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Ibn Fahd al-Hilli

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The tomb of Ibn Fahd al-Hilli in Karbala.jpg
The tomb of Ibn Fahd al-Hilli in Karbala
Personal Information
Full Name Abu l-Abbas Jamal al-Din Ahamad b. Muhammad b. al-Fahd al-Hilli al-Asadi
Kunya Abu l-Abbas
Epithet Ibn Fahd al-Hilli
Lineage Banu Asad
Birth 757/1356
Residence Hillah
Studied in Hillah, Jabal Amel
Death 841/1437
Burial Place Karbala
Scholarly Information
Professors 'Ali b. Khazin al-Haʾiri, 'Ali b. Yusuf b. 'Abd al-Jalil al-Nili, Ibn Muttawaj al-Bahrani, ...
Students 'Ali b. Hilal al-Jazayiri, Ibn Rashid al-Qatifi, 'Abd al-Sami' b. Fayyad al-Asadi, ...
Works 'Uddat al-da'i wa najah as-sa'i, Al-Muhadhdhab al-bari' fi sharh al-mukhtasar al-nafi', ...
Socio-Political Activities
Socio-Political
Activities
Convinced the ruler of Baghdad to convert to Shiite Islam. The ruler declared Shiite Islam as the official denomination of his state and make coins with the names of the Twelve Imams (a)

Abu l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Fahd al-Ḥillī (Arabic: ابوالعَبّاس أحمَد بن محمد بن فَهد الحلي) (b.757/1356 – d.841/1437), a Shi'ite scholar, faqih and muhaddith (hadith scholar). He was renowned mostly for his works on ethics, supplications and spirituality. His most famous work in this field is 'Uddat al-da'i wa najah al-sa'i which deals with supplications and related issues.

Life

His birth place is not exactly known, but it is obvious that he lived for years in Hillah, Iraq and taught there in Zaynabiyya School. He also lived in Karbala.[1]

He passed away at the age of 84 [2] and was buried in Karbala.[3]

Debate with the Sunni Scholars

In the year 840/1436, Ispand Mirza, the ruler of Baghdad, invited him to discuss with Sunni scholars. In the debate, Ibn al-Fahd and other Shi'a scholars discussed with the Sunnis and were able to convince the ruler of the rightfulness of Shi'a school. Thus, Ispand Mirza converted to Shi'ism and declared Shi'a Islam as the official religion of his state and made coins with the names of the Twelve Imams (a).[4]

Teachers

He learned fiqh and hadith under students of Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqin and al-Shahid al-Awwal.[5]

Among his teachers are the following:


Aqa Buzurg Tihrani has mentioned him also among the students of al-Shahid al-Awwal.[7] Moreover, it is known that around 824/1421, he visited Jabal 'Amil and in Jezzine, received "ijaza" (permission) from ʿAli b. Muhammad b. al-Makki, son of al-Shahid al-Awwal.[8]

Students

The following are among Ibn al-Fahd's notable students:

Spirituality

Since Ibn Fahd was famous for his piety and spirituality and had written some works in ethics and mysticism, Qadi Nur Allah Shushtari introduces him as a Sufi. [10] Ayatollah Javadi Amuli also holds that he had a very high spiritual level. [11]

Works

  1. 'Uddat al-da'i wa najah al-sa'i
  2. Al-Muhadhdhab al-bari' fi sharh al-mukhtasar al-nafi' , his famous book in fiqh
  3. Al-Fusul fi da'awat a'qab al-fara'd
  4. Al-Muqtasar min sharh al-mukhtasar
  5. Al-Tahsin fi sifat al-'arifin

He has several other works that have remained unpublished. A book titled Istikhraj al-hawadith is attributed to him. This book contained divinations taken from Imam 'Ali's (a) statements.[12]

Qadi Nur Allah Shushtari has claimed that Ibn Fahd had a book on occult sciences, but at the time of his death, he gave it to someone to throw it in Euphrates. According to this report, Sayyid Muhammad b. Falah al-Musha'sha', who once was Ibn Fahd's student, was able to gain this book with some tricks and by using it could conquer Khuzistan.[13]

Notes

  1. Khwansari, Rawdat al-Jannat, vol. 1, p. 71-72.
  2. Bahr al-'Ulum, al-Rijal, vol. 2, p. 111.
  3. Khwansari, Rawdat al-Jannat, vol. 1, p. 74.
  4. Shushtari, Majalish al-mu'minin, vol. 2, pp. 368-370.
  5. al-Hurr al-'Amili, Amal al-'amil", vol. 2, p. 21; Khwansari, Rawdat al-Jannat, vol. 1, p. 72
  6. Ibn Fahd, al-muhadhdhab al-bari' , vol. 1, p. 194; Shushtari, Majalish al-mu'minin, vol. 1, p. 579; Ibn Abi Jumhur, 'Awali al-la'ali al-'azizia, vol. 1, p. 8; Khwansari, Rawdat al-Jannat, vol. 1, p. 71-72
  7. Agha Buzurg, al-Dhari'ah, vol. 13, p. 108
  8. Afandi, Riyad al-'ulama, vol. 1, p. 64.
  9. Shushtari, Majalish al-mu'minin, vol. 1, p. 580; Ibn Abi Jumhur, 'Awali al-la'ali al-'azizia, vol. 1, p. 8; Hurr al-'Amili, Amal al-'amil", vol. 1, p. 75; Majisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 105, p. 26-27; Afandi, Riad al-'ulama, vol. 3, p. 121; Khwansari, Rawdat al-Jannat, vol. 1, p. 71-72
  10. Shushtari, Majalish al-mu'minin, vol. 1, p. 579.
  11. 'Abd Allah Javadi Amoli, Tafsir Tasnim,
  12. Agha Buzurg, al-Dhari'a, vol. 2, p. 21; vol. 8, p.68
  13. Shushtari, Majalish al-mu'minin, vol. 2, pp. 395-396.

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from ابن فهد حلي in Farsi Wikishia.
  • Afandi, Mirza 'Abd Allah, Riad al-'ulama, edited by Ahmad Husayni, Qom, 1401/1981.
  • Agha Buzurg Tihrani, al-Dhari'a.
  • Bahr al-'Ulum, Muhammad Mahdi, al-Rijal, edited by Muhammad Sadiq Bahr al-'Ulum, Najaf, Maktaba al-'Alamayn.
  • Hurr al-'Amili, Muhammad, Amal al-'amil, edited by Ahmad Husayni, Baghdad, 1385/1962.
  • Ibn Abi Jumhur, Muhammad, 'Awali al-la'ali al-'azizia, edited by Mujtaba 'Araqi, Qom, 1403/1983.
  • Ibn Fahd Hilli, Ahmad, al-muhadhdhab al-bari' fi sharh al-mukhtasar al-nafi' , edited by Mujtaba 'Araqi, Qom, 1407/1986.
  • Javadi Amuli, 'Abd Allah, Tafsir Tasnim,
  • Khawnsari, Muhammad Baqir, Rawdat al-Jannat, Tehran, 1382/1962.
  • Majisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-anwar, Beirut, 1403/1984.
  • Shushtari, Qadi Nur Allah, Majalish al-mu'minin, Tehran, 1407/1986.