Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini
|Full Name||Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini|
|Well-Known Relatives||Sayyid Ahmad Khomeini , Sayyid Mustafa Khomeini|
|Birth||Mehr 1, 1281 Sh/Jumada II 20, 1320/September 24, 1902|
|Studied in||Arak, Qom|
|Death||Khordad 13, 1368/Shawwal 28, 1409/June 3, 1989|
|Burial Place||Bihisht Zahra, Tehran|
|Professors||Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri Yazdi, Muhammad Rida Shahi Isfahani, Mirza Muhammad 'Ali Shah Abadi, Mirza Javad Maliki Tabrizi|
|Students||Murtada Mutahhari, Sayyid Muhammad Bihishti, Muhammad Fadil Lankarani, Muhammad Hadi Ma'rifat, Ja'far Subhani, Sayyid Mustafa Khomeini, Husayn Ali Muntaziri, Yusuf Sani'i, Sayyid Ali Khamenei, Sayyid Mahmud Hashimi Shahrudi, Sayyid 'Abbas Khatami|
|Works||Kashf al-asrar,Tahrir al-wasila, ...|
|The Founder and Supreme leader of Islamic Republic of Iran|
Sayyid Rūhollāh Mūsawī Khomeinī (Persian: سید روح الله موسوی خمینی), the best known as Imam Khomeini (Persian: امام خمینی), was one the most important Shi'a marja's of the 14th//20th century. He was the leader of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, which won victory in 1979 and overthrew the monarchy and established an Islamic republic in Iran.
He was arrested twice by the monarchical Pahlavi government and was exiled for life in the latter. For a while, he lived in Turkey, then he moved to Najaf. He stayed in Najaf for 13 years teaching, writing and leading the revolutionists in Iran. In 1979, he was forced to leave Iraq; so he went to Paris. After a while, he returned to Iran and led the Islamic Revolution to victory. He was the leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the end of his life.
Imam Khomeini's movement and the victory of the Islamic Revolution had several impacts on the world and led to establishment of political movements based on Islamic thoughts. The doctrine of al-Wilayat al-Mutlaqa li l-Faqih (absolute guardianship of the jurist), a political doctrine based on Shi'a beliefs, is his most important doctrine. He tried to establish the Islamic Republic of Iran and its constitution based on this doctrine.
He believed that the common way of ijtihad (deduction of the Islamic laws from its sources) in Hawza (seminary) is not sufficient. From his point of view, governing was the practical realization of all fiqh. Having this viewpoint about fiqh, he believed in innovation in Ijtihad beside emphasizing on keeping the frames of traditional fiqh. His doctrine about the impact of the time and place on ijtihad and some of his influential fatwas can be counted as results of this point of view.
Muslims, especially Shi'as, liked him very much. His funeral, with participation of almost 10 million people, was the most crowded funeral in the world up to now.
In addition to fiqh and usul -which are the common subjects in Islamic seminaries- he had works and special opinions in Islamic philosophy and mysticism.
During his life, he lived a plain and ascetic life. In the last 10 years of his life, when he was the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, he lived in a humble house located in Jamaran (a district of Tehran.)
- 1 Biography
- 2 Education
- 3 Leading the Opposition against Monarchy
- 4 Leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran
- 5 Opinons and Doctrines
- 6 Collection of Poems
- 7 See Also
- 8 Further Readings
- 9 Notes
- 10 External Links
- 11 References
He was born in Jumada II 20, 1320 (September 24, 1902) in Khomein, a city located in central Iran. (Because he was born on the anniversary of the birthday of Lady Fatima al-Zahra (a), the anniversary of his birthday is counted according to lunar calendar exceptionally.)
His father, Sayyid Mustafa Musavi, who had studied Islamic subjects in Najaf, was contemporaneous with Ayatollah Mirza Shirazi. His father, whom the people of Khomein referred to for their religious issues, was murdered five months after Sayyid Ruhollah's birth in a fight against the brutal local governor.
Sayyid Ruhollah grew under the supervision of his mother, Hajara Agha, and his paternal aunt Sahiba Khanum, until he was 15.
Wife and Children
Demise and Funeral
In the evening of Shawwal 28, 1409 (June 3, 1989), he passed away from cancer in Shahid Raja'i Heart Hospital in Tehran. His funeral was held on Dhu l-Qa'da 1, 1409 (June 5, 1989) in the Grand Musalla of Tehran. Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad Rida Gulpaygani performed Salat al-Mayyit on his body. He was buried in Bihisht Zahra (a cemetery in outskirts of Tehran) on Dhu l-Qa'da 2 (June 6) in presence of 10 million people who came form various cities of Iran for mourning. His funeral is counted as the most crowded one in the history.
He studied preliminary level of Islamic studies -including Arabic morphology and syntax, mantiq (logic), basic level of fiqh and usul- under the teachers and scholars of his hometown, Khomein, such as: Aqa Mirza Mahmud Iftikhar al-'Ulama, Mirza Rida Najafi Khomeini, Shaykh 'Ali Muhammad Burujirdi, Shaykh Muhammad Ghulpayghani, Aqa 'Abbas Araki, and more than everyone, his elder brother, Ayatollah Murtada Pasandidi.
Study in Arak and Qom
In 1338/1919, he went to Islamic Seminary of Arak. Shortly after his teacher, Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri Yazdi, emigrated to Qom, young Imam Khomeini also moved to Qom along with a number of his classmates.
In the Islamic Seminary of Qom, in addition to completing the preliminary and advanced levels in fiqh and usul (Kharij fiqh and usul), he worked on other fields of Islamic study, including: prosody, mathematics, astronomy and Islamic philosophy. He studied advanced levels of theoretical and practical mysticism (al-'irfan al-nazari wa al-'amali) under Ayatollah Muhammad 'Ali Shah Abadi for six years. He also had relationship with Ayatollah Mirza Javad Maliki Tabrizi and spoke well of him.
The founder of Hawza 'Ilmiyya of Qom, Ayatollah Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri Yazdi, was his most important teacher in the advanced levels of fiqh and usul. After the demise of Ayatollah Ha'iri Yazdi, by the effort of Imam Khomeini and other mujtahids from Qom, Ayatollah Burujirdi, who later moved to Qom, was chosen as the head of the Seminary of Qom. In this period, Imam Khomeini was known as one of the greatest mujtahids and teachers in fiqh, usul, philosophy, mysticism, and Islamic ethics.
- Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri Yazdi (The founder of Hawza 'Ilmiyya of Qom).
- Muhammad Rida Shahi Isfahani (The author of Wiqayat al-adhhan).
- Mirza Muhammad 'Ali Shah Abadi
- Mirza Javad Maliki Tabrizi
- Sayyid Ali Yathribi Kashani
- Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari
- Mirza 'Ali Akbar Hikami Yazdi
- Mirza Muhammad Ali Adib Tihrani
Imam Khomeini spent a lot of years teaching fiqh, usul, Islamic philosophy, mysticism and Islamic ethics in the Islamic Seminary of Qom. His classes were held in different places in the town including: Faydiyya, Masjid A'zam, Masjid Muhammadiyya, Haj Mulla Sadiq School and Masjid Salmasi.
In Najaf, he taught Islamic subjects including advanced levels of fiqh for almost 13 years in Masjid al-Shaykh al-A'zam al-Ansari. It was during these years that he taught the theoretical basis of his doctrine, wilayat al-faqih, in several sessions for the first time.
According to his students, his class was one of the most important classes in the Seminary of Najaf. In some periods, the number of participants in his class reached 1200, among whom were tens of well-known contemporaneous mujtahids.
- Main article: List of Imam Khomeini's Works
- Tahrir al-wasila
- Misbah al-hidaya ila l-khilafa wa l-wilaya
- Kitab al-Bay' (five volumes)
- Manahij al-wusul ila 'ilm al-usul (two volumes)
- Anwar al-hidaya fi l-ta'liqat 'ala l-Kifaya (two volumes)
- Ta'liqat 'ala sharh fusus al-hikam wa misbah al-uns
- Sharh du'a sahar
- Kashf al-asrar
- Chihil hadith (Forty Hadith)
- Wilayat al-faqih
- Sharh hadith junud 'aql va jahl
- Adab al-salat
- Hukumat-i Islami (Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist)
- Sirr al-salat
- Tafsir Sura Hamd
- Jihad akbar (The Greatest Jihad: Combat with the Self)
- Manasik Hajj (rituals of Hajj)
- Tawdih al-masa'il (collection of Islamic laws)
- Istifta'at (questions and answers regarding Islamic laws)
- Diwan-i Imam (the collection of poems)
Leading the Opposition against Monarchy
The governing system of Iran was constitutional monarchy, which was changed to absolute monarchy by constant contravention of constitution by two Pahlavi Shahs (kings). Moreover, actions and decisions of the ruling monarch often contradicted Islamic laws and beliefs, which caused religious people, especially the clergy, to protest to governing regime.
In 1382/1962, by releasing a statement, Imam Khomeini formally and openly expressed his protest against the monarchy. In Jumada I 9, 1382 (October 8, 1962), after that National Consultative Council (Majlis Shura Milli) passed the bill of Regional and Provincial Councils, Imam Khomeini and other mujtahids in Qom held a session, after which they released statements against the bill. Finally, after his constant protest, the law was repealed in Rajab 5, 1382 (December 2, 1962).
Continuation of Protest
Exile to Najaf
Jumada II 9, 1385 (October 5, 1965); Imam Khomeini was moved to Baghdad, Iraq. In Jumada II 12 (October 8) he went from Samarra to Karbala and on Jumada II 19/October 15) he entered Najaf. 'Ulama (scholars) and marja's of Najaf greeted him and on Rajab 20/November 14, he started teaching in the Seminary of Najaf.
Leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Eventually, the revolutionary movement of people succeeded in 1399/1979. Imam Khomeini returned to Iran on Rabi' I 3 (February 1) of the same year and on 13th/11th the monarchy was overthrown. After some months, in Jumada II, 1399 (April 1979) the Islamic Republic system won the referendum on the governing system of the country. After a while, the draft of the constitution was written and put to referendum. According to the constitution, Imam Khomeini was the leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran. He held this position to the end of his life (Shawwal, 1409/June, 1989).
Consolidation of the Islamic Republic, giving guidance on writing the constitution, dealing with interior conflicts, commanding the war against Iraq's invasion, accepting the peace treaty with Iraq and revision of the constitution are some of his most important actions during these 10 years.
International Quds Day
- Main article: Quds Day
Some months after the victory of the revolution, in the month of Ramadan, 1399 (August 1979), Imam Khomeini declared the last Friday of the holy month of Ramadan as the Quds Day and asked the Muslim world to show their solidarity with the oppressed people of Palestine and to defend their rights.
Since then, mass marches and rallies are held in Iran and other countries on this day to show support and solidarity with Palestinians.
This day is titled as the International Quds Day.
Letter to Gorbachev
On the first day of the year 1989 (Jumada I 23, 1409), Imam sent a letter to the leader of former Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev. A delegation from Iran, led by Ayatollah Javadi Amuli, including Dr. Muhammad Jawad Larijani and Mrs. Mardiyya Hadidichi (Dabbagh) delivered the letter to Gorbachev.
The letter was written in a time when political analysts had predicted reformist movements and changes in the communist world. Imam Khomeini has foretold the dissolution of the Soviet Union and had predicted that communism would soon be seen in museums of political history. Moreover, in the letter, after criticizing the Materialist ideology, Imam had called the leaders of the Soviet Union to spirituality and invited them to conduct serious research about the dynamic teachings of Islam and suggested them to send some scholars to Qom for deeper research about Islam.
Repudiation of Polytheists
- Main article: bara'at min al-mushrikin
In the first Hajj season after the victory of the Revolution (Dhu l-Hijja, 1399/ November, 1979), Imam Khomeini gave a message to all of Hajj pilgrims. In this historical message, Imam focused on the social and political aspect of Hajj, which has been neglected for a long time and by mentioning the first verse of Sura al-Tawba, concluded that repudiation of enemies of Islam especially U.S. and Israel is one of the most significant part of a true Hajj, as God and His Apostle (s) have repudiated polytheist, who were enemies of Islam at that time.
According to this message, every year Iranian pilgrims hold a session as "Repudiation of Polytheists" ("bara'at min al-mushrikin" the titled is derived from the first verse of Surat al-Tawba) on the 9th of Dhu l-Hijja in the land of 'Arafat.
Fatwa for Killing Salman Rushdie
After publication of the book "The Satanic Verses" in 1408/1988, which included insults to the Holy Prophet (s), Imam Khomeini issued a fatwa that the author of the book (Salman Rushdie) is an apostate due to his insults to the Prophet (s) and must be executed. After a while a rumor spread that if he repents, the fatwa of his execution will be withdrawn (repealed), but Imam Khomeini emphasized, answering a question on the subject, that even if the author repents and becomes the most pious person of the time, the fatwa will not change.
Establishment of Expediency Discernment Council
According to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, bills passed by the Parliament (Islamic Consultative Assembly of Iran) must not be against the Islamic laws and the Constitution. The assessment of whether or not the passed bills are against the Islamic laws or the Constitution is one of the duties of the Guardian Council. However, numerous conflicts between these two institutions made Imam Khomeini to think of a solution. First, he said the agreement of two third of the members of parliament prevails the opinion of the Guardian Council; but after a while in Bahman 17, 1366 Sh/February 6, 1988 he established the Expediency Discernment Council of the System which is responsible for resolving disputes between Guardian Council and Majlis.
Opinons and Doctrines
Al-Wilayat al-Mutlaqa li l-Faqih
Imam Khomeini presented his theory of al-Wilayat al-Faqih (guardianship of the jurist) through his teaching classes -which was later distributed under the title "Islamic Governing" in Najaf for the first time. The key element of this theory is that according to Shi'a thoughts, the country must be governed under the supervision of a Mujtahid who is qualified as a marja'. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, this theory was put in the Constitution as one of its principles, and actually, the Islamic Republic has been established based on it.
Later, in the last years of his life, Imam Khomeini presented the theory again and said that a Faqih (jurist) has the same authority of the Prophet (s) and Imams (a) in governing. According to this theory a faqih can suspend a primary Islamic law for other more important issues in Islam.
The Role of Time and Place in Ijtihad
On Rajab 16, 1409 (February 22, 1989), Imam issued a message to Islamic Seminaries and the clergy which became known as "Manshur Ruhaniyyat" (charter of the clergy) in which he stated that the common ijtihad (deduction of the Islamic laws from its sources) in seminaries are not sufficient enough for management of the society. He emphasized that time and place play an important role in ijtihad, as they change the Mujthid's view of a subject and consequently the ruling regarding that subject. He had mentioned this point in his formerly issued message which is known as "Manshur Baradari" (charter of brotherhood.)
Permission to Play Chess
Playing chess was considered a Haram (forbidden) act in the opinion of most of Shi'a jurist. Answering a question about chess on Muharram 28, 1409 (September 10, 1988), Imam Khomeini permitted playing chess, if it is no longer described as a tool for gambling and if the players do not gamble. This fatwa which was considered somehow new, brought some reactions. One of his students wrote a letter of criticism to him. In response, Imam Khomeini emphasized on his fatwa and also criticized the common approach of mujtahids to jurisprudential sources.
Collection of Poems
- Main article: Diwan Imam Khomeini (book)
A week after Imam's demise, one of his poems was spread for the first time. The poem, which has mystical connotation, became very well-known among the people. After a while, the full collection of his poems were published.
The collection consists of six chapters (according to the types of poems) and was published for the first time by the "Institute of Compilation and Publication of Imam Khomeini's Works" under the title "Diwan-i Imam" in 438 pages.
The book has been translated into various languages including: English, Hindi, and Arabic. It has been translated to English by Ghulam-Rida A'wani and Muhammad Legenhausen entitled The Wine of Love[Note 1]. Qadir Fadili, has written a Persian commentary and provided a subject index for the book.
- Imam Khomeini’s Last Will and Testament;
- Algar, Hamed, Imam Khomeini: A Short Biography, The Institute for Compilation and Publication of Imam Khomeini's Works;
- Foundation of the Representation of the Office of Spiritual Leadership in Universities, Rays of the Sun (83 Stories from the Life of Imam Khomeini (ra)), Translated by Abbas Merali and Shaheen Merali;
- Portal of Imam Khomeini
- "Imam Ruhollah", 10 Episode comprehensive documentary on personal, social, and political life of Imam Khomeini, (watch on YouTube)
- The material for writing this article has been mainly taken from سید روح الله موسوی خمینی in Farsi Wikishia.