Harun b. Musa b. Ahmad al-Talla'ukbari
|Full Name||Abu Muhammad Harun b. Musa b. Ahmad al-Talla'ukbari|
|Professors||Muhammad b. Hammam Baghdadi, Ibn 'Uqda, ...|
|Students||Abu l-Husayn Muhammad b. Harun, al-Shaykh al-Mufid, Sayyid Murtada 'Alam al-Huda, Sayyid Radi, ...|
|Permission for Hadith|
|Muhammad b. Ash'ath, Muhammad b. Husayn al-Khath'ami, 'Ali b. Husayn b. Musa b. Babawayh al-Qummi and Hasan b. Muhammad b. Ahamd al-Zaydi|
|Works||Al-Jawami' fi 'ulum al-din, ...|
Abū Muḥammad Hārūn b. Mūsā b. Aḥmad Tallaʿukbarī (Arabic: ابومحمد هارون بن موسی بن احمد تَلَّعُکْبَری) was a notable shi'a hadith scholar of 4th/10th century. He learned hadith from many scholars in Baghdad and had many students. Rijal scholars praised his position in knowledge. Sayyid Muratada and Sayyid Radi were also his students.
Tribe, Lineage and Birth
He was from Bani Shayban tribe living in Tal neighborhood in 'Ukbara town north of Baghdad. The date of his birth is not known but since he has learned hadith from Ahmad b. Idris al-Ash'ari (d. 306/918), the famous hadith scholar from Qom, then he must have been born in late third century.
In his Mashikhat Talla'ukbari, Kamal al-Din b. Haydar Musawi 'Amili quotes from Harun talking about Ahmad b. Idris al-Ash'ari al-Qummi: "I have heard few hadiths from him in the house of Ibn Hammam Iskafi, but I do not have permission from him [to quote]." Since Ibn Idris passed away in 306/918, thus Harun must have the competence of learning hadiths and perhaps he must have been 15 years old. Therefore, his date of birth can be around 291/904.
Most teachers of al-Talla'ukbari, in his early years, were in Baghdad and apparently he has been living there in his youth.
- He heard hadith from Ahmad b. Idris al-Ash'ari in the house of Muhammad b. Hammam (d. 336/948) who was among shi'a hadith narrators living in Baghdad and Ahmad b. Idris had possibly been his guest on his way to hajj which he could not accomplish since he passed away on his way.
- In Dala'il al-Imama, there is hadith narrated from Imam 'Ali (a) when he was in Basra and apparently about the battle of Jamal which al-Talla'ukbari narrated it from Muhammad b. Jarir Tabari. Comparing the chain of references of this hadith with two other similar hadiths mentioned in Tarikh Tabari about the events at the Battle of Jamal shows that al-Talla'ukbari's reference (i.e. Muhammad b. Jarir Tabari) is the author of Tarikh Tabari, not the author al-Mustarshid fi l-Imama, who had the same name.
- Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Muhamamd b. Sulayman Baghandi (d. 312/924) was another teacher of al-Talla'ukbari. He was Sunni and lived in Baghdad.
- Another teacher of al-Talla'ukbari was Muhammad b. Ja'far Asadi (d. 312/924). Although Asadi was living in Rey but since he was an agent of Imam al-Mahdi (a), his coming to Baghdad to see Husayn b. Ruh Nawbakhti, the third deputy of Imam al-Mahdi (a) is very probable.
- According to Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, Muhammad b. Ash'ath, the famous hadith scholar and the author of Ash'athiyyat who was living in Egypt gave permission to al-Talla'ukbari to quote hadith from him through Muhammad b. Dawud b. Sulayman and al-Talla'ukbari has heard riwayat al-Ash'athiyyat which are narrated from the Prophet (s) and narrated them, but he did not narrate other hadiths in that book due to their shortage.
- According to Ibn Najjar, Abu Muhammad Harun b. Musa heard hadiths from 'Ubayd Allah b. Husayn b. 'Alawiyyah Bazzaz in 315/927.
- Muhammad b. Husayn b. Hafs Khath'ami (d. 317/929) was the second teacher of al-Talla'ukbari who gave him permission to quoting hadiths from him.
- al-Talla'ukbari narrated hadiths from Abu l-Qasim Baghwi (d. 317/929).
- He also learned hadiths from Ahmad b. Musa b. al-'Abbas b. Mujahid in 318/930.
- In his Rijal, Al-Shaykh al-Tusi reports that in 318/930, al-Talla'ukbari saw Yahya b. Zakariyya Katanji who was 120 years old and learned hadiths from him.
- Al-Shaykh al-Tusi also reports that in 323/935, al-Talla'ukbari heard hadith from 'Ali b. Husayn b. Bibiwayh Qummi upon his entrance to Baghdad and received permission from him for narrating all his hadiths.
- After 323/935, al-Talla'ukbari learned hadiths from Hasan b. Muhammad b. Ahmad Zaydi who lived in Rumailah, 475km from Baghdad.
- In 322/934, he heard hadith from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi al-Qarib.
Most Notable Teachers
- al-Talla'ukbari's most important teacher was Muhammad b. Hammam Baghdadi and al-Talla'ukbari heard hadiths from him for the first time in 323/935. On the suggestion of Muhammad b. Hammam, al-Talla'ukbari spoke with the servant of Imam Hasan al-'Askari (a) and heard some stories of his life from him. This explains the friendship between Muhammad b. Hammam and al-Talla'ukbari to be very close.
- Another notable teacher of al-Talla'ukbari was Abu l-'Abbas Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Sa'id known as Ibn 'Uqdah (d. 332/944) who came to Baghdad three times, one of which was in 330/942.
Al-Talla'ukbari quotes from other hadith scholars who are said to be around 130 people including:
- Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Sulayman Baghandi (d. 326/938)
- Sa'id b. Ahmad b. Musa al-'Arrad (d. 326/938)
- Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isma'il Muqirri (d. 327/939)
- Ibn Abi al-Yabis (d. 341/952)
- Abu Ghalib Zurari (d. 368/979)
- Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ja'far Suli, who entered Baghdad either in 352/963 or 353/964 and narrated hadiths for people.
- Fatimah bint Harun b. Musa b. al-Furat, who narrated from 'Ubayd Allah Halabi's book through her grandfather.
- al-Talla'ukbari has narrated hadiths from Shakh Saduq (d. 381/991) possibly in his journey to Baghdad.
- Muhammad b. Ahmad b. 'Ubayd Allah Mansuri.
- Husayn b. Hamdan Khasibi, who was among the shi'a Exaggerators (the Ghulat).
A Narrator of Usul al-Kafi Al-Talla'ukbari was one of the narrators of Muhammad b. Ya'qub al-Kulayni (d. 328/940 or 329/941). Some hadith narrators learned hadiths from al-Kulayni in Baghdad in 327/939, so perhaps al-Talla'ukbari also learned hadiths from him at the same time or around it. He narrated from al-Kafi and al-Kulayni's books.
In the Views of Rijal Scholars
Al-Talla'ukbarihas been praised in Rijal references:
- Ibn Tawus called him "al-Shaykh al-Saduq".
- In Lumah al-burhan, al-Shaykh al-Mufid mentioned al-Talla'ukbari among "contemporary Fiqh scholars and narrators".
Ahmad b. Ali al-Najashi considered al-Talla'ukbari the author of several books. His famous books are (though none of which is available):
- Al-Jawami' fi 'ulum al-din (no version of this book is available).
- Mashikhah reported by Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani quoted from Ibn Najjar. In his Mashikhah, al-Talla'ukbari narrated from Ahmad b. 'Abbas Najashi. This has been reported by Al-Shaykh al-Tusi with slight differences.
- A book on supplications and recommended acts. In his book of supplications, Ibn Tawus mentioned many references of supplications with al-Talla'ukbari. He may have possibly quoted such hadiths from a book written by al-Talla'ukbari.
- al-Talla'ukbari also reported some important supplications from Imams (a), one of which is the Supplication of Abu Hamza al-Thimali which he quotes from Hasan b. Mahbub Zarrad from Abu Hamza al-Thimali who said that Imam al-Sajjad (a) recited this supplication at the nights before the dawn in the month of Ramadan.
According to al-Najashi, people came to al-Talla'ukbari's house and checked their knowledge of hadiths with him. This shows that he has had many students. While Ibn Najjar has claimed that al-Talla'ukbari's hadiths were narrated by a few people, he might have meant Sunni narrators. Shaykh al-Tusi has employed the quote "A large group of of our companions" (Arabic: جماعةٌ من اصحابنا) to imply that he has heard hadiths from al-Talla'ukbari through a chain of his trusted companions. Al-Shaykh al-Mufid has referred to him as "our shaykh [i.e. teacher or master]" and Shaykh al-Tusi has mentioned Al-Shaykh al-Mufid as a student of al-Talla'ukbari.
- Al-Talla'ukbari's son, Abu l-Hasan Muhammad b. Harun, has narrated from him the most.
- Al-Shaykh al-Tusi has called Salama b. Dhuka' Harrani, "Sahib al-Talla'ukbari" which apparently meant as Talla'ukbari's special student.
Al-Talla'ukbari's other students are:
- Sayyid Murtada 'Alam al-Huda
- Sayyid Radi
- Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Khalid Mudhari who narrated hadiths from al-Talla'ukbari in the month of Safar 383/ July 993.
- 'Ali b. Husayn b. Muhammad b. Mandih heard hadiths from al-Talla'ukbari in the months of Safar and Rabi' I 381/ July 991.
- Abu l-Hasan 'Ali b. Muhammad Qazwini
- Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Shadhan, the author of Mi'at manqaba
- Hasan b. Abi Tahir Jawani, the author of Nur al-Huda
- Abu l-Qasim 'Ali, son of Al-Shaykh al-Mufid
- Muhammad b. Hasan b. Husaun b. Ayyub Qummi
- Ja'far b. Ahmad b. 'Ali Qummi, known as Ibn Razi
- Abu 'Abd Allah Husayn b. 'Abd Allah Harami
- Abu 'Abd Allah Husayn b. 'Ubayd Allah b. 'Ali, known as Ibn Wasiti
There is little known about his ideas since his books are not available. But:
- According to Al-Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Talla'ukbari was among the ones who considered the month of Ramadan having 30 days. This opinion was followed by many in 4th and 5th centuries AH but it was abandoned in future eras.
- al-Talla'ukbari considered the phrase "akhbarani" [I was informed] permissible as the time of narrating hadiths when the hadith was permitted to be quoted and therefore he quoted from Ibn Walid, from whom he had the permission to quote hadiths, according to Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, but he had not seen him.
- According to al-Shaykh al-Tusi's Rijal, Ibn Ash'ath was given permission for al-Talla'ukbari and his father and brother to quote hadiths from him. This shows that his father and brother were at least interested in hadiths.
- In the biography of Harun b. Musa al-Talla'ukbari, al-Najashi mentions that he and al-Talla'ukbari's son (Abu Ja'far) attended al-Talla'ukbari's house and people came to read hadiths for his father to test their knowledge of hadith.
- Also, according to al-Shaykh al-Tusi in his Rijal, al-Talla'ukbari heard hadiths from Sahl Dibaji and al-Talla'ukbari and his son received permission for narrating hadiths from him. Apparently, this son of him has been Muhammad b. Harun.
- Abu l-Hasan Muhammad b. Harun al-Talla'ukbari whose name is frequently mentioned both in Dala'il al-a'immah and Ibn Tawus's books of supplication has narrated many hadiths from his father. He has narrated many hadiths from al-Shaykh al-Mufid as well.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from هارون بن موسی بن احمد تلعکبری in Farsi WikiShia.