Makki and Madani
Makkī (Arabic: المکّي, suras revealed in Mecca) and Madanī (Arabic: المَدَني, suras revealed in Medina) are used to refer to the verses and suras of Qur'an, as Mecca and Medina were the two places in which most of the Qur'an has been revealed in. Recognizing the place of revelation of the verses was one of the concerns of the Qur'anic studies from the first centuries of Islam up till now.
There are different views about which one of the verses and/or suras are Makki, which ones are Madani; What is the criterion for identifying if a sura of the holy Qur'an is Makki and/or Madani; what are the methods of specifying a Makki or Madani verse; what are the characteristics of the Makki and Madani verses.
The above cases are the subjects of the "'ilm al-Makki wa l-Madani" and knowing it, is one of the most useful Qur'anic sciences.
|1||Al-Fatiha (the Opening)||5||Makki (?)|
|2||Al-Baqara (the Cow)||87||Madani|
|3||Al 'Imaran (the Family of 'Imran)||89||Madani|
|5||Al-Ma'ida (the Table)||112||Madani|
|7||Al-A'raf (the Elevations)||39||Makki|
|8||Al-Anfal (the Spoils)||88||Madani|
|13||Al-Ra'd (Thunder)||96||Madani (?)|
|16||Al-Nahl (the Bee)||70||Makki|
|17||Al-Isra' (the Night Journey)||50||Makki|
|18||Al-Kahf (the Cave)||69||Makki|
|21||Al-Anbiya (the Prophets)||73||Makki|
|22||Al-Hajj (the Pilgrimage)||103||Madani|
|23||Al-Mu'minun (the Faithful)||74||Makki|
|24||Al-Nur (the Light)||102||Madani|
|25||Al-Furqan (the Criterion)||42||Makki|
|26||Al-Shu'ara (the Poets)||47||Makki|
|27||Al-Naml (the Ants)||48||Makki|
|28||Al-Qasas (the Story)||49||Makki|
|29||Al-'Ankabut (the Spider)||85||Makki|
|30||Al-Rum (the Byzantines)||84||Makki|
|33||Al-Ahzab (the Confederates)||90||Madani|
|35||Fatir (the Originator)||43||Makki|
|37||Al-Saffat (the Ranged Ones)||56||Makki|
|39||Al-Zamar (the Throngs)||59||Makki|
|40||Al-Ghafir (the Forgiver)||60||Makki|
|51||Al-Dhariyat (the Scatterers)||67||Makki|
|52||Al-Tur (the Mount)||76||Makki|
|53||Al-Najm (the Star)||23||Makki|
|54||Al-Qamar (the Moon)||37||Makki|
|55||Al-Rahman (the All-beneficent)||97||Madani (?)|
|58||Al-Mujadila (the Pleader)||105||Madani|
|59||Al-Hashr (the Banishment)||101||Madani|
|60||Al-Mumtahana (the Tested Woman)||91||Madani|
|61||Al-Saff (Ranks)||109||Madani (?)|
|63||Al-Munafiqun (the Hypocrites)||104||Madani|
|64||Al-Taghabun (Disposession)||108||Madani (?)|
|66||Al-Tahrim (the Forbidding)||107||Madani|
|68||Al-Qalam (the Pen)||2||Makki|
|69||Al-Haqqa (the Inevitable)||78||Makki|
|70||Al-Ma'arij (Lofty Stations)||79||Makki|
|72||Al-Jinn (the Jinn)||40||Makki|
|77||Al-Mursalat (the Emissaries)||33||Makki|
|78||Al-Naba' (the Tiding)||80||Makki|
|79||Al-Nazi'at (the Wrestlers)||81||Makki|
|80||'Abasa (He Frowned)||24||Makki|
|81||Al-Takwir (the Winding Up)||7||Makki|
|82||Al-Infitar (the Rending)||82||Makki|
|83||Al-Mutaffifin (the Defrauding)||86||Makki (?)|
|84||Al-Inshiqaq (the Splitting)||83||Makki|
|85||Al-Buruj (the Houses)||27||Makki|
|86||Al-Tariq (the Nightly Visitor)||36||Makki|
|87||Al-A'la (the Most Exalted)||8||Makki|
|88||Al-Ghashiya (the Enveloper)||68||Makki|
|89||Al-Fajr (the Dawn)||10||Makki|
|90||Al-Balad (the City)||35||Makki|
|91||Al-Shams (the Sun)||26||Makki|
|92||Al-Layl (the Night)||9||Makki|
|93||Al-Duha (the Morning Brightness)||11||Makki|
|95||Al-Tin (the Fig)||28||Makki|
|96||Al-'Alaq (Clinging Mass)||1||Makki|
|97||Al-Qadr (the Ordainment)||25||Makki (?)|
|98||Al-Bayyina (the Proof)||100||Madani (?)|
|99||Al-Zalzala (the Quake)||93||Madani (?)|
|100||Al-'Adiyat (the Chargers)||14||Makki|
|101||Al-Qari'a (the Catasrophe)||30||Makki|
|104||Al-Humaza (the Scandal-monger)||32||Makki|
|105||Al-Fil (the Elephant)||19||Makki|
|109||Al-Kafirun (the Faithless)||18||Makki|
|110||Al-Nasr (the Help)||114||Madani|
|111||Al-Masad (Palm Fibre)||6||Makki|
|112||Al-Ikhlas (Monotheism)||22||Makki (?)|
|113||Al-Falaq (Daybreak)||20||Makki (?)|
|114||Al-Nas (Humans)||21||Makki (?)|
Numbers and Disputes
It is agreed that the Madani suras are 20, the disputed cases are 12 and the rest are Makki.
Agreed cases of Madani suras are: Sura al-Baqara, Sura al-Ma'ida, Sura al-Nur, Sura al-Fath, Sura al-Mujadala, Sura al-Jumu'a, Sura al-Tahrim, Sura Al 'Imran, Sura al-Anfal, Sura al-Ahzab, Sura al-Hujurat, Sura al-Hashr, Sura al-Munafiqun, Sura al-Nasr, Sura al-Nisa', Sura al-Tawba, Sura Muhammad, Sura al-Hadid, Sura al-Mumtahana, Sura al-Talaq.
Disputed cases are: Sura al-Fatiha, Sura al-Saff, Sura al-Ra'd, Sura al-Taghabun, Sura al-Rahman, Sura al-Mutaffifin, Sura al-Qadr, Sura al-Bayyina, Sura al-Zalzala, Sura al-Ikhlas, Sura al-Falaq, Sura al-Nas
The 82 remaining suras are Makki.
There are three opinions about the criterion of identifying Makki and Madani suras:
- According to the time: some believe that what (of Qu'ran) has been sent down before Hijra is Makki and what is revealed afterward, is regarded as Madani.
- According to the place of revelation: some believe that what is revealed in Mecca and its outskirts is Makki, and what is sent down in Medina and around it, is then Madani.
- According to the people addressed in verses: some believe that what is revealed addressing all the people is Makki, and what is revealed addressing the believers is Madani. The addressed people is identified by what is meant with the "O mankind!" phrase which addresses all the people whether believer or disbeliever, so this is revealed in Mecca -as in Mecca the majority of people were disbelievers- and what is revealed with "O you who have faith!" addresses the believers, so this is revealed in Medina, as they were Muslims while the Prophet emigrated to Medina.
As most of the contemporary Qur'an researchers have stated, the best and most reasonable criterion is the first one.
Method of Identification
- The most important method of identification is the hadiths of the Prophet (s), Ahl al-Bayt (a), and the reports of the companions. In this way, studying the authentic narrations and reports about the suras and verses according to the science of dirayat al-hadith, is necessary.
- As the above mentioned method isn't enough for the determination of the status of all of the verses, Some of the researchers have applied the comparative method. In this way, the researcher must first study the characteristics and the content of the known Makki and Madani verses and then should try to determine the status of the disputed verses for whether they are Makki or Madani.
Some suras of Qur'an are indeed Makki (based on the first criterion mentioned above) and some of them are totally Madani. But in some suras the beginning of the sura is revealed in Mecca and the middle or the ending of it is revealed in Medina. In such cases the majority of the verses are taken into consideration. Some of the Qur'an researchers notice the beginning of suras to recognize them as Makki or Madani for such cases.
- The verses for which Sujud is obligatory are found in these suras.
- The verses beginning with the word "Never!" (Arabic: کلّا, kalla) and the verses before and after them are regarded as Makki.
- These suras begin with Muqatta'at.
- These suras are short and they have shorter verses.
- Makki suras mainly regard the monotheism while rejecting the polytheism.
- The legislation is few in the verses.
- There are many mentions of the stories of the prophets (Qisas al-Anbiya) in these verses.
- The verses have an impressive eloquence.
- In the verses, people are mainly addressed with "O mankind!" and "O Children of Adam!".
- The obligations and penalties (hadd) are mostly described in these suras.
- Expressing the social, judicial, governmental rules and the rules of war and peace are among the main characteristics of these suras.
- The suras are long and they have longer verses.
- The verses begin with the phrase "O you who have faith!".
- In these verses, the wrong beliefs of "people of the book" (Arabic: اَهلَ الکِتاب, the Christians and Jews) are described and thereupon invited to Islam.
- The verses describe the status and actions of the hypocrites (Munafiqun), and the attitude of the Prophet (s) and the Muslims against them.
The aforementioned characteristics are not approximate and are not always true and for each one of them as there are exceptions. For example Sura al-Baqara expresses the story of Adam but isn't Makki. Although Sura al-Nasr is short and its verses are short too and even the state of the sura is like the Makki ones but it is Madani.
- Exegesis: as understanding the referrals and fine points of a verse depends on the place of revelation, studying the Makki and Madani verses is essential for an exegete.
- Nasikh and Mansukh: as identification of Nasikh and Mansukh -which is one of the most sensitive and controversial subjects of Qur'anic sciences- needs the recognition of the preceding and following verses, studying the Makki and Madani verses is essential for the subject,
- Understanding the evolution of legislation,
- Resolution of the historical disagreements,
One of the necessary subjects in the field is the study of the verses revealed in Mecca but their ruling has to be implemented in Medina; also, the studying of verses revealed in the travel, the seasons of the revelation of the verses, the verses revealed in day or night, are other related subjects.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from سوره های مکی و مدنی in Farsi Wikishia.