Husayn Quli Hamadani
His gravestone in the shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a)
|Lineage||Jabir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansari|
|Studied in||Tehran, Najaf|
|Death||Sha'ban 28, 1311/March 6, 1894|
|Professors||Shaykh 'Abd al-Husayn Tihrani, al-Shaykh al-Ansari, Sayyid 'Ali Shushtari, ...|
|Students||Mirza Javad Maliki Tabrizi, al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin, Mirza Muhammad Husayn Na'ini, Akhund Mulla Muhammad Kazim Khurasani, ...|
|Works||Class scripts of al-Shaykh al-Ansari's fiqh and usul, ...|
Mullā Ḥusayn Qulī Hamadānī(Persian: ملا حسین قلی همدانی) (b. 1239/1824 – d. 1311/1894) was an Islamic scholar, mystic, and jurisprudent of 13th/19th centuries. He studied in different cities of Tehran, Sabzevar, and Najaf. His great teachers were al-Shaykh al-Ansari in fiqh and usul and Sayyid 'Ali Shushtari in ethics. Some of his top students were Mirza Baqir Qadi Tabataba'i, Mirza Jawad Maliki Tabrizi, al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin, Shaykh Muhammad Bahari, Mirza Muhammad Husayn Na'ini, and Akhund Khurasani.
Mulla Husayn Quli was a milestone in the history of true spiritual approach in Shi'a seminaries. Many acts of wonder have been reported from him and it is written about him that he was always watchful about his actions and his soul.
His lineage reached Jabir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansari, one of the Companions of the Prophet (s). His father, whose name was Ramadan, was a shepherd and wished that his son continues his educations so he sent him to Tehran to learn religious studies.
Husayn Quli learned preliminary lessons, different levels of fiqh and usul and then attended the classes of fiqh and usul of different Islamic scholars such as Shaykh 'Abd al-Husayn Tihrani (d. 1286/1869) known as Shaykh al-'Iraqayn.
After a while staying in Sabzevar, he left there for Najaf. In Najaf, he benefitted the fiqh and usul class of al-Shaykh Murtada al-Ansari and through him, was guided to attend the ethics class of Sayyid 'Ali Shushtari and became one of his pupils.
After al-Shaykh al-Ansari passed away, Mulla Husayn Quli wanted to continue teaching his teacher's class but he refrained from it due to Sayyid 'Ali Shushtari's advice and began educating and teaching ethics to talented students and after Sayyid 'Ali Shushtari passed away, he taught ethics in his house in addition to fiqh and usul.
Methodology of Teaching
His spiritual and teaching conduct was similar to that of Sayyid 'Ali Shushtari and it is said that his spiritual discipleship went back through Sayyid 'Ali Shushtari and from him to Sayyid Sadr al-Din Kashif Dizfuli and from him to Aqa Muhammad Bidabadi and from him reached Sayyid Qutb al-Din Nayrizi.
Mulla Husayn Quli Hamadani educated many students. Number of his students which in some reports reached 300, in the one hand shows his popularity and on the other hand demonstrates the broad influence of his spiritual conduct in Najaf of that time. Some of his great pupils are:
- Shaykh Shaykh Muhammad Bahari (d. 1325/1907)
- Sayyid Ahmad Karbala'i
- Sayyid Kamal known as Mirza Aqa Dawlatabadi (d. 1328/1910)
- Sayyid Muhammad Sa'id Habubi Najafi (d. 1333/1915)
- Shaykh Musa Shararih 'Amili (d. 1304 /1887)
- Sayyid Sadr al-Din 'Amili Kazimi (d. 1354/1935)
- Sayyid Mahdi Hakim Najafi (d. 1312/1895)
- Shaykh Baqir Qamusi Najafi (d. 1353/1935)
- Sayyid Abd al-Ghaffar Mazandarani (d. 1356/1937)
- Shaykh Muhammad Baqir Najmabadi (d. 1353/1935)
- Sayyid 'Ali Hamadani (d. 1379/1960)
- Mirza Baqir Qadi Tabataba'i
- Mirza Javad Maliki Tabrizi
- Al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin (d. 1371/1952)
- Mirza Muhammad Husayn Na'ini (d. 1355/1936)
- Akhund Mulla Muhammad Kazim Khurasani (d. 1329/1911)
- Sayyid Shams al-Din Mahmud Mar'ashi Najafi (d. 1338/1920)
- Sayyid Mahmud Taliqani Najafi
- Sayyid Abu l-Qasim Isfahani, Mulla Husayn Quli's son-in-law
- Shaykh 'Ali (d. 1359/1940), Mulla Husayn Quli's son
Developing an Educational Tradition
Undoubtedly, having the opportunity to learn under Mulla Hadi Sabzevari after being benefitted from the classes of al-Shaykh al-Ansari had a reinforcing effect on deepening the teachings of Sayyid 'Ali Shushtari in the heart of Husayn Quli Hamadani. Having a great understanding of rational teachings and fiqh, Mulla Husayn Quli promoted his teacher's conduct so much that a new educational school was formed after him in Najaf.
Mulla Husayn Quli's spiritual conduct was based on the knowledge of the self, observation of one's watchfulness of his actions and soul and striving in the four steps of its process.
- In the first step, the wayfarer must perform the obligations and avoids prohibitions. He so much emphasized on this step that observing the religious laws and limits can be considered the most important factor of his spiritual conduct. He believed that love of God cannot come together with sins.
- In the second step, he advised that the wayfarer must do anything only for the sake of God so that he becomes habituated to doing it.
- In the third step, the wayfarer needs to always know God as his observer.
- In the fourth step, in order that the wayfarer knows God present and observing him and draws away anything other than God, he needs to clear his mental occupations.
In the view of Mulla Husayn Quli, some ways of clearing mental occupations are remembering God, reciting the Holy Qur'an, worshiping, invoking the Infallible Imams (a) and surely the quickest way of clearing mental occupations is to reflect on the self.
Acts of Wonder
Many acts of wonder have been reported from him and that he was always watchful about his actions and his soul so much that he is reported to have become silent sometimes in the middle of class fearful of slightest ignorance and saying anything regardless of God's contentment.
Grandeur in the Views of Others
Aqa Buzurg Tihrani who entered Iraq two years after demise of Mulla Husayn Quli, described him following methodology of Sayyid b. Tawus. In his opinions, most scholars after Mulla Husayn Quli were indebted to him and his pupils were stars of the sky of knowledge and virtue. He regretted for he did not see him, but he is happy his students could attend Mulla Husayn Quli's classes. He believed that Mulla Husayn Quli's students had combined knowledge with practice. About Mulla Husayn Quli, Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin has written that Mulla Husayn Quli was peerless in ethics and purification of the soul among his contemporary scholars.
Since most of Mulla Husayn Quli's efforts were for educating pupils, he could not find time to write; thus, most of his works are written by his students, some of which are:
- Class scripts of al-Shaykh al-Ansari's fiqh and usul classes written by Mulla Husayn Quli himself.
- Class scripts of Sayyid 'Ali Shushtari's classes
- Class scripts of his fiqh classes about the topics of salat al-musafir (the traveler's prayer), al-khilal, al-qada' and al-shahadat written and compiled by his students in three volumes.
- Class scripts of his fiqh classes on the topic of rahn written by one of his students
- His amali on ethics compiled by some of his students
- Correspondences and instructions which Mirza Isma'il Tabrizi (Ta'ib) compiled them together with some correspondences and instructions of Ahmad Karbala'i, Muhammad Bahari Hamadani and Aqa Muhammad Bidabadi and published them at the end of his Tadhkirat al-muttaqin.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from ملا حسینقلی همدانی in Farsi WikiShia.