voice and was endowed the skill of armor making by God. He also undertook the position of judgeship. The book, Zabur, was revealed to him by God. David conquered Jerusalem for the Israelites.

David is considered as a high-ranking figure for the Jews. However, there are accusations against him in the Torah.

Lineage and Family

David, the son of Jesse,[1] was from the progeny of Judah, the son of Jacob the prophet.[2] David was reportedly a short person, with brunette face and sparse hair.[3] He was already circumcised when he was born.[4] The prophet Solomon was David's son as well as his successor.[5]

Prophethood and Kingdom

David was a great Israelite prophet.[6] God revealed Zabur to David.[7]

After the prophet Moses and Joshua, the leadership of people was undertaken by so-called "judges". The last judge was Samuel, who was asked by the Israelites to select a king for them. Saul (Talut) became the king.[8] In the period of Saul, a big battle took place. Saul announced that he would give half of his possessions, and marry his daughter, to the person who kills Goliath—the champion of the enemy.[9] In that battle, David killed Goliath.[10] Thus, he received half of Saul's possessions and married his daughter.[11]

The progeny of Jacob were either prophets or kings. However, God bestowed both positions to David.[12] After Saul's death, David became the king of Israelites.[13]

Imam al-Baqir (a) referred to David as one of the few prophets who were rulers as well.[14] David was contemporaneous with Luqman. David praised Luqman when he advised him.[15]

Jerusalem was conquered by David.[16]

Zabur

Main article: Zabur

According to the Qur'an and hadiths, Zabur was revealed by God to David. The book is a collection of advice, aphorisms, and supplications. The word, "Zabur," appears three times in the Qur'an in suras al-Nisa',[17] al-Anbiya',[18] and al-Asra'.[19]

Prominent Characteristics

Many characteristics have been attributed to David in Quranic verses and hadiths. According to the Qur'an, David could understand the language of animals[20], he was bestowed the rule and wisdom by God, and he was taught by God whatever he wanted to learn.[21] David was reportedly a person who worshiped God very frequently and cried out of the fear of God.[22]

There are many hadiths regarding David's worships.[23] The Prophet Muhammad (s) admired David's fasting and prayer.[24] David fasted every other day.[25]

According to the Qur'an, mountains and birds exalted God together with David.[26] There are different accounts of what the exaltation of mountains and birds means.[27]

Judgeship

God gave David wisdom and discernment in speech and commanded him to adjudicate people's disputes.[28] Cases of David's adjudications are cited in the Qur'an.[29]

There is a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a) according to which, after his Reappearance, Imam al-Mahdi (a) will adjudicate people's disputes, similarly to David.[30]

The Qur'an cites a mistaken judgment by David. Two people went to David. One of them said that his brother had 99 sheep, whereas he only had one sheep. However, he complained, his brother wanted to seize his only sheep.[31] David ruled in his favor, without hearing the response by the other party of the dispute.[32] He soon learned that this was a Divine test, in which he failed. He asked God to forgive him for the wrong judgment. He prostrated and repented to God.[33]

Armor Making

According to the Qur'an, God taught David to make armors.[34] According to sources of hadiths, God admired David and told him that he was a good servant, but He was displeased that David had no job and was dependent on the public treasury for his living. David was saddened by this and cried. Then, God taught him to make armors. David made and sold armors. Thus, he could make a living in this way and was no longer dependent on the public treasury.[35]

Good Voice

David is widely believed to have a good voice[36] and it is held that no one was given such a good singing voice by God. It is said that when David recited Zabur, all animals approached him and listened to his voice.[37]

According to the Jews

The Prophet David is of high significance for the Jews. There are many stories in the Bible regarding David. Many such stories entered Islamic sources and are known as Isra'iliyyat,[38] some of which are not compatible with Islamic principles.

Adultery

There is a relatively long story cited in the Bible, according to which David committed adultery with a married woman.[39] Part of the story was cited in Islamic sources as well. However, the story is incompatible with Islamic beliefs. The accusation was rejected in Shiite hadiths.

Imam 'Ali (a) said: "if someone is brought to me, who had said that David committed adultery with the wife of Uriah, I will enforce two hadds (punishments) on him: one for disrespecting the position of prophethood and another for the invalid accusation to David."[40]

Star of David

The Star of David is a hexagon consisting of two triangles, and in fact, it consisted of two pyramids—one upwards and the other upside down. There is a disagreement about when the symbol was originated. The Star of David is believed by some people to be the shield of David, but by others as tracing back only to the 6th or 7th century, with different values in accordance with the Jewish mysticism (Kabbalah).

Death

David died at the age of 100, after 40 years of reign.[41]

Notes

  1. Ibn Khaldūn, Tārīkh Ibn Khaldūn, vol. 2, p. 110.
  2. Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 18.
  3. Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 1, p. 223.
  4. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 10, p. 77.
  5. Burūjirdī, Tafsīr-i jāmiʿ, vol. 5, p. 106.
  6. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 19, p. 236.
  7. Qurʾān, 4:163.
  8. Tawfīqī, Āshnāyī bā adyān-i buzurg, p. 86.
  9. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Damascus, vol. 17, p. 81.
  10. Qurʾān, 2:251.
  11. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Damascus, vol. 17, p. 83.
  12. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 2, p. 10.
  13. Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 1, p. 223.
  14. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 12, p. 181.
  15. Qummī, Tafsīr al-Qummī, vol. 2, p. 163.
  16. Maqrizī, Imtāʿ al-asmāʿ, vol. 12, p. 356.
  17. Qurʾān, 4:163.
  18. Qurʾān, 21:105.
  19. Qurʾān, 17:55.
  20. Qurʾān, 27:16.
  21. Qurʾān, 2:251.
  22. Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 1, p. 223.
  23. See: Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Damascus, vol. 17, p. 86.
  24. Ibn Māja, Sunan, vol. 1, p. 546.
  25. Ḥimyarī, Qurb al-isnād, p. 90.
  26. Qurʾān, 21:79.
  27. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 14, p. 3.
  28. Qurʾān, 38:26.
  29. Qurʾān, 21:78-79.
  30. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 2, p. 632.
  31. Qurʾān, 38:23.
  32. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 19, p. 236.
  33. Qurʾān, 38:24.
  34. Qurʾān, 21:80.
  35. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 9, p. 539.
  36. Maqrizī, Imtāʿ al-asmāʿ, vol. 4, p. 207.
  37. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 14, p. 14.
  38. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 2, p. 13.
  39. Samuel, 12.
  40. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 14, p. 26.
  41. Ṣadūq, Kamāl al-Dīn, vol. 2, p. 524.

References

  • Burūjirdī, Sayyid Muḥammad Ibrāhīm. Tafsīr-i jāmiʿ. Sixth edition. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Ṣadr, 1366 Sh.
  • Dīnawarī, Aḥmad b. Dāwūd. Al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl. Qom: Manshūrāt al-Raḍī, 1368 Sh.
  • Ḥimyarī, ʿAbd Allāh b. Jaʿfar al-. Qurb al-isnād. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt, 1413 AH.
  • Ibn ʿAsākir, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan. Tārīkh madīnat Damascus. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1415 AH.
  • Ibn Athīr, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 1385 AH.
  • Ibn Kathīr, Ismāʿīl b. ʿUmar. al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1407 AH.
  • Ibn Khaldūn, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad. Tārīkh Ibn Khaldūn. Edited by Khalīl Shaḥāda. Secend edition. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1408 AH.
  • Ibn Māja Qazwīnī, Muḥammad b. Yazīd. Sunan. [n.p]: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Kutub al-ʿArabīyya, [n.d].
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Qom: Dār al-Ḥadīth, 1429 AH.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Second edition. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1403 AH.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1374 Sh.
  • Maqrizī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Imtāʿ al-asmāʿ bi-mā li-l-nabīyy min al-aḥwāl wa l-amwāl wa l-ḥafdat wa l-matāʿ. Edited by Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd al-Namīsī. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1420 AH.
  • Qummī, ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm al-. Tafsīr al-Qummī. Edited by Mūsawī Jazāʾirī. Third edition. Qom: Dār al-Kitāb, 1404 AH.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Kamāl al-Dīn wa tamām al-niʿma. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Second edition. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1395 AH.
  • Tawfīqī, Ḥusayn. Āshnāyī bā adyān-i buzurg. Tehran: Samt, 1386 Sh.