Teknonym or Kunya (Arabic: كُنيَه) , in Arab culture, is used for those names which begin with prefix "Ab" or "Ibn" for men and "Umm" for women. They are generally followed by the oldest son's name which means "father of" or "mother of" a person. Teknonym was mainly used as an honorific. However, it was also used for other reasons. Teknonym was regarded as a decent and respectful name or title in narrations, while a number of teknonyms were regarded disliked.
In Arabic culture, teknonym is a name which starts with "Ab" (father of) or "Umm" (mother of) and it is used as an honorable and respectful name. However Bint, Akh, Ukht, Amm, Ammat, Khal and Khalat are other kinds of teknonyms. Even sometimes teknonyms become more famous than names.
Reasons of Using
A number of reasons have been mentioned for using teknonym:
- Honoring: most of teknonyms have been used in order to show reverence.
- Good fortune: When a baby was born, a decent teknonym was chosen for him or her, hoping he or she will grow up and have family and children. For instance, when 'Abbas was an infant, and did not have a son named Fadl, he was given the teknonym, Abu l-Fadl.
- Mocking and Sarcasm: Sometimes teknonym was used in order to mock or humiliate a person, as one of the uncles of the Prophet Muhammad (s) was named Abu Lahab in Qur'an 111. Also 'Amr b. Hisham was called Abu Jahl by Prophet Muhammad (s) and Hajjaj b. Yusuf was called Abu Wadaha (dung-beetle) by Ali b. Abi Talib (a). Ibn Abi l-Hadid mentioned Yazid b. Mu'awiya was called Abu Zana (father of monkey) since he had monkey and he was fond of it.
- Taqiyya: (precautionary dissimulation) Sometimes Imam Ali (a) and other Shi'a Imams were called by their special teknonyms in order to save their lives; e.g. Imam Ali (a) was called Abu Zaynab. Ibn Abi l-Hadid has acknowledged this usage and said: "Banu Umayya prohibited praising Ali b. Abi Talib (a) so hadiths from Imam (a) were narrated under the name of Abu Zaynab."
The last alphabet of Ab (father) is different according to different phrases. Therefore, it is called Aba, Abu and Abi e.g. Aba l-Hasan, Abu l-Hasan and Abi l-Hasan.
However, some scholars believe that although teknonym is formed of two words (Ab + name), it is regarded as one word (if the person has no other famous name) then it should have only one permanent pronunciation. Also al-'Allama al-Majlisi believed pronunciation of teknonym is the same for two spelling of the same teknonym.
According to a narration Prophet Muhammad (s) called his companions by their teknonyms in order to win their hearts and even chose teknonyms for those who did not have one. As a result people would call them by their teknonyms. Even those who did not have a child were given teknonym. Prophet Muhammad (s) sometimes gave teknonym to children and became friendly with them."
Also narrated from Prophet Muhammad (s), "Having a teknonym with name of your son is an admiring tradition."
Imam al-Baqir (a): "We choose teknonym for our children from their childhood so that they are called by good teknonyms later on."
Imam al-Rida (a): "If you are calling a person, call him or her by teknonym if they are present and by their names of they are absent."
In Islamic culture some teknonyms are regarded disliked. According to narrations Abu Isa, Abu l-Hakam, Abu Malik and Abu Mara and also Abu l-Qasim, if his real name is Muhammad, are among the disliked teknonyms.
Difference between Teknonym and Title
In Arabic language each person owns a name, teknonym and also title. The difference between teknonym and title is:
Title is represents characteristics and features of a person which can be admiring or critical such as Sadiq (Trustworthy), Kadib (Liar), Amin (Honest) or Kha'in (treacherous). While teknonym is used mostly as an honorable name in Arabic.
Praising or disapproving is applied in the literal meaning of the word while teknonyms don not literally praise somebody and only using teknonym instead of a person's name is regarded praising.
Note: Sometimes teknonym is used instead of title such as Amr b. al-Walid b. 'Aqabat b. Umayya, a famous poet, who was known as Abu Qatifa, while his teknonym is Abu l-Walid.
Teknonyms of Shi'a Imams
Imams are mentioned with their teknonyms and titles in hadiths, which was mostly applied as Taqiyya (precautionary dissimulation). Recognizing teknonyms of Shi'a Imams (a) is significant in realizing and identifying their hadiths and narrators 'within the chain of narrators. Some believe Shi'a Imams had two teknonyms.
Teknonyms of Each Imam
- Prophet Muhammad (s): Abu l-Qasim
- Imam Ali (a): Abu l-Hasan, Abu l-Husayn, Abu Turab, Abu Zaynab and Abu l-Hasanayn.
- Imam al-Hasan (a): Abu Muhammad
- Imam al-Husayn (a): Abu Abd Allah
- Imam al-Sajjad (a): Abu l-Hasan, Abu Muhammad and Abu Bakr. Also according to Ibn Abi l-Thalj, Abu al-Husayn.
- Imam al-Baqir (a): Abu Ja'far
- Imam al-Sadiq (a): Abu Abd Allah and Abu Ishaq
- Imam al-Kazim (a): Abu l-Hasan and Abu Ibrahim
- Imam al-Rida (a): Abu l-Hasan
- Imam al-Jawad (a): Abu Ja'far
- Imam al-Hadi (a): Abu al-Hasan
- Imam Hasan al-Askari (a): Abu Muhammad
- Imam al-Mahdi (a): Abu l-Qasim
- Abu Ja'far: It was a teknonym for both Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Jawad (a); they are mostly used without mentioning the first or the second Abu Ja'far. Sometimes Imam al-Mahdi (a) was mentioned with the teknonym of Abu Ja'far. Although it was not mentioned in the famous teknonym's of Imam.
- Abu l-Hasan: Imam Ali (a), Imam al-Kazim (a), Imam al-Sajjad (a), Imam al-Rida (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a) had this teknonym. In narrations Abu al-Hasan was rarely used for Imam Ali (a). If it is used without any suffix, it means Imam al-Kazim (a). It is also used as the first Abu al-Hasan (Imam al-Kazim (a)), the Second Abu al-Hasan (Imam al-Rida (a)) and as the Third Abu al-Hasan (Imam al-Hadi (a)).
- Abu 'Abd Allah: It was used for Imam al-Husayn (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a). If it is used without any other prefix or suffix it is attributed to Imam al-Sadiq (a).
- Abu l-Qasim: It is used for Prophet Muhammad (s) and Imam al-Mahdi (a); it is mostly used for Imam al-Mahdi (a).
- Abu Muhammad: It was used for Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Sajjad (a) and Imam al-Hasan al-Askari (a). In narrations, it is mostly attributed to Imam al-Hasan al-Askari (a).
Because one teknonym is used for different Imams, rijal researchers have figure out some ways in order to distinguish between them.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from کنیه in Farsi Wikishia.