Hasan b. Zayd b. Hasan
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|Hasan b. Zayd b. Hasan|
|Full Name||Hasan b. Zayd b. al-Hasan b. Ali b. Abi Talib|
|Place of Birth||Medina|
|Place of Residence||Medina|
|Burial Place||Hajar, 5 miles away from Medina|
|Notable roles||Governor of Medina|
|Activities||Setting fire to the house of Imam al-Sadiq (a), having good connections with Abbasids, and helping them|
Ḥasan b. Zayd b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (Arabic:حسن بن زید بن حسن بن علي بن أبي طالب) (b. 83/702 - 168/784) was the grandson of Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a) and one of the prominent Hashimi features in the second century. He is also referred to as "Madani" and "Hashimi", and Abu Muhammad was his kunya. Setting fire to the house of Imam al-Sadiq (a), having good connections with Abbasids, and helping them to find and lay hands on the grandchildren of his uncle, Hasan al-Muthanna, are of the dark sides to his life according to Shi'a viewpoint. From 150/767 to 155/772, he was the governor of Medina through al-Mansur al-'Abbasi.
|Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)|
Sayyida Nafisa, whose tomb is in Egypt, is perceived by Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani to be the daughter of Hasan b. Zayd. Al-Tabari names nine sons for him, but according to Ibn 'Inaba, he was survived by seven sons. He also had a daughter who got married to Abu l-'Abbas al-Saffah, the first caliph of Abbasid dynasty. The offspring of Zayd b. Hasan are all descended from his son Hasan.
Kunya and epithet
"Madani" and "Hashimi" were his epithets, and his kunya was Abu Muhammad.
He has been a hadith transmitter and has narrated from his father, his cousin 'Abd Allah al-Mahd, and others. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi has regarded him as a companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a), by which he merely meant their contemporaneous.
Narrators from him
- Muhammad b. Ishaq b. Yasar,
- Malik b. Anas,
- Ibn Abi Zi'b,
- Ibn Abi Zinad,
- and his own son, Isma'il b. Hasan.
Religious and political orientation
During the victory and the establishment of Abbasid caliphate, Hasan b. Zayd was always an adherent to them. He was the first 'Alawi who adopted 'Abbasid's motto and wore a black garment. He supported Abbasids against the children and grandchildren of his uncle, Hasan al-Muthanna, who was imprisoned by Abbasids. For instance, he informed al-Mansur al-'Abbasi of the news on Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah b. Hasan and his uprising. Musa b. 'Abdullah b. Hasan, therefore, would always say; "O God! Claim our blood from Hasan b. Zayd and seek our revenge against him".
After the rising of Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah, 'Isa b. Musa 'Abbasi, the chief commander of al-Mnasur al-'Abbasi, sent al-Mansur the heads of Muhammad and other martyrs by Qasim, the son of Hasan b. Zayd, as glad tidings of triumph. Hasan b. Zayd was in al-mansur's presence when the head was brought before him. Hasan was grieved, but did not utter a word in his fear. Then he said; "I wish he agreed to submit to you, so that he would not be killed".
Likewise, when the rising of Ibrahim b. 'Abd Allah b. Hasan, the brother of Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah, was defeated, his head was sent to al-Mansur, and people would come before him and curse Ibrahim and his family. When Hasan b. Zayd came in and saw the head, he turned pale and said to al-Mansur; "O Commander of the Faithful! By God you killed him while he fasted a lot and was a vigilant at nights. I did not want you to undertake the guilt of shedding his blood".
Setting fire to the house of Imam al-Sadiq (a)
Al-Kulayni has narrated that; when he was the governor of Haramayn (Mecca and Medina), taking orders from al-Mansur al-'Abbasi, Hasan b. Zayd set fire to the house of Imam al-Sadiq (a), and the door and entry of the house was burnt, while Imam al-Sadiq (a) walking through the fire, exited the house and said: "I am the son of Aʿrāq al-Tharā (the epithet of prophet Isma'il), I am son of Ibrahim (a) khalil Allah".
Governing Medina and dismissal from it
In 150/767, al-Mansur assigned Hasan b. Zayd the government of Medina. Then in 155/772, al-Mansur became suspicious of, and angry with him, and dismissing him from government, imprisoned him in Baghdad and confiscated his property. Al-Mahdi al-'Abbasi, the crown prince of al-Mansur, sent a secret letter to 'Abd al-Samad b. 'Ali, the new governor of Medina, asking him to treat Hasan b. Zayd well. When al-Mahdi came to power, released Hansan from the prison, and repaid his property, and made him his favored. According to some historical narrations, after al-Mansur's death in 158/775, Hasan b. Zayd attended the room where his body was laid, and swore allegiance to al-Musa, who was there on behalf of his father, al-Mahdi. It is likely then, that Hasan b. Zayd had been released from the prison for some time before the death of al-Mansur.
In company with al-Mahdi al-'Abbasi, Hasan b. Zayd went on a pilgrimage to Mecca in 168/784 at the age of 85. However, he died on his way and was buried in a place called Hajar, 5 miles away from Medina.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from حسن بن زید بن حسن in Farsi Wikishia.