Al-Husayn b. 'Abd al-Samad al-Harithi
His grave in Bahrain
|Religious Affiliation||Twelver Shi'a|
|Well-Known Relatives||Al-Shaykh al-Baha'i (son)|
|Residence||Jabal Amel, Bahrain, Mashhad|
|Professors||Hasan b. Ja'far al-Karaki, al-Shahid al-Thani|
|Students||Baha' al-Din al-'Amili (son), al-Hasan b. Zayn al-Din, Mir Damad|
|Permission for Hadith|
|Permission for Hadith|
|Baha' al-Din al-'Amili, al-Hasan b. Zayn al-Din, Mir Damad|
|Works||Wusul al-akhyar ila usul al-akhbar,Nur al-haqiqa wa nur al-hadiqa fi 'ilm al-akhlaq,...|
Al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd al-Ṣamad al-Ḥārithī (Arabic: الحسین بن عَبدالصَمَد الحارِثي), (b. 918/1512 - d. 984/1576), famous as 'Izz al-Din (عزّ الدین) [literally. Pride of the Religion], was from Jabal Amel, a student of al-Shahid al-Thani, and father of al-Shaykh al-Baha'i. As the Safavid government was formed, and the Ottoman pressure on the Shi'ite inhabitant areas became harsher, al-Harithi migrated to Iran with his family. He was the Shaykh al-Islam of Qazvin, Mashhad, and Herat.
Birth and Lineage
His grandfather, Muhammad b. 'Ali al-Juba'i, was one of the great scholars of Jabal Amel who authored the book Majmu'at al-Jaba'i (Collection of Juba'i). Also, al-Harithi's father, 'Abd al-Samad b. Muhammad, was one of the famous scholars of his time and was praised by al-Shahid al-Thani for his knowledge and piousness.
Al-Harithi was taught in his own city mostly by al-Shahid al-Thani, but also learned from al-Hasan b. Ja'far al-Karaki. He accompanied al-Shahid al-Thani in his trips to Egypt, Istanbul, and Iraq and received his permission to transmit hadith in the 941/1534-5. Al-Shahid al-Thani has praised him in the permission letter.
Emigration to Iran
The increasing pressure of the Ottomans on their Shi'a inhabitants, especially on Jabal Amel, and the foundation of the Safavid government, resulted in the migration of many scholars of such places to Iran. After the pressures which was induced on his teacher, al-Shahid al-Thani, al-Harithi migrated to Iraq in what is speculated to be the year 956/1549-50. He moved to Iran along with his family between the years 958/1551 to 961/1554.
According to what al-Harithi has recorded himself, the first place he settled after entering Iran was Isfahan. 'Ali b. Hilal al-Minshar al-Karaki al-'Amili (d. 984/1576-7), then Shaykh al-Islam of Isfahan, welcomed him.
After three years of life in Isfahan, as the scientific popularity of al-Harithi grew and on the recommendation of al-Shaykh 'Ali al-Minshar, the king Tahmasb I invited him to Qazvin, the capital of the Safavids at the time, and installed him as the Shaykh al-Islam of Qazvin. He was there for seven years, where he performed Friday prayers, which he believed to be an imperative duty.
In 970/1562, king Tahmaasb removed al-Harithi from being the Shaykh al-Islam of Qazvin, and instead gave him the same position in Mashhad. It seems the decision was the repercussion of political issues and the dispute that existed between al-Harithi and al-Sayyid al-Husayn al-Karaki (d. 1001/1592-3) on some jurisprudential issues.
Later, al-Harithi moved to Herat where he stayed for eight years, teaching, and preaching, while being the Shaykh al-Islam as well. According to Afandi al-Isfahani, his scientific and social activities resulted in the conversion of many Heratians to the Shi'a sect, and many enthusiasts went to him to be educated. Al-Harithi was the Shaykh al-Islam of Herat until 983/1575-6.
Similar to other scholars from Jabal Amel, al-Harithi had an important role in importing Shi'a hadith and scientific heritage to Iran. Many scholars of Iran and Transoxiana visited him to be educated. Some sources, referencing al-Harithi's publications, believe he had an inclination to Sufi Shaykhs.
Al-Harithi educated many students and permitted them to narrate hadith, such as:
- His son, Baha' al-Din al-'Amili,
- Hasan b. Zayn al-Din al-'Amili (author of Ma'alim al-usul),
- Mir Damad,
- Mansur b. 'Abd Allah al-Shirazi famous as Rastgu (honest),
- Badr al-Din al-Hasan b. 'Ali b. Shadqam al-Madani, a tenth century literary and scholar,
One of the scientific activities of al-Harithi has been reported to be the emendation and comparison of al-Shahid al-Thani's publications, since his handwriting has been found in it.
- Wusul al-akhyar ila usul al-akhbar, which is the most important book on diraya al-hadith after the book, al-Ri'aya fi 'ilm al-diraya by al-Shahid al-Thani in the Safavid era, the book is written in Mashhad before 960/1553, .
- Gloss on Khulasat al-aqwal fi 'ilm al-rijal of al-'Allama al-Hilli.
- Al-Ta'liqat, which is a gloss on the al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya .
- Al-Arba'un hadith, where he has compiled forty hadiths on ethics.
Fiqh and Usul
- Commentary on Qawa'id al-ahkam.
- Commentary on Tahzib tariq al-wusul ila 'ilm al-usul both above from al-'Allama al-Hilli.
- Risalat salat al-jumu'a or Risala fi wujub salat al-jum'a (treatise on Jum'a prayer)
- Risalat al-'iqd al-Husayni or Risala al-iqd al-Tahmasbi, written by order of king Tahmasb I -who was suffering compulsion- contains blaming compulsion in tahara and states the differences of al-Harithi and al-Sayyid al-Husayn al-Karaki in some fiqhi matters.
- Gloss on Irshad al-Adhhan of al-'Allama al-Hilli.
- Mas'alatan (two questions), one about removing of impurities (nijasa) from straw and the second about how to spend the share of the Imam (a) (Sahm al-Imam) for poor sayyids in time of occultation.
- Commentary on Alfiyya of al-Shahid al-Awwal.
- Al-Riasala al-tisa'iyya or al-Masa'il al-salatiyya containing nine subjects about prayer.
Theology, Ethics, and Others
- Nur al-haqa'iq wa nur al-hadiqa fi 'ilm al-akhlaq which some of it, is a selection of 'Adab al-dunya wa l-din of Abu l-Hasan 'Ali b. Muhammad al-Mawardi, the Shafi'i faqih (d. 450/1058-9)
- Al-I'tiqadat al-haqqa (the true beliefs)
- Al-Wajibat al-malakiyya
- A collection of his glosses on hadith and fiqh and mathematics books.
- His theological debates with some of Sunni scholars of Halab.
- Poetry book.
- Nur al-Din 'Ali b. 'Abd al-Samad, his brother, was a faqih and poet and one of students of al-Shahid al-Thani who had permission to narrate hadith from al-Harithi and al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki. He versified Alfiyya by al-Shahid al-Awwal and named it al-Durra al-Safiyya.
- Baha' al-Din al-'Amili, his son.
- Abu Turab 'Abd al-Samad, his second son, born in 966/1558-9 in Qazvin. Studied under his father and received permission to transmit hadith from him. Baha' al-Din al-'Amili wrote his book al-Fawa'id al-Samadiyya for him. He died in 1020/1611 and buried in Najaf.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from حسین بن عبدالصمد حارثی in Farsi WikiShia.