Lunar Hijri Months
Dhū l-Ḥijja (Arabic: ذو الحِجَّة) is the last month in Hijri calendar and one of the Haram months. Many practices have been reported for this month in Shi'a and Sunni اadiths. This month is the only permissible time for ihram for hajj al-tamattu'. Literally, Dhu l-Hijja means "owner of hajj" which indicates the close relation of the month to hajj. Hajj rituals usually start in the 9th of Dhu l-Hijja, and finish in the 13th of this month.
In the Qur'an and Hadith
This month is one of the eminent and great months of the year according to Islamic teachings. The first ten days of it, are very well known because of performing hajj rituals during this time. Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Ghadir, the Event of Mubahala and many other events have happened in this month.
It is been narrated in hadiths that the ten nights which God has sworn to them in Quran 89[Note 1] are the ten nights of the first ten days of this month. Moreover, in Quran 22 (Sura al-Hajj), verse 28, Allah has talked about the "Known Days " in which the faithful must remember Allah.[Note 2] One of the most prevalent interpretations for these glorified and great "Known Days" is the first ten days of Dhu l-Hijja. The Prophet (s) said, "For Allah, there is no time purer and greater in reward than these ten days."
In addition to the first ten days of this month which is called "Known Days" in the Qur'an, some other days of this month have been given special names in hadith such as Yawm al-Tarwiya (the day of taking water) for the eighth, the Day of 'Arafa and Yawm al-Mashhud (the day of witnessing) for the ninth, Eid al-Adha or Yawm al-Nahr (the day of sacrificing camels) for the tenth, Ayyam Ma'dudat (appointed days)[Note 3] and Ayyam al-Tashriq (the days of shining) and Ayyam Mina (the days of Mina) for the eleveth to the thirteenth, Yawm al-Qarr (the day of settlement) for the eleventh, Yawm al-Nafr and Yawm al-Nafr al-Awwal (the day of first migration) for the twelfth, and Yawm al-Nafr al-Thani (the day of second migration) and Yawm al-Sadar and al-Hasaba for the thirteenth.
|For the full text, see text:Practices of Dhu l-Hijja.|
There are special recommended practices for the month mentioned in hadiths.
- Main article: Historical Anniversaries of Dhu l-Hijja
- Marriage of Imam Ali (a) to Lady Fatima al-Zahra (a) (Dhu l-Hijja 1, 2).
- Martyrdom of Imam al-Jawad (a) (Dhu l-Hijja 6, 220/835).
- Martyrdom of Imam al-Baqir (a) (Dhu l-Hijja 7, 114/733).
- Departure of Imam al-Husayn (a) from Mecca toward Karbala (Dhu l-Hijja 8, 60/680).
- The Day of 'Arafa (Dhu l-Hijja 9).
- Martyrdom of Muslim b. 'Aqil (Dhu l-Hijja 9, 60/680).
- Eid al-Adha (Dhu l-Hijja 10).
- Giving Fadak to Lady Fatima al-Zahra (a) by the Prophet (s) (Dhu l-Hijja 14, 7/629).
- Birth of Imam al-Hadi (a) (Dhu l-Hijja 15, 212/March 10, 828).
- Eid al-Ghadir (Dhu l-Hijja 18, 10/632).
- Martyrdom of Maytham al-Tammar (Dhu l-Hijja 22, 60/680).
- The day of Mubahala (Dhu l-Hijja 24, 9 or 10/631 or 632).
- The day in which Imam Ali (a) gave away his ring as charity in ruku' and revelation of the Verse of Wilaya about his action. (Dhu l-Hijja 24, 9 or 10/631 or 632).
- By the ten nights (Quran 89:2)
- (They go to hajj) so that they may witness the benefits for them, and mention Allah’s Name during the known days over the livestock He has provided them. So eat thereof, and feed the destitute. (Quran 22:28)
- Remember Allah in the appointed days. Then whoever hastens off in a couple of days, there is no sin upon him, and whoever delays, there is no sin upon him —that for one who has been Godwary— and be wary of Allah, and know that toward Him you will be mustered.
- The material for this article has been mainly taken from ذی الحجة in Farsi wikishia.