Al-Ghadir Sermon

From WikiShia
(Redirected from Ghadir Sermon)
Jump to: navigation, search
Good article since October 5, 2015Priority: a, Quality: b
This article is about a sermon of the Prophet (s) appointing 'Ali (a) as his successor. For other uses, see Ghadir (disambiguation).
Shi'a
Usul al-Din (Beliefs)
Main Beliefs TawhidProphethoodResurrection'AdlImamate
Other Beliefs 'IsmaWilayaMahdawiyya: Occultation (Minor Occultation, Major Occultation), Intizar, Zuhur, and Raj'aBada'
Furu' al-Din (Practical Orders)
'Ibadi Orders PrayerFastingKhumsZakatHajjJihad
Non-'Ibadi Orders Forbidding the EvilEnjoining the GoodTawalliTabarri
Sources of Ijtihad Qur'anSunnaReasonIjma'
Ethics
Virtues ForgivenessGenerosityGenerous help
Vices Greater SinsKibr'UjbGhururJealousy
Sources Nahj al-BalaghaAl-Sahifa al-SajjadiyyaLetter of Imam 'Ali to Imam al-Hasan
Challenging Issues
Succession of the Prophet (s)Shafa'aTawassulTaqiyyaMourningMut'aCompanions
Figures
Shi'a Imams Imam 'Ali (a)Imam al-Hasan (a)Imam al-Husayn (a)Imam al-Sajjad (a)Imam al-Baqir (a)Imam al-Sadiq (a)Imam al-Kazim (a)Imam al-Rida (a)Imam al-Jawad (a)Imam al-Hadi (a)Imam al-'Askari (a)Imam al-Mahdi (a)
Companions

Men: HamzaJa'far b. Abi TalibSalman al-FarsiMiqdad b. AswadAbudhar al-Ghifari'Ammar YasirMalik al-AshtarMuhammad b. Abi Bakr'Aqil'Uthman b. HunayfAbu Ayyub al-AnsariJabir b. 'Abd Allah al-AnsariIbn 'Abbas'Abd Allah b. Ja'farKhuzayma b. ThabitBilalYasir

Women: KhadijaLady Fatima (a)ZaynabUmm KulthumAsma' bt. 'UmaysUmm AymanUmm Salama
Scholars LitterateursScholars of UsulPoetsScholars of RijalFaqihsPhilosophersBibliographersExegetes
Shrines
Mecca: Al-Masjid al-Haram
Medina: Al-Masjid al-NabawiAl-Baqi'
Al-Quds: Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa
Najaf: Shrine of Imam 'Ali (a)Masjid al-Kufa
Karbala: Shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a)
Kadhimiya: Shrine of al-Kazimayn (a)
Samarra: Shrine of al-'Askariyyayn (a)
Mashhad: Shrine of Imam al-Rida (a)
Damascus: Zaynabiyya
Qom: Shrine of Lady Fatima al-Ma'suma
Shiraz: Shah Chiragh
Rey: Shrine of 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani
Eids
Eid al-FitrEid al-AdhaEid al-GhadirMab'athProphet's birthdayImams' birthdays
Mournings
FatimiyyaMuharram (Mournings of Muharram), Tasu'a, 'Ashura and Arba'in)
Events
MubahalaEvent of GhadirEvent of Saqifa Bani Sa'idaFadakEvents of Lady Fatima's HouseBattle of JamalBattle of SiffinBattle of NahrawanEvent of KarbalaHadith al-ThaqalaynAshab al-Kisa'Tathir VerseKilling Shi'as
Literature
Qur'anNahj al-balaghaal-Sahifa al-SajjadiyyaThe Four Books: (al-Istibsaral-KafiTahdhib al-ahkamKitab man la yahduruh al-faqih) • Mushaf of Fatima (a)Mushaf Imam 'Ali (a)Asrar-i Al-i Muhammad (s)Wasa'il al-Shi'aBihar al-anwaral-GhadirMafatih al-jinanMajma' al-bayanal-MizanOther Books
Sects
Ithna 'AshariyyaIsma'iliyyaZaydiyyaKaysaniyya

First Imam of Shi'a
'Ali (a)


Life
Family treeEvent of GhadirLaylat al-MabitYawm al-DarSuccession of the Prophet (s)Timeline


Heritage
Nahj al-BalaghaGhurar al-hikamAl-Shiqshiqiyya SermonHoly Shrine


Excellences
Excellences of Ahl al-Bayt (a)Al-Wilaya VerseAhl al-Dhikr VerseUli l-Amr VerseAl-Tathir VerseAl-Mubahala VerseAl-Mawadda VerseAl-Sadiqin VerseHadith Madinat al-'IlmHadith al-ThaqalaynHadith al-RayatHadith al-SafinaHadith al-Kisa'Al-Ghadir SermonHadith al-ManzilaHadith Yawm al-DarHadith Sadd al-Abwab


Companions
'Ammar b. YasirMalik al-AshtarAbu Dhar al-Ghifari'Ubayd Allah b. Abi Rafi'Hujr b. 'Adiothers


Al-Ghadīr Sermon (Arabic: خطبة الغدير) is a sermon delivered by the Prophet (s) where he (s) introduced 'Ali (a) as the guardian of Muslims. The prophet (s) delivered this sermon on Dhu l-Hijja 18 of 10/March 19, 632) on the return from Hajjat al-Wida' [Hajj of Farewell] in a place called Ghadir Khumm. Many Shi'a and Sunni scholars have narrated this sermon.

Al-Ghadir sermon is one of the proofs Shi'a bring for the guardianship of Imam 'Ali (a) after the Prophet (s). Shi'a also support their claim with other proofs and evidences.

The Hadith al-Ghadir is a part of this sermon where the Prophet (s) says, "Anyone I am his master, then 'Ali (a) is his master."

Since, this phrase is narrated by more than 110 companions of the Prophet (s) and 84 Followers, it can be said that this hadith has been narrated as mutawatir [frequent].

'Abd al-Husayn Amini collected all the references for this sermon and the Hadith al-Ghadir from Sunni sources and published them together with all other supportive reasons for the event of Ghadir in 11 volumes in his book al-Ghadir.

Event of al-Ghadir

Main article: Event of Ghadir

In 10/632, the Prophet (s) decided to go to Hajj. This Hajj was made in the last year of his life which was later called Hajjat al-Wida' [Hajj of Farewell].[1] People were informed of the Prophet's (s) decision and thus they were prepared to go to Hajj.[2]

Many Muslims gathered in Medina to accompany the Prophet (s) for Hajj.[3] He exited Medina for Mecca on Dhu l-Qa'da 25th.[4]

Since Ramadan of that year, Imam Ali (a) had gone to Madhhij in Yemen for the battle with disbelievers.[5] After he (a) was gained victory and collected the booties, the Prophet (s) ordered him to join him in Mecca to perform Hajj rituals.[6]

On the 'Arafa day, the Prophet (s) delivered a sermon for the pilgrims of Hajj and reminded them of important issues including the importance of Muslims' blood and property, trust-keeping, prohibition of usury, women's rights, and prohibiting people of following Satan.[7]

After finishing Hajj rituals, Muslims exited Mecca and returned to their own states. On Dhu l-Hijja 18, the caravan of Hajj pilgrims arrived in Ghadir Khumm,[8] between Mecca and Medina, 5 km away from Juhfa where different routes separate from each other.[9] When the caravan arrived there, Gabriel revealed verses of 67 of the Sura al-Ma'ida to the Prophet (s) and delivered him God's order to announce Wilaya [guardianship] of 'Ali (a) to all people.[10] Caravan was stopped by the order of the Prophet (s) and those who were behind joined them. After noon prayer, a pulpit was made and the Prophet (s) delivered a sermon in which he (s) told people that he (s) would soon depart them. He mentioned two precious things he would leave and trust people with and spoke about his Wilaya and priority over believers.[11] Then, he (s) raised 'Ali's (a) hand and said, "Anyone I am his master, then this 'Ali (a) is his master."[12] Then he (s) made du'as for 'Ali's (a) friends and cursed his enemies.[13] That time, Hassan b. Thabit asked for permission and recited a poem he composed about that event.[14] Then 'Umar congratulated 'Ali (a) for his position.[15]

Key Points

  • At the beginning of the sermon, the Prophet (s) praised God and for some minutes eloquently described God's attributes for people,
  • Mentioning God's order for announcing something important and the revelation of the Tabligh Verse,
  • The Prophet's (s) asking God to dispense him with that announcement due to his fear for the mischiefs of hypocrites and several comings of Gabriel for repeating God's order and promising the Prophet (s) that he (s) would be kept safe from the mischief of people,
  • Announcing that it was his last attendance in such a gathering of people and that Imamate of the Ummah would be upon 'Ali (a) and his descendants until the Day of Judgment,
  • Saying that things the Prophet (s) mentioned as forbidden and things he (s) mentioned as permissible will remain so until the Day of Judgment,
  • Mentioning the levels of 'Ali's (a) knowledge and merits,
  • Saying that denying Wilaya of 'Ali (a) would be an unforgivable sin forever,
  • Mentioning that anyone who questions the Prophet's (s) speech or any of Imams (a) would be just the same as disbelievers at the age of pre-Islam Ignorance,
  • Saying the historical statement of "whoever I am his master, then this 'Ali (a) is his master",
  • Repeating the Hadith al-Thaqalayn and mentioning the positions of the Qur'an and the Ahl al-Bayt (a) beside each other,
  • Emphasizing the succession and caliphate of 'Ali (a),
  • Making prayer for the friends of Imam 'Ali (a) and cursing his enemies, "O God, befriend his friends and be the enemy of his enemies",
  • Coming of Gabriel and announcing the perfection of religion (a part of verse 3 of Sura al-Ma'ida),
  • Emphasizing on the position of Imamate and heeding people not to be envy of Imam,
  • Mentioning the mischief of hypocrites,
  • Mentioning the end of Imamate with the Rising Imam al-Mahdi (a), a descendant of Imam 'Ali (a),
  • Prohibiting people from following false Imams in future,
  • Ordering the audience to deliver the message of his speech in Ghadir Khum to others who were absent,
  • Enjoining people to friendship with the Ahl al-Bayt (a) and enmity with their enemies,
  • Mentioning about 20 sentences about Imam al-Mahdi (a) and his government,
  • Saying that the best of the good is to understand the Prophet's (s) word and to deliver it to others,
  • Mentioning other merits of Imam 'Ali (a) and ordering people to officially give allegiance to him as the Imam and successor of the Prophet (s),

References

This sermon in its complete form as mentioned above has been narrated in different ways in Shi'a historical and hadith references during centuries. These narrations are quoted from the Prophet (s) in either of three ways: Imam al-Baqir (a),[16] Hudhayfa b. Yaman,[17] Zayd b. Arqam.[18]

The text of the al-Ghadir sermon of is mentioned in the books below:

Hadith al-Ghadir

Hadith al-Ghadir is a part of al-Ghadir sermon which is narrated in Shi'a sources and most of Sunni historical and hadith references during centuries. Their common feature is announcement of Imam 'Ali's (a) Wilaya and announcing him as the Wali of believers. Also, the statement of

"whoever I am his master, then this 'Ali (a) is his master"

is common among all of these different versions of reports about this occasion. The mentioned statement has become famous as the "Hadith al-Ghadir".

Direct Quotations

According to 'Allama Amini, this hadith has been narrated by:

Some Sunni scholars of Rijal and hadith, have considered the number of references for this hadith numerous and most of them have regarded it as Sahih [authentic] and Hasan [correct].[21] Among narrators of this hadith, about 90 ones are Companions of the Prophet (s) and 84 of them were Followers.

Indirect Quotations

In addition to direct quotations, some have narrated it from those who were present in the event of Ghadir Khumm. It was narrated by

Narrators of Hadith al-Ghadir

Some of the most important companions, Followers and other narrators of this hadith are as follows:

Ahl al-Bayt (a) Companions Followers Later Narrators
'Ali b. Abi Talib (a)[34] Abu Bakr b. Abi Quhafa Abu Sulayman Mu'adhdhin Muhammad b. Isma'il al-Bukhari[35]
Lady Fatima (a)[36] 'Umar b. al-Khattab Abu Salih Samman Dhakwan al-Madani Al-Baladhuri[37]
Al-Hasan b. 'Ali (a)[38] 'A'isha Asbagh b. Nubata Ahmad b. Shu'ayb al-Nasa'i[39]
Al-Husayn b. 'Ali (a)[40] 'Uthman b. 'Affan Salim b. Qays al-Hilali Al-Haskani al-Hanafi[41]
Muhammad b. 'Ali al-Baqir (a)[42] Umm Salama Tawus b. Kaysan Ibn 'Asakir[43]
Zayd b. Arqam[44] 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz[45] Fakhr al-Din al-Razi al-Shafi'i[46]
Anas b. Malik Abu Rashid al-Hubrani Ibn Abi l-Hadid[47]
Khuzayma b. Thabit Abu Layla al-Kindi Ibn Kathir al-Shafi'i[48]
Jabir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansari Ayas b. Nudhayr Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki[49]
Hudhayfa b. Yaman[50] Habib . Abi Thabit al-Asadi Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi[51]
'Abd Allah b. 'Abbas Habib b. 'Utayba al-Kufi Ibn Hamza al-Husayni al-Hanafi[52]
Salman al-Farsi Abu 'Ubayda b. Abi Hamid al-Basri Shahab al-Din al-Alusi[53]
Hassan b. Thabit Abu Maryam Zirr b. Hubaysh al-Asadi Muhammad 'Abduh[54]
Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas Salim b. 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar Abu Muhammad b. Dawud al-Hilli[55]
Qays b. Thabit b. Shammas[56] Sa'id b. Jubayr al-Asadi[57] Safi al-Din al-Hilli[58]

Research Sources for References of the al-Ghadir Sermon

Criticisms about the References

Some have tried to make doubts about this historical event including the following:

Weakness of the References

Despite the frequency of narration, multitude of references, and the many ways through which this hadith has been narrated, some Sunni scholars believe that this hadith cannot be regarded as Mutawatir [frequent] and Sahih [authentic].[67] Their justification is that most hadith narrators such as Al-Bukhari and Muslim al-Nisaburi have not narrated it and some others including Abi Dawud and Abi Hatam al-Razi have considered it weak.[68]

Their doubt has been answered as many Sunni scholars such as al-Tirmidhi (d. 279/892),[69] al-Tahawi (d. 279/892),[70] Hakim al-Nisaburi (d. 405/1014),[71] Ibn Kathir (d. 774/1375),[72] Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani (d. 852/1448),[73] Ibn Hajar al-Haythami (d. 974/1566)[74] have confirmed the authenticity of the references for this hadith. Moreover, there are many other direct and indirect narrations from the companions and the followers in historical and hadith references which prove the authenticity of the references of this hadith and the reason why al-Bukhari and Muslim did not narrate it must be studied separately, not in connection with their doubt for the references of this hadith.

Criticism about the Authenticity

Another criticism mentioned by critics of this hadith is that 'Ali (a) was not in Mecca to be able to attend in the event of Ghadir and he (a) has been doing his mission in Yemen;[75] while, the advocates of this hadith refer to Sunni sources which have mentioned that Imam 'Ali (a) had returned to Mecca from Yemen sooner and had participated in Hajj rituals of that year.[76]

Indication

Ghadir Khum by Mahmud Farshchian.

Hadith al-Ghadir made the ground for many discussions. Imam 'Ali (a) and Ahl al-Bayt's (a) references to this hadith are among the first usage of this hadith. Also, Shi'a theologians referred to this hadith to prove the rights and priority of Imam 'Ali (a) for caliphate. According to Shi'a theological references, al-Shaykh al-Mufid was the first theologian who extensively benefited from this hadith for his arguments.[77] Al-Shaykh al-Tusi[78] and al-'Allama al-Hilli[79] also extensively benefited from this hadith for their arguments. Sunni theologians such as Fakhr al-Din al-Razi,[80] Qadi Iji,[81] al-Taftazani[82] and al-Jurjani[83] tried to answer Shi'a scholars and extensive discussions were took place.

Sunni Viewpoint

Most Sunni scholars believe that the word "Mawla" (Arabic: مَولی) in this hadith does not mean "guardian" nor "prior in making decision for" and rather it means "friend and assistant". Scholars such as al-Taftazani,[84] Fakhr al-Din al-Razi,[85] Qadi Iji and al-Jurjani[86] claim that "Mawla" cannot mean "guardian" and "prior in making decision for".

They also argue that,

Firstly, in Arabic, the verbal form "Maf'al" (Arabic: مَفعَل) is not used for the meaning "Awla" (Arabic: أولی, prior).[87]

Secondly, if "Mawla" means "prior in making decision for", then we must be able to use them interchangeably; while for instance in this hadith, instead of the phrase "whoever I am his Mawla", grammatically, one cannot put "whoever I am his prior in making decision".[88]

In return, Shi'a scholars answered these arguments as follows,

Firstly, Sunni scholars themselves have admitted that "Mawla" has also been used as "prior in making decision for".[89] Scholars of literature such as Ghyath al-Taghlabi al-Akhtal (d. 90/709),[90] Abu l-Sha'tha' b. Ru'ba al-Sa'di al-'Ajaj (d. 90/709),[91] Abu Zakariyya Yahya b. Ziyad al-Farra' (d. 207/822),[92] Abu 'Ubayda (d. 209/824), al-Akhfash (d. 215/830) and al-Zajjaj (d. 311/923)[93] have confirmed this issue.

Secondly, the second problem mentioned above is not true because if a word is not used in the place of another, it does not mean that they does not have the same meaning; e. g. according to this justification, the word "Nasir" [assistant] which Sunni believe as one of the meanings of the word "Mawla" must be able to be used with the word "Mawla" interchangeably, but grammatically "Mawla" cannot be used in the place of "Nasir" so the two words could not have the same meaning.

Thirdly, using two synonyms interchangeably is correct if they fit in the context, whereas here they cannot be used interchangeably since "Nasir" is used with the article "Min", but "Mawla" is not.[94]

Shi'a Viewpoint

Shi'a believe that the word "Mawla" in this hadith means "Awla bi-l-tasarruf" ("prior in making decision for") and the same as the Prophet (s) was prior to Muslims' affairs in making decisions for them than themselves, Imam 'Ali (a) had the same priority. This opinion has two preconditions:

A) "Mawla" means "prior in making decision for";

B) There's a required connection between priority [over Muslims] in making decision for [them] in one hand, and imamate and caliphate on the other.[95]

Shi'a believe that there are contextual and situational references in this hadith which suggest that the word "Mawla" in this hadith just and only means "prior in making decision for" and having this priority proved, Imam Ali's (a) imamate will also be proved, since 'Arabs use "Awla" (prior) only in cases where the "Mawla" has a responsibility for people and his orders are acceptable for them.[96] And thus, when "priority in making decision" is proved, their priority of decisions for all the aspects of Muslims' lives will also be proved as the Prophet (s) had such a priority and authority:

To prove this point, Shi'a have studied and discussed the content of this hadith. The word "Mawla" has been used in this hadith several times. It is a derivation of the word "Wali" and it is a name of God.[97] It has different meanings. In one sense, it is rhymed with the verbal form "Faʿīl" (Arabic: فعيل) meaning "Fāʿil" (Arabic: فاعل)[98] and thus has the usages of governor, ruler, guardian, manager and master.[99] Its other usages are "the one who has a greater right", "closer", "attached" and "a following lover".[100]

Evidences for Shi'a Justification

According to Shi'a, although this word has various usages, there are contextual references [in and out of the text] of this hadith which suggest that the word "Mawla" in this hadith just and only means "prior authority in making decision". These evidences are:

In the Text

The coherence and relation between the two phrase "Alast Awla Bikum Min Anfusakum"? ["Have I not a greater right over you than your selves"?] and "Man Kunt Mawlah" ["one for whom I am the Mawla"]:

In this hadith, the Prophet (s) clarifies his greater right and authority over the faithful than themselves, based on the verse "The Prophet has a greater right (or a greater authority) over the faithful than they have over their own selves…." (33:6) The greater right and authority mentioned in this verse is about the life of the faithful and also about ruling them than themselves. When there is a greater right and authority, we are required to follow and obey the one who has that greater right and authority.[101] According to the opinions of some exegetes, the greater right and authority mentioned in this verse addresses all worldly and spiritual affairs of Muslims,[102] since the Prophet (s) would order the faithful only to what brings them the happiness in religion and the world.[103]

Therefore, the correlation which exists between the mentioned phrase implying "the greater right and authority" and introducing 'Ali (a) in the other phrase shows that "Mawla" in the second phrase supported 'Ali's (a) greater right and authority over Muslims.[104]

Sentences at the Beginning of the Sermon

At the beginning of his sermon, the Prophet (s) gave the news about his demise and then asked about unity and whether he did his mission well.[105] These are all signs for the fact that the Prophet (s) was trying to find a solution for the period after his demise, so that the Umma would not remain without leader and guardian and the great efforts he (s) made would not be left without fruits. He (s) wanted to appoint a wise and competent successor to manage different issues after he (s) passed away[106] and the verse 67 of Sura al-Ma'ida is an evidence to support this claim.

Situational Evidences

'Umar b. al-Khattab and Abu Bakr's Congratulations:

In some versions of narrating this hadith, it is mentioned that after the Prophet's (s) sermon, 'Umar b. al-Khattab and Abu Bakr approached 'Ali (a) and congratulated his Wilaya to him.[107] 'Umar b. al-Khattab told him, "Happy, happy for you, O Ibn Abi Talib! You became my Mawla and the Mawla of all Muslims."[108] This kind of congratulating shows that Companions and other Muslims understood the word "Mawla" to imply the meaning of caliphate and having greater rights and authority.[109]

Hassan b. Thabit:

Called them the Day of Ghadir, their Prophet (s)

In Khumm, and I heard the Prophet (s) calling:

"who is your master and guardian?"

and they said without hesitation there:

"Your God is our master and you are our guardian."

"you will not see any disobedience in this issue from us"

Then he (s) said: "'Ali (a), stand up! Surly I,

have chosen you after myself, the Imam and guidance

and anyone whose master I am, then this is his master

so, be assistant to him and true partisans"

then [he (s) said] the Du'a, "O God! Be friend with whom becomes a friend of him,

and for the one who oppose 'Ali (a) [as enemy], be the enemy!"

Poems of the Poets of Early Islam

Some Muslims composed poems about that event, first of whom was Hassan b. Thabit. He was present there and asked the Prophet (s) for permission to compose some verses of poem about that event. In these verse, that event is mentioned as the appointment of Imam 'Ali (a) as Imam and the guidance of the Umma.[110]

Later in next years,

narrated that event in the form of poem.

Also, Imam 'Ali (a) composed some verses of poem about that event.[115] 'Allama Amini mentioned the name of some poets from among the Companions, the Followers, and Muslim poets before ninth/fifteenth century.[116] The message of all these verses and poems suggest that the understanding of the word "Mawla" in them has been greater right, authority and caliphate.

Imam 'Ali (a):

The Prophet (s), on the Day of Ghadir,

Made his Wilaya on you, an obligation for me,

so woe and woe and woe,

Upon one who meets his Lord tomorrow, while done injustice on me

Ahl al-Bayt's (s) Giving Proofs and Referring to this Hadith

In some cases, Imam 'Ali (a) referred to this hadith to prove his greater right for caliphate and imamate. Among such cases are his argument against Talha in the Battle of Jamal,[117] his argument in the yard of the mosque of Kufa,[118] writing some verses of poem in his letter to Mu'awiya[119] and his argument in the Battle of Siffin.[120] Lady Fatima (a) referred to this hadith in arguing against opposers of the caliphate of Imam 'Ali (a).[121]

Suffering Some Companions, who rejected this Hadith, from Incurable Diseases

Some Companions who were present at the event of Ghadir Khumm later avoided to testify about their presence and were afflicted to the curse of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) which made them afflicted to diseases. For example, Anas b. Malik contracted leprosy[122] and Zayd b. Arqam[123] and al-Ash'ath b. Qays[124] became blind. This shows that it was an event more than friendship and assistance of Imam 'Ali (a) that those people rejected it and the Ahl al-Bayt (a) found them deserved to be cursed.[125]

Al-Tabligh Verse

Main article: Al-Tabligh Verse

Verse 67 of Sura al-Ma'ida which according to hadiths[126] and the opinion of some exegetes[127] was revealed in Hajjat al-Wida' on the way between Mecca and Medina, assigned the Prophet (s) with the announcement of a very important issue which was equal to his 23 year mission and if he (s) did not announce that, it was as if he (s) did not carry out his mission. However, it would have risks which God promised him to take care of. There are points in the verse which suggest that what the Prophet (s) had to do was announcement of the Wilaya of Imam 'Ali (a)[128] and this is mentioned by Ibn 'Abbas, Bara' b. 'Adhib and Muhammad b. 'Ali.[129]

But, some believe that the goal of this mission has been mentioning some issues such as the rulings for qisas and rajm [stoning], marriage with the wife of his adopted son Zayd, obligation of Jihad, saying the weak points and problems of Jews and Quraysh and the idols of the polytheists.[130] However, according to what was mentioned earlier, such interpretations are incorrect.

Al-Ikmal Verse

Main article: Al-Ikmal Verse

After the sermon of the Prophet (s), a part of verse 3 of Sura al-Ma'ida was revealed to him[131] which show the importance of this day. Disappointment of disbelievers from Islam, perfection of religious teachings, completion of blessings of God and God's pleasure in Islam to be the ultimate religion of people.[132]

This verse, according to some scholars, mentioned the last duty in Islam and no other obligation is mentioned after that.[133] Also the Prophet (s), after this verse revealed to him, praised God for perfection of religion.[134] Since that time, there was no ruling left to perfect religion and disappoint disbelievers, announcement of the Wilaya of 'Ali (a) was the only issue which had all these advantages[135] as some hadiths have mentioned this.[136]

Opposite to this view, some believe that perfection of religion was due to perfection of religious rulings by mentioning the rulings which meet the needs of future Muslims and thus no new religion is needed to come;[137] while, this is not true and perfection of rulings is not related to disappointment of disbelievers in apostasy and return of Muslims to disbelief, since many disbelievers hoped that after the Prophet (s) passed away, his religion would also be forgotten after a while, but announcement of a successor after the Prophet (s) disappointed them.[138] Moreover, the outward power of Islam was revealed on the day of the Conquest of Mecca not in 10/632 when the event of Ghadir Khum took place. Therefore, perfection of religion was not due to exposure of the outward power of Islam on that day but some other reasons which were mentioned above.[139]

Verses at the Beginning of the Sura al-Ma'arij

After the Prophet (s) announced the issue of 'Ali's Wilaya to people, a person called Nu'man b. Harith al-Fihri came to the Prophet (s) and objected that, "You ordered us to acknowledge Unity of God, your prophethood, performing Jihad, Hajj, fasting, prayer, and giving Zakat and we accepted. But, you were not satisfied with this much until you appointed this young man as our Wali. Is this appointment your own decision or from God?!" As soon as the Prophet (s) answered him that it was God's order, the man asked God disdainfully that if this order was from God, a stone should fall on his head from the sky. Then, a stone fell from the sky on his head and he dropped dead and the verses at the Beginning of the Sura al-Ma'arij were then revealed:[140]

Shi'a believe that this person did not understand from the hadith but the caliphate of Imam 'Ali (a) after the Prophet (s), otherwise, if he only understood the Prophet's (s) request of people to love 'Ali (a), he would not be bothered from the Prophet's (s) announcement which would require such a grave punishment for him.

References to the al-Ghadir Sermon

Shi'a Books

Sunni Books

See also

Notes

  1. Bukhari, Tarikh al-kabir, vol. 4, p. 1599; Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-umam, vol. 3, p. 152; Al-Halabi, Al-Sira, vol. 3, p. 360
  2. Ibn Hisham, Al-Sira, vol. 2, p. 601
  3. Al-Waqidi, Al-Maghazi, vol. 3, p. 1089; Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa l-nihaya, vol. 5, p. 110
  4. Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-umam, vol. 3, p. 149
  5. Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-umam, vol. 3, p. 152; Al-Halabi, Al-Sira, vol. 3, p. 360
  6. Al-Waqidi, Al-Maghazi, vol. 3, p. 1079-1080; Al-Halabi, Al-Sira, vol. 3, p. 289
  7. Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-umam, vol. 3, p. 150-152; Ibn Hisham, Al-Sira, vol. 2, p. 603-604
  8. Al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, vol. 2, p. 118
  9. Al-Hamawi, Mu'jam al-buldan, vol. 2, p. 103
  10. Al-Mufid, Tafsir al-Qur'an, vol. 1, p. 184; 'Ayyashi, Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 332
  11. Al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, vol. 2, p. 1
  12. Ibn Athir, Usd al-ghaba, vol. 5, p. 253; Al-Kulayni, Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 27
  13. Al-Baladhuri, Ansab al-ashraf, vol. 2, p. 111; Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 7, p. 349
  14. Al-Saduq, Al-Amali, p. 575; Al-Mufid, Aqsam al-mawla, p. 35; Al-Tusi, Al-iqtisad, p. 351; Al-Tusi, Al-Rasa'il, p. 138
  15. Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 7, p. 349
  16. Ibn Fattal, Rawdat al-wa'izin, vol. 1, p. 9; Al-Tabrisi, Al-Ihtijaj, vol. 1, p. 66; Ibn Tawus, Al-Yaqin, p. 343; 'Alam al-Huda, Nuzhat al-kiram, vol. 1, p. 186
  17. Ibn Tawus, Al-Iqbal, p. 454, 456
  18. Hilli, Al-'Udad, p. 169; Ibn Tawus, Al-Tahsin, p. 578; Al-Bayadi, Al-Sirat al-mustaqim, vol. 1, p. 301; Ibn Jabur, Nahj al-iman, Sheet 26-34
  19. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 40
  20. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 158
  21. Al-'Asqalani, Fath al-bari, vol. 7, p. 61
  22. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 4, p. 370
  23. Al-'Asqalani, Al-Isaba, vol. 3, p. 484
  24. Ibn Maghazili, Manaqib, vol. 1, p. 66
  25. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 5, p. 370
  26. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 88
  27. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 84
  28. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 119; Khatib Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 16, p. 348
  29. Ibn Maghazili, Manaqib, vol. 1, p. 54
  30. Haythami, Majma' al-zawa'id, vol. 9, p. 136
  31. Dulabi, Al-Kuna wa al-asma' , vol. 3, p. 928
  32. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 118
  33. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 5, p. 366
  34. Al-Haythami, Majma' al-zawa'id, vol. 9, p. 107; Ibn Maghazili, Manaqib, vol. 1, p. 112; Ibn Athir, Usd al-ghaba, vol. 3, p. 307
  35. Al-Bukhari, Tarikh al-kabir, vol. 1, p. 375
  36. Ibn al-Jazari, Asna al-matalib, p. 49
  37. Al-Baladhuri, Ansab al-ashraf, vol. 2, p. 108
  38. Al-Qunduzi, Yanabi' al-mawadda, vol. 3, p. 369
  39. Nasa'i, p. 93
  40. Sulaym b. Qays, Kitab Sulaym, p. 321
  41. Al-Haskani, Shawahid al-tanzil, vol. 1, p. 201
  42. Ibn Fattal, Rawdat al-wa'izin, vol. 1, p. 89; Ibn Tawus, Al-Yaqin, p. 343; 'Alam al-Huda, Nuzhat al-kiram, vol. 1, p. 186
  43. Ibn 'Asakir, Tarjimat al-Imam al-Husayn, vol. 2, p. 70
  44. Al-Hilli, Al-'Udad, p. 169; Ibn Tawus, Al-Tahsin, p. 578; Al-Bayadi, Al-Sirat al-mustaqim, vol. 1, p. 301; Ibn Jabur, Nahj al-iman, Sheet 26-34
  45. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 14-15
  46. Al-Razi, Tafsir al-Razi, vol. 12, p. 49
  47. Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-blagha, vol. 1, p. 13
  48. Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 5, p. 209
  49. Ibn Sabbagh, Al-Fusul al-muhimma, vol., p. 235
  50. Ibn Tawus, Al-Iqbal, p. 454-456
  51. Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'ummal, vol. 13, p. 104-105, 131-138, 157-158, 168
  52. Ibn Hamza al-Husayni al-Hanafi, Al-Bayan, p. 593
  53. Al-Alusi, Ruh al-ma'ani, vol. 6, p. 194
  54. Rashid Rida, Al-Minar, vol. 6, p. 384
  55. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 6, p. 11
  56. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 14-15
  57. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 145
  58. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 6, p. 59
  59. Ibn Tawus, p. 33
  60. Al-Hindi, Mir Hamid Husayn
  61. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 37, p. 181-182
  62. Al-Hurr al-'Amili, vol. 2, p. 200-250
  63. Amini, vol. 1, p. 12, 151, 294-322
  64. Al-Bahrani, Al-Sayyid Hashim
  65. Al-Bahrani, 'Abd Allah, vol. 3, p. 307-327
  66. Milani, Sayyid 'Ali, vol. 6-9
  67. Al-Taftazani, Shar al-maqasid, vol. 5, p. 272
  68. Al-Jurjani, Sharh al-mawaqif, vol. 8, p. 361
  69. Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, vol. 5, p. 563
  70. Al-Tahawi, Bayan mushkil al-athar, vol. 4, p. 212
  71. Hakim al-Nisaburi, Al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 118
  72. Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya, vol. 5, p. 209
  73. Al-'Asghalani, Fath al-bari, vol. 7, p. 74
  74. Al-Haythami, Al-Sawa'iq, vol. 1, p. 106
  75. Al-Tahawi, Bayan mushkil al-athar, vol. 4, p. 212; Al-Jurjani, Sharh al-Mawaqif, vol. 8, p. 361
  76. Al-Waqidi, Al-Maghazi, vol. 3, p. 1079-1080; Al-Halabi, Al-Sira, vol. 3, p. 289
  77. Al-Mufid, Aqsam al-mawla, p. 28; Al-Ifsah, p. 32
  78. Al-Tusi, Al-Iqtisad, p. 345
  79. Al-Hilli, Kashf al-murad, p. 369
  80. Al-Razi, Al-Arba'in, vol. 2, p. 283
  81. Al-Jurjani, Sharh al-Mawaqif, vol. 8, p. 360-365
  82. Al-Taftazani, Sharh al-Maqasid, vol. 5, p. 273-275
  83. Al-Jurjani, Sharh al-mawaqif, vol. 8, p. 360-365
  84. Al-Taftazani, Sharh al-maqasid, vol. 5, p. 273-275
  85. Al-Razi, Al-Arba'in, vol. 2, p. 283
  86. Al-Jurjani, Sharh al-mawaqif, vol. 8, p. 360-365
  87. Al-Jurjani, Sharh al-Mawaqif, vol. 8, p. 361
  88. Al-Razi, Tafsir al-Razi, vol. 29, p. 459
  89. Al-Taftazani, Sharh al-Maqasid, vol. 5, p. 273
  90. Al-Sharif al-Murtada, Al-Shafi, vol. 2, p. 270
  91. Al-Sharif al-Murtada, Al-Shafi, vol. 2, p. 270
  92. Al-Razi, Tafsir al-Razi, vol. 29, p. 227
  93. Al-Razi, Tafsir al-Razi, vol. 29, p. 227
  94. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 624
  95. Al-Razi, Al-Arba'in, vol. 2, p. 283
  96. Al-Sharif al-Murtada, Al-Shafi, vol. 2, p. 277
  97. Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-'Arab, vol. 5, p. 407; Al-Azhari, Tahdhib al-lugha, vol. 15, p. 324-327
  98. Al-Fayyumi, Al-Misbah, vol. 1-2, p. 672
  99. Ibn Faris, Mu'jam, vol. 6, p. 141
  100. Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-'Arab, vol. 15, p. 411; Al-Azhari, Tahdhib al-lugha, vol. 15, p. 322; Al-Turayhi, Majma' al-bahrayn, vol. 1, p. 464-465
  101. Al-Tusi, Al-Tibyan, vol. 8, p. 317
  102. Al-Baydawi, Anwar al-tanzil, vol. 4, p. 225; Al-Zamakhshari, Al-Kashshaf, vol. 3, p. 523
  103. Al-Zamakhshari, Al-Kashshaf, vol. 3, p. 225
  104. Al-Razi, Al-Arba'in, vol. 2, p. 283
  105. Ibn Athir, Usd al-ghaba, vol. 1, p. 439; Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 7, p. 348-349; Baladhuri, Ansab al-ashraf, vol. 2, p. 108
  106. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 657
  107. Al-Manawi, Fayd al-ghadir, vol. 6, p. 217
  108. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 4, p. 281; Ibn Maghazili, Al-Manaqib, vol. 1, p. 46; Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 7, p. 349
  109. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 667
  110. Al-Tusi, Al-Iqtisad, p. 351; Al-Sharif al-Radi, Khasa'is al-a'imma, p. 43
  111. Al-Sharif al-Radi, Khasa'is al-a'imma, p. 43; Al-Muzaffar, Dala'il al-sidq, vol. 4, p. 340
  112. Al-Sharif al-Radi, Khasa'is al-a'imma, p. 43
  113. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 3, p. 270
  114. Sharif al-Radiy, Khasa'is al-a'imma, p. 43
  115. Al-Tabrisi, Al-Ihtijaj, vol. 1, p. 181
  116. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 2, p. 51-495
  117. Hakim al-Nisaburi, Al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 419
  118. Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 5, p. 211
  119. Al-Tabrisi, Al-Ihtijaj, vol. 1, p. 181
  120. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 33, p. 41
  121. Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 7, p. 304
  122. Al-Saduq, Al-Amali, p. 22; Ibn Qutayba, Al-Imam wa l-siyasa, vol. 1, p. 580
  123. Ibn Maghazili, Manaqib, vol. 1, p. 62
  124. Al-Saduq, Al-Amali, p. 162
  125. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 664
  126. Al-Qummi, Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 171; Al-Tabrisi, Jawami' al-jami' , vol. 1, p. 343
  127. Al-Suyuti, Al-Durr al-manthur, vol. 2, p. 298; Al-'Ayyashi, Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 332
  128. Al-'Ayyashi, Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 331; Al-Tabrisi, Majma' al-bayan, vol. 1, p. 334
  129. Al-Razi, Tafsir al-Razi, vol. 12, p. 401
  130. Al-Razi, Tafsir al-Razi, vol. 12, p. 400-402
  131. Al-Bahrani, Kashf al-muhimm, p. 227
  132. Tabataba'i, Al-Mizan, vol. 5, p. 181; Makarim, Tafsir-i nimunih, vol. 4, p. 258
  133. Al-'Ayyashi, Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 293; Al-Qummi, Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 162; Al-Razi, Tafsir al-Razi, vol. 11, p. 288
  134. Al-Suyuti, Al-Durr al-manthur, vol. 2, p. 259
  135. Tabataba'i, Al-Mizan, vol. 5, p. 168-175
  136. Al-'Ayyashi, Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 293
  137. Al-Tabari, Jami' al-bayan, vol. 5, p. 51
  138. Tabataba'i, Al-Mizan, vol. 5, p. 284
  139. Tabataba'i, Al-Mizan, vol. 5, p. 279
  140. Al-Tabrisi, Majma' al-bayan, vol. 10, p. 530; Al-Qurtubi, Al-Jami' , vol. 19, p. 278; Al-Tha'labi, Al-Kashf wa al-bayan, vol. 10, p. 35

References

  • Bukhari, Isma'il b. Ibrahim al-, A--Tarikh al-kabir. Beirut: Dar al-fikr
  • Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir al-, Tarikh al-umam wa l-Muluk . Birut: Dar al-turath, 1387
  • Halabi, 'Ali b. Ibrahim al-, Al-Sirat al-halabiyya. Beirut: Dar al-ma'rifa
  • Ibn Hisham, 'Abd al-Malik, Al-Sirat al-nabawiyya. Beirut: Dar al-ma'rifa
  • Waqidi, Muhammad b. 'Umar al-, Al-Maghazi.Beirut: Mu'assisa al-a'lami
  • Ibn Kathir, Isma'il b. 'Umar, Al-Bidaya wa l-nihaya. Beirut: Dar ihya' al-turath
  • Ya'qubi, Ahmad b. Abi Ya'qub al-, Tarikh al-Ya'qubi. Beirut: Dar sadir
  • Hamawi, Yaqut b. 'Abd Allah al-, Mu'jam al-buldan. Beirut: Dar sadir 1995
  • Mufid, Muhammad b. Muhammad al-, Tafsir al-Qur'an al-majid. Qom: Daftar-i tablighat islami, 1422
  • 'Ayyashi, Muhammad b. Mas'ud al-, Tafsir. Tehran: Maktaba al-'Ilmiyya al-Islamiyya
  • Ibn Athir, 'Ali b. Muhammad, Usd al-ghaba. Beirut: Dar al-sha'b
  • Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub al-, Al-Kafi. Qom: Dar al-hadith, 1429
  • Baladhuri, Ahmad b. Yahya al-, Ansab al-ashraf. Beirut: Mu'assisa al-a'lami
  • Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali al-, Al-Amali. Tehran: Kitabkhani islamiyya
  • Mufid, Muhammad b. Muhammad al-, Aqsam al-mawla fi l-lisan. Qom: Al-Mu'tamar al-'alami li al-shaykh al-mufid, 1413
  • Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-, Al-Iqtisad fi ma yata'allaq bi-l-i'tiqad. Beirut: Dar al-adwa', 1406
  • Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-, Al-Rasa'il al-'ashr. Qom: Al-Nashr al-islami, 1414
  • Ibn Fattal, Muhammad b. Ahmad, Rawdat al-wa'izin. Qom: Sharif radi
  • Ibn Tawus, 'Ali b. Musa, Al-Yaqin. Qom: Dar al-kitab
  • 'Alam al-Huda, Murtada b. Da'i, Nuzhat al-kiram wa bustan al-'awam. Tehran: Taraqqi
  • Tabrisi, Ahmad b. 'Ali al-, Al-Ihtijaj. Mashhad: Murtada
  • Ibn Tawus, 'Ali b. Musa, Al-Iqbal al-a'mal. Tehran: Dar al-kutub al-islamiyya
  • Hilli, 'Ali b. Yusuf al- Al-'Udad al-qawiyya.Qom: Mar'ashi najafi
  • Ibn Tawus, 'Ali b. Musa, Al-Tahsin. Qom: Dar al-kitab
  • Bayadi, 'Ali b. Yusuf al-, Al-Sirat al-mustaqim. Najaf: Matba'a Haydariyya
  • Ibn Jabur, Husayn, Nahj al-iman. Mashhad: Manuscript of Imam al-Hadi (a) liberary
  • Amini, 'Abd l-Husayn, Al-Ghadir. Beirut: Dar al-kitab al-'arabi
  • 'Asqalani, Ibn Hajar al-, Fath al-bari. Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-'ilmiyya
  • Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad, Musnad Ahmad. Beirut: Dar ihya' al-turath al-arabi, 1414
  • 'Asqalani, Ibn Hajar al-, Al-Isaba. Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-'ilmiyya
  • Khatib al-Baghdadi, Ahmad b. 'Ali al-, Tarikh Baghdad. Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-'ilmiyya
  • Haythami, 'Ali b. Abi Bakr al-, Majma' al-zawa'id wa manba' al-fawa'id. Beirut: Dar al-fikr
  • Dulabi, Muhammad b. Ahamd al-, Al-Kuna wa l-asma' . Beirut: Dar ibn hazm
  • Haskani, 'Ubayd Allah b. 'Abd Allah al-, Shawahid al-tanzil. Tehran: Vizarat irshad islami
  • Nasa'i, Ahamd b. 'Ali al-, Khasa'is Amir al-Mu'minin. Cairo: Haydariyya
  • Nasa'i, Ahamd b. 'Ali al-, Sunan al-kubra. Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-'ilmiyya
  • Ibn 'Asakir, Tarjimat al-Imam al-Husayn min tarikh madinat Dimashq. Beirut: Mu'assisa al-mahmudi
  • Razi, Fakhr al-Din al-, Tafsir al-Razi. Beirut: Dar ihya' al-turath al-arabi
  • Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-blagha. Cairo: Dar ihya' al-kutub al-arabi
  • Ibn Sabbagh, 'Ali b. Muhammad, Al-Fusul al-muhimma fi ma'rifa al-a'imma. Qom: Dar al-hadith
  • Ibn Hamza Husayni Hanafi, Al-Bayan wa l-ta'rif fi asbab wurud al-hadith al-sharif. Beirtu: Maktaba 'ilmiyya
  • Alusi, Mahmud b. 'Abd Allah al-, Ruh al-ma'ani. Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-'ilmiyya
  • Hindi, Mir Hamid Husayn al-, 'Abaqat al-anwar. Beirut: Dar al-kitab al-islamiyya
  • Hurr al-'Amili, Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-, Ithbat al-hudat bi-l-nusus wa l-mu'jizat. Beirut: Mu'assisa a'lami
  • Bahrani, 'Abd Allah al-, 'Awalim al-'ulum wa al-ma'arif wa al-ahwal. Qom: Mu'assisa Imam Mahdi
  • Bahrani Sayyid Hashim al-, Kashf al-muhimm fi tariq khabar Ghadir Khumm. Qom: Humayi rahmat
  • Taftazani, Sa'd al-Din al-, Shar al-maqasid. Qom: Maktaba al-sharif al-radi, 1409
  • Jurjani, Mir Sayyid Sharif al-, Sharh al-mawaqif. Qom: Maktaba al-sharif al-radi, 1325
  • Tahawi, Ahmad b. Muhammad al-, Bayan mushkil al-athar. Dar al-nashr
  • Razi, Fakhr al-Din al-, Al-Arba'in fi usul al-din. Cairo: Maktaba al-kulliyat al-azhariyya, 1986
  • Hakim al-Nisaburi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah al-, Al-Mustadrak 'ala l-Sahihayn.
  • Hilli, Hasan b 'Ali al-, Kashf al-murad. Qom: Nashr-i islami, 1413
  • Sharif al-Murtada, 'Ali b. Husayn al-, Al-Shafi fi al-imama. Tehran: Mu'assisa al-Sadiq, 1410
  • Ibn Manzur, Muhammad b. Mukram, Lisan al-'Arab. Beirut: Dar al-fikr
  • Azhari, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-, Tahdhib al-lugha. Beirut: Dar ihya' al-turath al-arabi
  • Fayyumi, Ahmad b. Muhammad al-, Al-Misbah al-munir fi gharib al-sharh al-kabir. Qom: Dar al-hijra, 1414
  • Ibn Faris, Ahmad, Mu'jam maqayis al-lugha. Qom: Maktab al-I'lam al-islami, 1404
  • Turayhi, Fakhr al-Din al-, Majma' al-bahrayn. Tehran: Murtadawi, 1375
  • Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-, Al-Tibyan. Beirut: Ahmad habib qasir
  • Baydawi, 'Abd Allah al-, Anwar al-tanzil wa asrar al-ta'wil. Beirut: Dar ihya' al-turath al-arabi
  • Zamakhshari, Mahmud al-, Al-Kashshaf 'an haqa'iq ghawamid al-tanzil. Beirut: Dar al-kitab al-arabi
  • Manawi, Zayn al-Din Muhammad al-, Fayd al-Ghadir sharh al-jami' al-saghir. Egypt: Al-Maktaba al-fikriyya * al-kubra, 1356
  • Sharif al-Radi, Muhammad b. Husayn al-, Khasa'is al-a'imma. Mashhad: Astan quds, 1406
  • Muzaffar, Muhammad Husayn al-, Dala'il al-sidq, Qom: Al al-bayt, 1422
  • Ibn Qutayba, 'Abd Allah b. Muslim, Al-Imama wa l-siyasa. Qom: Al-Sharf al-radiy
  • Tabrisi, Fadl b. Hasan al-, Jawami' al-jami' . Tehran: university of Tehran, 1377
  • Suyuti, Jalal al-Din al-, Al-Durr al-manthur fi tafsir al-ma'thur. Qom: Ayatullah Mar'ashi Najafi's library, 1404
  • Tabrisi, Fadl b. Hasan al-, Majma' al-bayan fi tafsri al-Qur'an. Tehran: Nasir khusru, 1372
  • Bahrani, Sayyid Hashim al-, Kashf al-muhimm fi tariq khabar Ghadir Khumm. Qom: Humayi ghadir
  • Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn al-, Al-Mizan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. Qom: Nashr-i islami, 1417
  • Makarim Shirazi, Nasir, Tafsir-i nimunih. Tehran: Dar al-kutub al-islamiyya, 1374
  • Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir al-, Jami' al-bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an . Beirut: Dar al-ma'rifa, 1412
  • Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-, Al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an. Tehran: Nasir khusru, 1364
  • Tha'labi, Ahmad b. Ibrahim al-, Al-Kashf wa l-bayan 'an tafsir al-Qur'an. Beirut: Dar ihya' al-turath al-arabi.