Harun b. Musa b. Ahmad al-Talla'ukbari
|Full Name||Abu Muhammad Harun b. Musa b. Ahmad al-Talla'ukbari|
|Professors||Muhammad b. Hammam Baghdadi, Ibn 'Uqda, ...|
|Students||Abu l-Husayn Muhammad b. Harun, al-Shaykh al-Mufid, Sayyid Murtada 'Alam al-Huda, Sayyid Radi, ...|
|Permission for Hadith|
|Muhammad b. Ash'ath, Muhammad b. Husayn al-Khath'ami, 'Ali b. Husayn b. Musa b. Babawayh al-Qummi and Hasan b. Muhammad b. Ahamd al-Zaydi|
|Works||Al-Jawami' fi 'ulum al-din, ...|
Abū Muḥammad Hārūn b. Mūsā b. Aḥmad Tallaʿukbarī (Arabic: ابومحمد هارون بن موسی بن احمد تَلَّعُکْبَری) was a notable shi'a hadith scholar of 4th/10th century. He learned hadith from many scholars in Baghdad and had many students. Rijal scholars praised his position in knowledge. Sayyid Muratada and Sayyid Radi were also his students.
Tribe, Lineage and Birth
He was from Bani Shayban tribe living in Tal neighborhood in 'Ukbara town north of Baghdad. The date of his birth is not known but since he has learned hadith from Ahmad b. Idris al-Ash'ari (d. 306/918), the famous hadith scholar from Qom, then he must have been born in late third century.
In his Mashikhat Talla'ukbara, Kamal al-Din b. Haydar Musawi 'Amili quotes from Harun talking about Ahmad b. Idris al-Ash'ari al-Qummi: "I have heard few hadiths from him in the house of Ibn Hammam Iskafi, but I do not have permission from him [to quote]." Since Ibn Idris passed away in 306/918, thus Harun must have the competence of learning hadiths and perhaps he must have been 15 years old. Therefore, his date of birth can be around 291/904.
Most teachers of Talla'ukbara, in his early years, were in Baghdad and apparently he has been living there in his youth.
- He heard hadith from Ahmad b. Idris al-Ash'ari in the house of Muhammad b. Hammam (d. 336/948) who was among shi'a hadith narrators living in Baghdad and Ahmad b. Idris had possibly been his guest on his way to hajj which he could not accomplish since he passed away on his way.
- In Dala'il al-Imama, there is hadith narrated from Imam 'Ali (a) when he was in Basra and apparently about the battle of Jamal which Talla'ukbara narrated it from Muhammad b. Jarir Tabari. Comparing the chain of references of this hadith with two other similar hadiths mentioned in Tarikh Tabari about the events at the Battle of Jamal shows that Talla'ukbara's reference (i.e. Muhammad b. Jarir Tabari) is the author of Tarikh Tabari, not the author al-Mustarshid fi l-Imama, who had the same name.
- Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Muhamamd b. Sulayman Baghandi (d. 312/924) was another teacher of Talla'ukbara. He was Sunni and lived in Baghdad.
- Another teacher of Talla'ukbara was Muhammad b. Ja'far Asadi (d. 312/924). Although Asadi was living in Rey but since he was an agent of Imam al-Mahdi (a), his coming to Baghdad to see Husayn b. Ruh Nawbakhti, the third deputy of Imam al-Mahdi (a) is very probable.
- According to Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, Muhammad b. Ash'ath, the famous hadith scholar and the author of Ash'athiyyat who was living in Egypt gave permission to Talla'ukbara to quote hadith from him through Muhammad b. Dawud b. Sulayman and Talla'ukbara has heard riwayat al-Ash'athiyyat which are narrated from the Prophet (s) and narrated them, but he did not narrate other hadiths in that book due to their shortage.
- According to Ibn Najjar, Abu Muhammad Harun b. Musa heard hadiths from 'Ubayd Allah b. Husayn b. 'Alawiyyah Bazzaz in 315/927.
- Muhammad b. Husayn b. Hafs Khath'ami (d. 317/929) was the second teacher of Talla'ukbara who gave him permission to quoting hadiths from him.
- Talla'ukbara narrated hadiths from Abu l-Qasim Baghwi (d. 317/929).
- He also learned hadiths from Ahmad b. Musa b. al-'Abbas b. Mujahid in 318/930.
- In his Rijal, Al-Shaykh al-Tusi reports that in 318/930, Talla'ukbara saw Yahya b. Zakariyya Katanji who was 120 years old and learned hadiths from him.
- Al-Shaykh al-Tusi also reports that in 323/935, Talla'ukbara heard hadith from 'Ali b. Husayn b. Bibiwayh Qummi upon his entrance to Baghdad and received permission from him for narrating all his hadiths.
- After 323/935, Talla'ukbara learned hadiths from Hasan b. Muhammad b. Ahmad Zaydi who lived in Rumailah, 475km from Baghdad.
- In 322/934, he heard hadith from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi al-Qarib.
Most Notable Teachers
- Talla'ukbara's most important teacher was Muhammad b. Hammam Baghdadi and Talla'ukbara heard hadiths from him for the first time in 323/935. On the suggestion of Muhammad b. Hammam, Talla'ukbara spoke with the servant of Imam Hasan al-'Askari (a) and heard some stories of his life from him. This explains the friendship between Muhammad b. Hammam and Talla'ukbara to be very close.
- Another notable teacher of Talla'ukbara was Abu l-'Abbas Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Sa'id known as Ibn 'Uqdah (d. 332/944) who came to Baghdad three times, one of which was in 330/942.
Talla'ukbara quotes from other hadith scholars who are said to be around 130 people including:
- Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Sulayman Baghandi (d. 326/938)
- Sa'id b. Ahmad b. Musa al-'Arrad (d. 326/938)
- Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isma'il Muqirri (d. 327/939)
- Ibn Abi al-Yabis (d. 341/952)
- Abu Ghalib Zurari (d. 368/979)
- Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ja'far Suli, who entered Baghdad either in 352/963 or 353/964 and narrated hadiths for people.
- Fatimah bint Harun b. Musa b. al-Furat, who narrated from 'Ubayd Allah Halabi's book through her grandfather.
- Talla'ukbara has narrated hadiths from Shakh Saduq (d. 381/991) possibly in his journey to Baghdad.
- Muhammad b. Ahmad b. 'Ubayd Allah Mansuri.
- Husayn b. Hamdan Khasibi, who was among the shi'a Exaggerators (the Ghulat).
A Narrator of Usul al-Kafi Talla'ukbara was one of the narrators of Muhammad b. Ya'qub al-Kulayni (d. 328/940 or 329/941). Some hadith narrators learned hadiths from al-Kulayni in Baghdad in 327/939, so perhaps Talla'ukbara also learned hadiths from him at the same time or around it. He narrated from al-Kafi and al-Kulayni's books.
In the Views of Rijal Scholars
Talla'ukbara has been praised in Rijal references:
- Ibn Tawus called him "al-Shaykh al-Saduq".
- In Lumah al-burhan, Al-Shaykh al-Mufid mentioned Talla'ukbara among "contemporary Fiqh scholars and narrators".
Ahmad b. Ali al-Najashi considered Talla'ukbara the author of several books. His famous books are (though none of which is available):
- Al-Jawami' fi 'ulum al-din (no version of this book is available).
- Mashikhah reported by Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani quoted from Ibn Najjar. In his Mashikhah, Talla'ukbara narrated from Ahmad b. 'Abbas Najashi. This has been reported by Al-Shaykh al-Tusi with slight differences.
- A book on supplications and recommended acts. In his book of supplications, Ibn Tawus mentioned many references of supplications with Talla'ukbara. He may have possibly quoted such hadiths from a book written by Talla'ukbara.
- Talla'ukbara also reported some important supplications from Imams (a), one of which is the Supplication of Abu Hamza al-Thimali which he quotes from Hasan b. Mahbub Zarrad from Abu Hamza al-Thimali who said that Imam al-Sajjad (a) recited this supplication at the nights before the dawn in the month of Ramadan.
According to al-Najashi, people came to Talla'ukbara's house and checked their knowledge of hadiths with him. This shows that he has had many students. While Ibn Najjar has claimed that Talla'ukbara's hadiths were narrated by a few people, he might have meant Sunni narrators. Shaykh al-Tusi has employed the quote "A large group of of our companions" (Arabic: جماعةٌ من اصحابنا) to imply that he has heard hadiths from Talla'ukbara through a chain of his trusted companions. Al-Shaykh al-Mufid has referred to him as "our shaykh [i.e. teacher or master]" and Shaykh al-Tusi has mentioned Al-Shaykh al-Mufid as a student of Talla'ukbara.
- Talla'ukbara's son, Abu l-Hasan Muhammad b. Harun, has narrated from him the most.
- Al-Shaykh al-Tusi has called Salama b. Dhuka' Harrani, "Sahib al-Talla'ukbara" which apparently meant as Talla'ukbara's special student.
Talla'ukbara's other students are:
- Sayyid Murtada 'Alam al-Huda
- Sayyid Radi
- Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Khalid Mudhari who narrated hadiths from Talla'ukbara in the month of Safar 383/ July 993.
- 'Ali b. Husayn b. Muhammad b. Mandih heard hadiths from Talla'ukbara in the months of Safar and Rabi' I 381/ July 991.
- Abu l-Hasan 'Ali b. Muhammad Qazwini
- Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Shadhan, the author of Mi'at manqaba
- Hasan b. Abi Tahir Jawani, the author of Nur al-Huda
- Abu l-Qasim 'Ali, son of Al-Shaykh al-Mufid
- Muhammad b. Hasan b. Husaun b. Ayyub Qummi
- Ja'far b. Ahmad b. 'Ali Qummi, known as Ibn Razi
- Abu 'Abd Allah Husayn b. 'Abd Allah Harami
- Abu 'Abd Allah Husayn b. 'Ubayd Allah b. 'Ali, known as Ibn Wasiti
There is little known about his ideas since his books are not available. But:
- According to Al-Shaykh al-Mufid, Talla'ukbara was among the ones who considered the month of Ramadan having 30 days. This opinion was followed by many in 4th and 5th centuries AH but it was abandoned in future eras.
- Talla'ukbara considered the phrase "akhbarani" [I was informed] permissible as the time of narrating hadiths when the hadith was permitted to be quoted and therefore he quoted from Ibn Walid, from whom he had the permission to quote hadiths, according to Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, but he had not seen him.
- According to Al-Shaykh al-Tusi's Rijal, Ibn Ash'ath was given permission for Talla'ukbara and his father and brother to quote hadiths from him. This shows that his father and brother were at least interested in hadiths.
- In the biography of Harun b. Musa Talla'ukbara , al-Najashi mentions that he and Talla'ukbara's son (Abu Ja'far) attended Talla'ukbara's house and people came to read hadiths for his father to test their knowledge of hadith.
- Also, according to Al-Shaykh al-Tusi in his Rijal, Talla'ukbara heard hadiths from Sahl Dibaji and Talla'ukbara and his son received permission for narrating hadiths from him. Apparently, this son of him has been Muhammad b. Harun.
- Abu l-Hasan Muhammad b. Harun Talla'ukbara whose name is frequently mentioned both in Dala'il al-a'immah and Ibn Tawus's books of supplication has narrated many hadiths from his father. He has narrated many hadiths from Al-Shaykh al-Mufid as well.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from هارون بن موسی بن احمد تلعکبری in Farsi WikiShia.