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Fidda

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Sahaba
Fidda
Fidda's tomb.jpg
The tomb of Fidda
Personal Information
Full Name Fidda al-Nubiyya
Epithet Fidda
Place of Birth Nubiyya
Place(s) of Residence Medina
Burial Place Bab al-Saghir cemetery in Damascus
Religious Information
Known for Fatima al-Zahra's (a) housemaid
Other Activities Presence in the Battle of Karbala

Fiḍḍa al-Nūbīyya (Arabic: فضة النوبیة) was the housemaid of Fatima al-Zahra (a). She was named "Fidda" by the Prophet (s). She is mentioned in hadiths concerning the birth of Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a), the revelation of al-It'am Verse, and the martyrdom of Fatima al-Zahra (a). She could speak with verses of the Qur'an and knew alchemy. She was allegedly present in the Event of Karbala as well.

Lineage

Fidda was originally from Nubiyya;[1] a city in the south of Sudan[2] or south of Egypt on the eastern side of the Nile river.[3] Some people have considered her to be originally from India[4] and others held that she was the daughter of the Indian king.[5]

In the House of Fatima Zahra (a)

Fidda was Fatima al-Zahra's (a) housemaid.[6] After the revelation of the verse, "then speak to them with gentle words",[7] the Prophet (s) sent her to Fatima's (a) house and called her "Fidda" (which literally means silver).[8]

Fatima (a) divided house works between herself and Fidda—one day she took care of the house and one day Fidda took care of it.[9]

When Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a) contracted a disease, and 'Ali (a) and Fatima (a) vowed to fast for three days after their recovery, Fidda accompanied them and made a similar vow. Verses 7 and 8 of Qur'an 76 were revealed in this regard.[10]

Martyrdom of Fatima al-Zahra (a)

When Imam 'Ali (a) called his children to say goodbye to the corpse of their mother, Fatima (a), he addressed Fidda as well: "O Umm Kulthum, O Zaynab, O Sukayna, O Fidda, O Hasan, O Husayn, come on and say goodbye to your mother [11].[12]

Husband and Children

After the martyrdom of Lady Fatima (a), Fidda served Imam 'Ali (a).[13] She lived for 20 years after that. She was known as a pious and righteous woman.[14] Imam 'Ali (a) married her to Abu Tha'laba al-Habashi from whom she had a son. After Abu Tha'laba's death, she married Abu Malik al-Ghatfani. Her son died after this marriage.[15] Fidda had children from Abu Malik. A girl called Shuhra bt. Muska bt. Fidda who allegedly exhibited some supernatural acts was Fidda's granddaughter.[16] According to some sources, her second husband complained against her to 'Umar b. Khattab, but 'Umar judged in favor of Fidda.[17]

Characteristics

Fidda talked only with verses of the Qur'an for 20 years; she answered people's questions with Quranic verses.[18] There is a long hadith in which she elaborates the condition of Fatima al-Zahra (a) since the demise of the Prophet (s) until her martyrdom.[19] Imam 'Ali (a) said about her: "O God! Bless us in our Fidda".[20]

According to some people, she knew alchemy.[21] Allegedly, she had learned it from Fatima al-Zahra (a).[22] The Prophet (s) had also taught her some supplications and dhikrs for solving problems.[23] The second caliph acknowledged her religious knowledge.[24]

Lion and Fidda

Lion of Fidda in Karbala

According to some sources, Fidda al-Nubiyya was present in Karbala. The story of the lion and Fidda is concerned with her presence there.[25] She allegedly talked with a lion. The lion wanted to prevent horses from treading the corpse of Imam al-Husayn (a).[26] However, given the evidence that horses did tread the Imam's (a) corpse,[27] the story does not seem to be reliable.

There is a place in Karbala known as the "Lion of Fidda".

Death

There is a mausoleum in Damascus which is attributed to Fidda. It is located in Bab al-Saghir cemetery. Her grave is near the mausoleum attributed to 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far b. Abi Talib at the western end of the cemetery. There is a small green dome on her chamber and its walls are made with black stones.[28]

In Ritual Poems

In religious and ritual poems, Fidda is referred to as the housemaid of Fatima al-Zahra (a) and as exhibiting some kiramat (supernatural acts). She is said to be distinguished because of her companionship with Fatima (a).

Note

  1. Ḥasūn, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ al-muʾmināt, p. 696; Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 8, p. 281.
  2. Ṭurayḥī, Majmaʿ al-baḥrayn, vol. 2, p. 178.
  3. Ibn al-Wardī, Rīyāḍ al-sālikīn, vol. 4, p. 224.
  4. Mughnīya, al-Ḥusayn wa baṭalat Karbala, p. 287.
  5. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 9, p. 575.
  6. Ḥasūn, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ al-muʾmināt, p. 696; Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 8, p. 281.
  7. Qur'an 17:28
  8. Ḥuwayzī, Tafsīr nūr al-thaqalayn, vol. 2, p. 157.
  9. Anṣārī, al-Mawsūʿa al-Karbala, vol. 17, p. 429.
  10. See: Ḥasūn, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ al-muʾmināt, p. 699-700..
  11. یا أُمَّ كُلْثُومٍ یا زَینَبُ یا سُكَینَةُ یا فِضَّةُ یا حَسَنُ یا حُسَینُ هَلُمُّوا تَزَوَّدُوا مِنْ أُمِّكُم
  12. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 43, p. 179.
  13. Ḥasūn, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ al-muʾmināt, p. 696.
  14. Mughnīya, al-Ḥusayn wa baṭalat Karbala, p. 287.
  15. Ḥasūn, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ al-muʾmināt, p. 697.
  16. Ḥāʾirī, Taslīmat al-majālis, vol. 1, p. 529.
  17. Maghribī, Sharḥ al-akhbār, vol. 2, p. 328; Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 3, p. 183.
  18. Maḥallātī, Rayāḥīn al-Sharīʿa, vol. 2, p. 313-326.
  19. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 43, p. 174-180
  20. Ṭūsī, al-Thāqib fī l-manāqib, p. 281.
  21. Anṣārī, al-Mawsūʿa al-Karbala, vol. 17, p. 428.
  22. Anṣārī, al-Mawsūʿa al-Karbala, vol. 17, p. 430.
  23. Anṣārī, al-Mawsūʿa al-Karbala, vol. 17, p. 429.
  24. Maghribī, Sharḥ al-akhbār, vol. 2, p. 328; Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 3, p. 183.
  25. Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Ithbāt al-hudāt, vol. 4, p. 37.
  26. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 465.
  27. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 113.
  28. Qāʾidān, Amākin-i sīyāḥatī wa zīyāratī-yi Damascus, p. 47.

References

  • Ḥasūn, Muḥammad al-. Aʿlām al-nisāʾ al-muʾmināt. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī, 1419 AH.
  • Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Ithbāt al-hudāt, vol. 4, p. 37.
  • Ḥuwayzī, Tafsīr nūr al-thaqalayn, vol. 2, p. 157.
  • Ibn al-Wardī, Rīyāḍ al-sālikīn, vol. 4, p. 224.
  • Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Al-Iṣāba fī tamyīz al-ṣaḥāba. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1415 AH.
  • Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Najaf: al-Maktaba al-Ḥaydarīyya, [n.d].
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Tehan: Islāmīyya, 1362 Sh.
  • Maghribī, Qāḍī Nuʿmān al-. Sharḥ al-akhbār fī faḍāʾil al-aʾimma al-aṭhār. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1414 AH.
  • Maḥallātī, Dhabīḥ Allāh. Rayāḥīn al-Sharīʿa. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, [n.d].
  • Majlisī, Muḥamamd Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1403 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād. Qom: Kungira-yi al-Shaykh al-Mufīd, 1413 AH.
  • Ṭurayḥī, Fakhr al-Dīn b. Muḥammad al-. Majmaʿ al-baḥrayn. Edited by Ḥusaynī Ashkūrī. Tehran: Murtaḍawī, 1375 Sh.
  • Ṭūsī, Ibn Ḥamza al-. Al-Thāqib fī l-manāqib. Qom: Anṣārīyān, 1412 AH.