Jami'-i 'Abbasi (book)
|Original title||جامع عباسی|
Jāmiʿ-i ʿAbbāsī (Persian: جامع عباسی) is the most significant book of Baha' al-Din al-'Amili. Baha' al-Din al-'Amili wrote the book by the request of the Shah 'Abbas I in fiqh and in Farsi. This was an innovation in writing fiqh texts. Some experts believe that Jami' 'Abbasi is the first manual of Islamic law written in Farsi. Jami' 'Abbasi contains an introduction and twenty chapters (from tahara to diyat).
Purpose of Writing
According to Baha' al-Din al-'Amili in the introduction, Shah 'Abbas I was very interested in publishing religious contents, so requested him to write a book which contains the most needed Islamic laws for people.
Baha' al-Din al-'Amili designed a comprehensive book containing all fiqh topics for people, and because he did this by request of Shah 'Abbas I, named it Jami' 'Abbasi.
Baha' al-Din al-'Amili sorted the content of Jami' 'Abbasi in twenty chapters in his draft, but demised after writing the first five chapters. Although the time of the beginning of the book is unknown, but it is apparent that Baha' al-Din al-'Amili started the book in his last years of life and perhaps this was his last book.
After the demise of Baha' al-Din al-'Amili, Nizam al-Din Sawuji continued the writing of Jami' 'Abbasi by order of the Shah 'Abbas I and finished the remaining fifteen chapters according to the plan of his teacher in less than two years.
Some sources also mentioned Muhammad b. 'Ali al-'Amili (student of Baha' al-Din al-'Amili) and Zayn al-'Abidin al-Husayni (student and niece of Baha' al-Din al-'Amili) as writers of other supplements for Jami' 'Abbasi.
Nineteen chapters of Jami' 'Abbasi are related to fiqh and contain topics that are frequently discussed in fiqh books, in contrast with the seventh chapter which is about ziyara of the fourteen infallibles and their time of birth and death, and is not related to fiqh.
Although Jami' 'Abbasi, like other fiqh books, begins with tahara chapter and ends with diyat, its order of chapters and emphasis on each of them is not similar to other fiqh books. In some chapters separate fiqh discussions came together, for example in the sixth chapter, separate topics like endowment (waqf), alms (sadaqa), qard al-hasana, jihad, and enjoining the good and forbidding the evil are discussed, also the tenth chapter contains topics like rent (ijara), 'aria, 'amana, seizure (ghasb), guarantee (dimana), muzari'a, musaqat, corporation (shirka), muzariba, advocacy (wikala), ju'ala, and finding (luqata). On the other hand, topic of some chapters is more finite than other fiqh books, the thirteenth and fourteenth chapters can be noted which are about hunting (sayd) and slaughter (dibh) respectively, while in fiqh books usually these two topics come together.
- Gloss of Muhammad b. 'Ali al-'Amili, known as Ibn Khatun, of the first glosses on Jami' 'Abbasi, is written by Burhan Tabrizi under supervision of Ibn Khatoon in 1054/1644.
- Husayn 'Ali Malayiri Tuyisirkani (D. 1286/1869) is another gloss writer to Jami' 'Abbasi.
- 'Abd Allah Mamaqani Najafi (D. 1351/1932) has also written a gloss to Jami' 'Abbasi.
Four of recent marja's have written glosses to Jami' 'Abbasi:
- 'Abd Allah Mazandarani (D. 1330/1911)
- Al-Sayyid Muhammad Kazim al-Yazdi (D. 1338/1919)
- Al-Sayyid Isma'il al-Sadr (D. 1338/1919)
- Sayyid Abu l-Qasim Dihkurdi Isfahani (D. 1353/1934)
There are several manuscripts of Jami' 'Abbasi.
Also it has been printed several times in Iran and India to the extent that it's said that counting its different printings is difficult. Some of printings only contain the first five chapters and others contain all the twenty chapters.
Jami' 'Abbasi is translated to Urdu and published in India. Also it's reported that it's been translated to Arabic by 'Abd 'Ali b. Rahmat Allah al-Huwayzi titled Al-Barq al-Lami' fi Tarjima al-Jami'.
Influence on Later Works
The fame of Jami' 'Abbasi has made other works following its naming and its writing method become written in later times.
Every one of these books is named after one of shahs (kings):
- Jami'-i Safawi; in Farsi by 'Ali Naqi b. Abu l-'Ala Tugha'i (judge of Isfahan, D. 1060/1650) named after the Shah Safi Safawi (ruled: 1038/1628-1052/1642) is about Imama.
- Jami'-i Sulaymani; in Farsi by Nizam al-Din 'Ali Musawi named after the Shah Sulayman Safawi (ruled: 1077/1666-1105/1693) is about the roots of faith, Islamic laws, and history of the twelve imams (a).
- Jami'-i Muhammadi; the Farsi manual of Islamic law, by Muhammad Ja'far Astarabadi (D. 1263/1847) named after Muhammad Shah Qajar (ruled: 1250/1834-1264/1847). Its introduction is about the roots of Religion, and has fourteen chapters in fiqh and its final chapter is about tajwid.
- Jami' Nasiri; the Farsi manual of Islamic law, by 'Ali b. Muhammad Ja'far Shari'atmadar Astarabadi (D. 1315/1897, son of the author of Jami' Muhammadi) named after the Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar (ruled: 1264/1847-1313/1895). According to Agha Buzurg Tihrani as Jami' Nasiri includes Islamic laws about politics, ruling, and mutual rights and obligations of people and rulers in addition to common fiqh chapters, it has advantage over Jami' Muhammadi. It's said that Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar wanted to make Jami' Nasiri the constitution of Iran but because of some serious oppositions it didn't happen.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from جامع عباسی (کتاب) in Farsi Wikishia.