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Hadith al-Thaqalayn

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Imam 'Ali (a)
First Imam of Shi'a


Life
Event of GhadirLaylat al-MabitYawm al-DarCaliphateTimeline


Heritage
Nahj al-BalaghaGhurar al-hikamAl-Shiqshiqiyya Sermon


Excellences
Excellences of Ahl al-Bayt (a)Al-Wilaya VerseAhl al-Dhikr VerseUli l-Amr VerseAl-Tathir VerseAl-Mubahala VerseAl-Mawadda VerseAl-Sadiqin VerseHadith Madinat al-'IlmHadith al-ThaqalaynHadith al-RayaHadith al-SafinaHadith al-Kisa'Al-Ghadir SermonHadith al-ManzilaHadith Yawm al-DarHadith Sadd al-AbwabHadith al-WisayaLa Fata Illa AliThe First Muslim


Companions
'Ammar b. YasirMalik al-AshtarAbu Dhar al-Ghifari'Ubayd Allah b. Abi Rafi'Hujr b. 'Adiothers


Related Topics
Holy Shrine


Ḥadīth al-thaqalayn (Arabic: حَديث الثَّقَلَين, literally: hadith of the two weighty things) is a famous and mutawatir (massively transmitted) hadith from the Prophet (s), which enjoins Muslims to follow the Qur'an and Ahl al-Bayt (a) after the Holy Prophet's (s) demise. Based on this hadith, Muslims should refer to the Qur'an and Ahl al-Bayt (a) and these two are inseparable.

The hadith is accepted by all Muslims, both Sunni and Shi'a, as authentic and has been recorded in the hadith collections of all Muslim sects.

Relying on this hadith, Shi'a scholars prove the necessity of the Imam, his infallibility, and the continuation of Imamate in all times.

Text

Hadith of thaqalayn is narrated a little differently in different sources, but the content is the same.

Al-Kafi which is one of the Four Books of Shi'a,

إِنِّی تَارِک فِیکمْ أَمْرَینِ إِنْ أَخَذْتُمْ بِهِمَا لَنْ تَضِلُّوا- کتَابَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ أَهْلَ بَیتِی عِتْرَتِی أَیهَا النَّاسُ اسْمَعُوا وَ قَدْ بَلَّغْتُ إِنَّکمْ سَتَرِدُونَ عَلَی الْحَوْضَ فَأَسْأَلُکمْ عَمَّا فَعَلْتُمْ فِی الثَّقَلَینِ وَ الثَّقَلَانِ کتَابُ اللَّهِ جَلَّ ذِکرُهُ وَ أَهْلُ بَیتِی[1]

"Indeed I am leaving two things among you, to which if you hold yourself, you will never astray: the book of Allah –who is all mighty and great- and my ahl al-bayt (household), my 'itra (family). O people hear! And I have announced to you that: indeed you will enter my presence and I will ask you about what you did to the thaqalayn (two weighty things) and the thaqalayn are the book of Allah and my ahl al-bayt."

Sunan al-Nasa'i, one of the six sahih (authentic) books of Sunnis:

کأنی قد دعیت فاجبت، انی قد ترکت فیکم الثقلین احدهما اکبر من الآخر، کتاب الله و عترتی اهل بیتی، فانظروا کیف تخلفونی فیهما، فانهما لن یفترقا حتی یردا علی الحوض[2]

"Looks like I have been called, and I answered (my time of death has come), indeed I have left the thaqalayn (two weighty things) among you, one of them is greater form the other, the book of Allah and my 'itra (family), my ahl al-bayt (household). So look after how you will behave with them after me, indeed they will never separate from each other until they enter my presence by the pool [in the paradise]."

Sources

Shia Islam

The hadith is accepted by both Shi'a and Sunni scholars and has been mentioned in their sources.

Sunni Sources

According to the book Hadith al-thaqalayn wa maqamat ahl al-bayt,[3] the hadith has been narrated by 25 companions of the Prophet (s) in Sunni sources, some of which are:

  1. Zayd b. Arqam: the hadith of thaqalayn is narrated with 6 chains of narration from him in the books: Sunan an-Nasa'i,[4] al-Mu'jam al-kabir,[5] Sunan al-Tirmidhi,[6] Mustadrak al-Hakim,[7] Musnad Ahmad.[8]
  2. Zayd b. Thabit: in Musnad Ahmad[9] and al-Mu'jam al-kabir.[10]
  3. Jabir b. 'Abd Allah: in Sunan al-Tirmidhi,[11] al-Mu'jam al-kabir,[12] and al-Mu'jam al-awsat.[13]
  4. Hudhayfa b. Usayd: in al-Mu'jam al-kabir[14]
  5. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri: in Musnad Ahmad[15] and Du'afa' al-kabir.[16]
  6. Imam 'Ali (a): with 2 chains of narrators in al-Bahr al-zikhar[17] and Kanz al-'Ummal.[18]
  7. Abu Dhar al-Ghifari: in al-Mu'talaf wa al-Mukhtalaf.[19]
  8. Abu Hurayra: in Kashf al-astar 'an zawa'id al-bazar[20]
  9. 'Abd Allah b. Hantab: in Usd al-ghaba[21]
  10. Jubayr b. Mut'im: in Zilal al-Janna[22]

Al-Bahrani, the author of Ghayat al-maram wa hujjat al-khisam, narrated the hadith from 39 chains of narrations from Sunni authors. According to the book, the hadith is narrated in Musnad Ahmad, Sahih Muslim, Manaqib Ibn al-Maghazili, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, al-'Umda Tha'labi, Musnad Abi Ya'li, al-Mu'jam al-awsat, al-'Umda Ibn al-Bitriq, Yanabi' al-mawadda, al-Tara'if, Fara'id al-simatayn, and the commentary on Nahj al-balagha by Ibn Abi al-Hadid.[23]

Shi'a Sources

According to Ghayat al-maram wa hujjat al-khisam, in Shi'a sources 82 hadiths are narrated with the content of the hadith of thaqalayn, in many books such as: Usul al-kafi, Kamal al-din, al-Amali (al-Saduq), al-Amali (al-Mufid), al-Amali (al-Tusi), 'Uyun akhbar al-Rida (a), al-Ghayba (al-Nu'mani), Basa'ir al-darajat.[24]

Monographs

In addition to the narration of the hadith of thaqalayn, Shi'a scholars have also written independent books about it, like:

Hadith al-thaqalayn by Qawam al-Din Muhammad Wishnawi Qummi, Sa'adat al-darayn fi sharh hadith al-thaqalayn by 'Abd al-'Aziz Dihlawi in Farsi, Hadith al-thaqalayn by Najm al-Din al-'Askari, Hadith al-Thaqalayn by Sayyid 'Ali al-Milani, Hadith al-thaqalayn wa maqamat ahl al-bayt by Ahmad al-Mahuzi.

Place and Time

There's disagreement about when and where the hadith is stated; for example Ibn Hajar al-Haytami says: "the Prophet (s), stated the hadith of thaqalayn, after the conquest of Mecca, on his way back to Medina, in Ta'if";[25] but others mentioned other times and places.

Studying these different hadiths, it's apparent that although some of them could be considered as different reports about a single occurrence, but not for many others; so it is clear that the Prophet (a) has mentioned the importance of thaqalayn (Qur'an and ahl al-bayt (a)) in different times and places, especially in his last days of life.[26]

The following are some of the places and times mentioned in historical reports:

  • In a sermon in a Friday, along with the hadith of Ghadir.[31]
  • In his last sermon.[34]
  • In a sermon after his last congregational prayer.[35]
  • In bed, when he was ill and some of the companions were around him.[36]

Sunna or 'Itra?

In some of the sources of Sunnis, instead of the word "'itra" (family) the word "sunna" (tradition) has been mentioned.[37] These narrations are rare and even Sunni scholars have not considered them; because the hadith with the word "sunna" has not appeared in earlier reliable sources.

Who are 'Itra?

In most of the narrations the phrase "ahl al-bayt" has come as a description for the word "'itra", but in some narrations only "'itra",[38] and in some other only "ahl al-bayt" has come,[39] and in some cases the order about the obedience of ahl al-bayt is repeated.[40]

In some of Shi'a sources, twelve Imams (a) are mentioned as the explanation of "ahl al-bayt".[41]

Importance

Shi'a scholars have narrated the hadith of thaqalayn in their books and have referred to it as a proof for some of the Shi'a beliefs. Mir Hamid Husayn (d. 1306/1888) has dedicated a comprehensive chapter of his book 'Abaqat al-anwar to the hadith of thaqalayn and its chains of narrators based on Sunni sources. In the discussion of Imamate, he had mentioned this hadith prior to other related hadiths.

Some of the beliefs of Shi'a could be proved using hadith of thaqalayn:

Necessity of the Obedience of Ahl al-Bayt (a)

In the hadith of thaqalayn, ahl al-bayt (a) are put next to Qur'an, and this is stated that they will not separate from each other; therefore, as the obedience of the Qur'an is necessary for Muslims, so is the obedience of ahl al-bayt (a).

Infallibility of Ahl al-Bayt (a)

There are two points in hadith of thaqalayn about the infallibility of ahl al-bayt (a):

  • Putting stress on that if you obey the Qur'an and ahl al-bayt (a), you will never astray. This clearly shows that there's no error in the teachings of ahl al-bayt (a).
  • The companionship of ahl al-bayt (a) with Qur'an shows that as Qur'an is free from any error –according to the consensus (ijma') of Muslims- so the other side (ahl al-bayt (a)) must also be free from errors.

In addition to Shi'a scholars some Sunni scholars have also accepted the indication of the hadith to the infallibility of ahl al-bayt (a).[42]

Necessity of the Continuation of Imamate

  • The companionship of ahl al-bayt (a) with Qur'an shows that as Qur'an is the source of guidance in Islam, so there must always be someone from ahl al-bayt (a) to whom people refer in religious issues.
  • The Prophet (a) emphasizes that the Qur'an and ahl al-bayt (a) will never separate from each other.
  • The Prophet (a) says if you hold yourself to these two, you will never astray.

In his commentary on al-Mawahib,[43]al-Zurqani al-Maliki, one of the Sunni scholars, narrates from al-'Allama al-Samhudi:

"It is realized from the hadith of thaqalayn that there is always a person from ahl al-bayt (a) who deserves to be followed, till the Day of Judgment; so he is meant by the persuasion in the hadith, as the book (Qur'an) is like this [which is and will be always available]."[44]

Scientific Authority of Ahl al-Bayt (a)

Since the Qur'an is the main source of beliefs and practical rulings of all Muslims and according to hadith of thaqalayn ahl al-bayt (a) are the inseparable company of the Qur'an, it is clear that ahl al-bayt (a) are the infallible scientific authority in all of Islamic sciences.

Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din in his discussion with Shaykh Sulaym al-Bushri –the discussion is quoted in al-Muraji'at- proved the scientific authority of ahl al-bayt (a) and the necessity of their obedience.[45]

Hadith al-Thaqalayn and Proximity of Islamic Sects

As mentioned above, the hadith of thaqalayn is accepted by both Shi'a and Sunni scholars. There have been many discussions about the hadith which have resulted in the convergence of Islamic sects; including the discussion of Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din with al-Shyakh Sulaym al-Bushri, one of the Sunni scholars; the discussion formed the book al-Muraji'at.[46]

See Also

Notes

  1. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.1 p.294
  2. Al-Nasa'i, al-Sunan al-kubra, hadith:8148
  3. Al-Mahuzi, Ahamd
  4. Al-Nasa'i, al-Sunan al-kubra, hadith:8148
  5. Al-Tabarani, al-Mu'jam al-kabir, vol.5 p.186
  6. Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, hadith:3876
  7. Niyshaburi, al-Mustadrak, vol.3 p.110
  8. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol.4 p.371
  9. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol.5 p.183,189
  10. Al-Tabarani, al-Mu'jam al-kabir, vol.5 p.166
  11. Al-Tirmidhi, Sahih, vol.5 p.328
  12. Al-Tabarani, al-Mu'jam al-kabir, vol.3 p.66
  13. Al-Tabarani, al-Mu'jam al-awsat, vol.5 p.89
  14. Al-Tabarani, al-Mu'jam al-kabir, vol.3 p.180
  15. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol.3 p.13,17,26,59
  16. 'Aqili, Du'afa' al-kabir, vol.4 p.362
  17. Bazzaz, al-Bahr, p.88
  18. Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummal, vol.14 p.77
  19. Darqutni, al-Mu'talaf, vol.2 p. 1046
  20. Al-Haythami, Kashf al-astar, vol.3 p.223
  21. Ibn Athir, Usd al-ghaba, vol.3 p.219
  22. Albani, Zilal al-Janna, hadith:1465
  23. Al-Bahrani, Ghayat al-maram, vol.2 p.304-320
  24. Al-Bahrani, Ghayat al-maram, vol.2 p.320-367
  25. Al-Haytami, al-Sawa'iq, p.150
  26. Al-Mufid, al-Irshad, vol.1 p.180; Haytami, al-Sawa'iq, p.150; Sharaf al-Din, al-Muraji'at, p.74
  27. Al-Tabrisi, al-Ihtijaj, vol.1 p.391
  28. Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, vol.5 p.662
  29. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol.4 p.371; Muslim, Sahih, vol.2 p.1873
  30. Al-Saduq, Kamal al-din, vol.1 p.234,238; Niyshaburi, al-Mustadrak, vol.3 p.109; Samhudi, Jawahir, p.236
  31. Al-'Ayyashi, al-Tafsir, vol.1 p.4
  32. Saffar al-Qummi, Basa'ir al-darajat, p.412-414
  33. Al-Saduq, Amali, p.62; Juwayni, Fara'id al-samtayn, vol.2 p.268
  34. Al-'Ayyashi, al-Tafsir, vol.1 p.5; Tabrisi, al-Ihtijaj, vol.1 p.216
  35. Al-Daylami, Irshad al-qulub, vol.2 p.340
  36. Haytami, al-Sawa'iq, p.150
  37. Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummal, vol.1 p.187
  38. Al-Saduq, 'Uyun akhbar al-Rida (a), vol.2 p.62; Niyshaburi, al-Mustadrak, vol.3 p.109
  39. Al-Juwayni, Fara'id al-simtayn, vol.2 p.268; Majlisi, Bihar, vol.23 p.131
  40. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol.4 p.367; Muslim, Sahih, vol.2 p.1873; Juwayni, Fara'id al-samtayn, vol.2 p.250,268
  41. Al-Saduq, Kamal al-din, vol.1 p.278; Majlisi, Bihar, vol.36 p.317
  42. Manawi, Fayd al-ghadir, vol.3 p.1819; Zurqani, Sharh al-mawahib, vol.8 p.2
  43. Zurqani, Sharh al-mawahib, vol.8 p.7
  44. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol.3 p.118
  45. Sharaf al-Din, Al-Muraji'at, p.71-76
  46. Wa'iz zadi, Hadith al-Thaqalayn, p.39-40

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