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Jabal al-Rahma

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Coordinates: 21°21′17″N 39°59′03″E / 21.354741°N 39.984049°E / 21.354741; 39.984049
In the past, at the time of 'Arafat rituals, they hung lamps and chandeliers on the white column so that the pilgrims and caravans would find their way at night.

Jabal al-Raḥma (Arabic: جبل الرحمة) or Mount ʿArafāt is the name of a small mountain in 'Arafat near Mecca which has become famous due to the supplications of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) especially Imam al-Husayn (a) on the Day of 'Arafa.

Location

Jabal al-Rahma is the name of a mountain in north east of 'Arafat, 10 km away from Mecca, 340 meters or 372 meters above the sea level. This mountain is separate from other mountains surrounding the region and is made of rocks.

Above the mountain there is a white column with 4 meters height and 1.8 meters width, which could be seen from distance. In teh past lights would be placed on top of the column on the 'Arafa day for pilgrims to find the way at night.

Names

Different names have been mentioned for this mountain such as 'Arafa, 'Arafat, Jabal Alal or Ilal due to seeing mirage in hot days above it or because hajj pilgrims rush upon seeing it until they arrive at mawqif; nabit, meaning what grows on Jabal al-Du'a because of reciting supplication around it and Qurayn meaning small horn.

Related Buildings

In some travel logs, there are mentions of a mosque and a dome called Umm Salama in 6th/12th century at the top of this mountain. This mosque was later stone-laid in 1073/1662-3 in the rule of Sultan Muhammad 'Uthmani (1058/1648 - 1099/1688-87). This mosque was overlooking 'Arafat and there was a wall in the direction of Qibla wherein some mihrabs were built. On the left of this mountain toward the Ka'ba, there was an old house attributed to Prophet Adam (a) and on the left of this house, there were rocks about which there reports of the Prophet's (s) staying.

Staying of the hajj pilgrims near Jabal al-Rahma required bringing water to this place for hajj pilgrims in later periods. Zubayda (d. 216/831-32), wife of Harun al-Rashid, ordered digging of a subterranean aqueduct from Nu'man spring to 'Arafat and Jabal al-Rahma and from there, they opened a channel so that water reached 'Arafat basin. To climb this mountain easily, some stairs were built on its sides which were 17 on one side and 10 in other two sides.

Surur b. Musa'id, ruler of Mecca in 1186/1772-73 built an elegant palace at the feet of the mountain which was unmatched before and after it and there are reports in 1377/1957-58 about its ruins. Nasir Khusru mentioned an unknown person as son of Shad Dil, Emir of Aden and has mentioned building of a penthouse on top of this mountain which had many lamps and candles lit on its dome. According to his report, this building could be seen from two Farsangs (leagues) away.

Now, a cubic pillar with the height of 4 meters and width 1.8 m over it which would be seen from distance. In the past, at the time of 'Arafat rituals, they hung lamps and chandeliers on it so that it guides pilgrims and caravans.

Many Shi'a and Sunni faqihs consider climbing the mountain disliked, yet some pilgrims climb the mountain.

Place of Prayer and Supplication

At the feet of this mountain where later a small mosque called Masjid al-Sakhrat was built, the Prophet (s) stayed on the Day of 'Arafa (Dhu l-Hijja 9th) and spent it in prayer and supplication until the sunset. Thus, to follow him, hajj pilgrims gather around this mountain on the Day of 'Arafa. This place has also been considered a staying place of other prophets (s) including Prophet Ibrahim (a).

According to one report, the Prophet (s) gave the sermon of Hajjat al-Wida' on Dhu l-Hijja 9, 10/March 10, 632 and later Imam al-Husayn (a) recited the supplication of 'Arafa near this mountain.

From the viewpoint of Twelver Shia, climbing mountain of 'Arafa at the time of staying in 'Arafat in the time of hajj is disliked, but staying and reciting prayers and supplications there to imitate the Prophet (s) is recommended. Like Shia, Sunni people have considered climbing and staying at the top of this mountain opposite to tradition and have mentioned about the recommendation of staying at the place the Prophet (s) stayed and reciting supplication upon seeing this mountain. Only few historians such as al-Tabari and al-Mawardi have regarded climbing this mountain recommended.

Many inscriptions in different languages have been written on the rocks of Jabal al-Rahma. Many sellers sell rings, misbahas and other things pilgrims ask around this mountain.

References