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Jarudiyya

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Jārūdīyya (Arabic: جارودیة) is the first Zaydi sect. It is attributed to its most prominent leader, Abu l-Jarud Ziyad b. Mundhar.

Jarudiyya believed that the Prophet Muhammad (s) appointed 'Ali (a) as an Imam by pointing to his characteristics without mentioning his name. They did believe, however, that those characteristics were exclusive to 'Ali (a), and thus, they believed that the denial of 'Ali's (a) imamate after the demise of the Prophet (s) would lead to infidelity and deviation from the right path.

Jarudiyya also believed that there were similar remarks (by the Prophet (s)) concerning the imamate of Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a). They maintained that after these three Imams, there is no explicit text regarding the imamate of any 'Alawi. However, they restrict the imamate to children of Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a). Like other Zaydis, the Jarudiyya held that every 'Alawi whose lineage reliably goes back to Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a) and is knowledgeable, pious, and brave, will be considered as an Imam if he starts an uprising and calls people to himself.

Founder

Main article: Abu l-Jarud

In Imami sources of rijal, there is little information about Abu l-Jarud. Al-Kashshi, one of the earliest Imami scholars of rijal, provided some information about Abu l-Jarud. According to him, Abu l-Jarud was known as "Sarhub". Al-Kashshi takes "Sarhub" to refer to a blind devil residing in the seas. It is said that the title was given to Abu l-Jarud by Imam al-Baqir (a). Al-Kashshi also cited some hadiths from Imam al-Sadiq (a) in which Abu l-Jarud is reproached. Al-Najjashi provided more precise information about Abu l-Jarud. According to him, Abu l-Jarud's title was "al-Hamdani al-Kharafi". He cited a report from Muhammad b. Sinan according to which Abu l-Jarud was born blind. Al-Najjashi considered Abu l-Jarud to be an Imami from Kufa and a student of Imam al-Baqir (a).

Abu l-Jarud accompanied Zayd b. 'Ali in his uprising which might show that he converted from Imamiyya to Zaydiyya. According to al-Najashi, Abu l-Jarud was known as al-Thaqafi, heard hadiths from 'Atiyya b. Sa'd al-'Awfi, and transmitted hadiths from Imam al-Baqir (a). Moreover, Marwan b. Mu'awiya and 'Ali b. Hashim b. Barid transmitted hadiths from Abu l-Jarud, to which al-Bukhari pointed in his al-Tarikh al-kabir and al-Tarikh al-saghir.

Al-Shaykh al-Tusi referred to Abu l-Jarud as a Tabi'i and Zaydi, and attributed Jarudiyya to him. In some sources, Abu l-Jarud's title is said to be Hawfi, Harqi, and Kharaqi, but they are all distorted forms of "Kharafi", because he was from the "Kharaf" clan of the Hamdan tribe.

The years of Abu l-Jarud's birth and death are not cited in sources, but given the years in which some of his masters died, e.g. Hasan al-Basri (d. 110/728), Asbagh b. Nubata (d. the first half of the 2nd century/ early 8th century), and Abu Burda Burayd b. 'Abd Allah al-Ash'ari (d. the first half of the 2nd century/ early 8th century), he might have been born before 80/700.

Abu l-Jarud also transmitted hadiths from one of the Sahaba, Abu Tufayl 'Amir b. Wathila (d. 100/718 or 110/728), which is why al-Shaykh al-Tusi considered him to be one of the Tabi'un. Al-Dhahabi holds that Abu l-Jarud died between 140/757 and 150/767. Al-Mizzi provided a complete list of Abu l-Jarud's masters and students in the transmission of hadiths.

In Sunni sources of rijal, Abu l-Jarud is considered as an unreliable transmitter of hadiths, which seems to be grounded in his Zaydi tendencies.

Beliefs

According to Abu 'Isa al-Warraq's account, Jarudiyya believed that the Prophet (s) appointed 'Ali (a) as an Imam by pointing to his characteristics without mentioning his name. However, they believed that these characteristics were exclusive to 'Ali (a), and thus, they maintained it was an infidelity and deviation from the right path to reject the imamate of 'Ali (a) after the demise of the Prophet (s).

Jarudiyya also believed that similar remarks (by the Prophet (s)) were available concerning the imamate of Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a). They maintained that after these three people, there is no explicit text regarding the imamate of any 'Alawi. However, they restrict the imamate to children of Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a). Like other Zaydis, the Jarudiyya held that every 'Alawi whose lineage reliably goes back to Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a) and is knowledgeable, pious, and brave, will be considered as an Imam if he starts an uprising and calls people to himself.

Abu 'Isa al-Warraq has classified the views of the Jarudiyya concerning Mahdawiyya into three categories:

  • Those who believed in the Mahdawiyya of Muhammad b. Qasim al-Taliqani (d. 219/834),
  • And those who believed in the Mahdawiyya of Yahya b. 'Umar and were expecting his Raj'a.

Conversion of Zaydis to Jarudiyya after Zayd b. 'Ali

Throughout the history, every Zaydi sect claimed that it was the only true Zaydi sect, rejecting all other allegedly Zaydi sects. Even in the contemporary period, this is still a controversy among Zaydi scholars in Yemen. For example, scholars such as Badreddin al-Houthi believe in Jarudiyya, but some of his opponents believe in Salihiyya or Sulaymaniyya. However, there is evidence to the effect that early Zaydis were Jarudis:

  • As the majority of early authors of sects and creeds (al-milal wa l-nihal) have mentioned, Abu Khalid al-Wasiti, a close companion of Zayd b. 'Ali and the author of the earliest Zaydi collections of fiqh (jurisprudence) and hadiths, was an advocate of Abu l-Jarud's views.
  • According to Yahya b. Hamza (d. 614/1217), Zaydis are, in fact, Jarudis. He said that, after Zayd b. 'Ali, he knew nobody among leaders and followers of Zaydiyya who did not believe in Jarudiyya.

However, some scholars, such as Ahmad Mahmud al-Subhi, maintain that Jarudiyya no longer exists and that he knows no one who seeks to join the Jarudiyya.

References

  • The material of this article is mainly taken from جارودیه in Farsi WikiShia.
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Imamiyya