Priority: b, Quality: b

Menopause

From WikiShia
Jump to: navigation, search

Furu' al-Din

Prayer
Wajib: Daily PrayersEssentials of PrayerFriday PrayerEid PrayerAl-Ayat PrayerFuneral PrayerIstijari Prayer

Mustahab: Night PrayerGhufayla PrayerJa'far al-Tayyar Prayer


Other types of worship
FastingKhumsZakatHajjJihadEnjoining the goodForbidding the evilTawalliTabarri


Rulings on Tahara
Wudu'GhuslTayammumNajisMutahhiratTadhkiyaDhabh


Civil Law
WikalaWasiyyaDimanKifalaIrth


Family Law
MarriageTemporary marriagePolygamyDivorceMahrBreastfeedingIntercourseSexual gratification


Criminal Law
JudgmentDiyatHududQisasTa'zir


Economic Laws
Bay'IjaraQardRiba


Other Laws
HijabSadaqaNadhrTaqlidFoods and drinksWaqf


See also
FiqhRulings of Shari'aManual of Islamic lawPubertyWajibHaramMustahabMubahMakruh

Menopause (Arabic: سن اليأس) is the time in woman's life in which she no longer has menstrual periods or hayd (that is, menstrual periods stop permanently) and will no longer be able to be pregnant. The Qur'an has referred to women's menopause. There are a number of theories about the age of menopause. Many jurists believe that the age of menopause for sayyida women is 60 and for non-sayyida women is 50.

According to Shiite fiqh, menopausal women are not required to observe 'idda (waiting period) after divorce and so, they can remarry immediately thereafter. Women with no menstrual periods from a young age are called "al-ya'isa al-mustaraba" to whom different rulings apply.

Meaning

According to jurisprudential sources, when a woman reaches an age at which she does not naturally have menstrual periods and does not naturally get pregnant, she is "ya'isa" (menopausal).[1] Women's menopause is referred to in the Qur'an, Qur'an 24, verse 60, and Qur'an 65, verse 4. In jurisprudential books, rulings of menopause are mentioned under the problems of hayd (menstrual periods).[2]

Age of Menopause

There is a disagreement among Shiite jurists as to the criterion for the age of menopause.[3] The majority of jurists, including Sahib al-Jawahir (the author of Jawahir al-kalam),[4] Tabataba'i Yazdi,[5] and Imam Khomeini,[6] believe that the age of menopause for sayyida women is 60 and for non-sayyida women is 50.[7] Other people believe that the age of menopause is 50 for all women (sayyida and non-sayyida), and others take it to be 60 for all women.[8] Others believe that the age of menopause is 60, but women should observe ihtiyat (precaution) between the age of 50 and the age of 60. According to a few jurists, there is no specific age for menopause—women have menopause at different ages because they have different natures.[9]

Rulings

  • According to jurists, the 'idda (waiting period) does not apply to menopausal women after divorce or marriage annulment. So they can remarry immediately after the divorce or the annulment of marriage.[10]
  • The jurists believe that the blood seen by menopausal women is not hayd.[11] According to Makarim Shirazi, such blood is istihada, but women who consult physicians and so their menstrual bleeding continues as a result of taking hormonal boosting medicines count as having hayd (menstrual periods) if all other conditions obtain.[12]

Ya'isa Mustaraba

Some women do not have menstrual periods at a young age either innately or as a result of hormonal variations. In fiqh, they are referred to as "ya'isa mustaraba". The rulings that apply to them are different from the ones applying to menopausal women.[13] jurists have appealed to the verse 60 of [Qur'an 24]] to show that the 'idda for divorce or marriage annulment for these women is three lunar months.[14]

Notes

  1. Muḥaqqiq Dāmād, Barrasī-yi fiqhī ḥuqūqī-yi khāniwāda, p. 450.
  2. Shahīd al-Thānī, Masālik al-afhām, vol. 9, p. 47; Mughnīya, Fiqh al-Ṣādiq, vol. 6, p. 31.
  3. Hāshimī Shāhrūdī, Farhang-i fiqh, vol. 3, p. 394.
  4. Najafī, Jawāhir al-kalām, vol. 3, p. 160.
  5. Yazdī, al-ʿUrwa al-wuthqā, vol. 1, p. 316.
  6. Khomeini, Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, p. 97.
  7. Hāshimī Shāhrūdī, Farhang-i fiqh, vol. 3, p. 394.
  8. Khoei, Aḥkām-i sharʿī-yi bānuwān, p. 71.
  9. Rustamī, "Muṭāliʿa-yi taṭbīqī sinn-i yāʾisiqī", p. 232.
  10. Mishkīnī, Muṣṭalaḥāt al-fiqh, p. 357.
  11. Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil marājiʿ, vol. 1, p. 322.
  12. Makārim Shīrāzī, Aḥkām-i bānuwān, p. 81.
  13. Mughnīya, Fiqh al-Ṣādiq, vol. 6, p. 31.
  14. Bahjat, Jāmiʿ al-masāʾil, vol. 4, p. 159.

References

  • Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil marājiʿ. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1392 Sh.
  • Bahjat, Muḥammad Taqī. Jāmiʿ al-masāʾil. Qom: Daftar-i Āyatollāh Bahjat, 1426 AH.
  • Hāshimī Shāhrūdī, Maḥmūd. Farhang-i fiqh muṭābiq-i madhhab-i Ahl al-Bayt. Qom: Markaz-i Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif Fiqh-i Islāmī, 1382 Sh.
  • Khoei, Abū l-Qāsim al-. Aḥkām-i sharʿī-yi bānuwān. Qom: Dār al-Ṣīddīqa al-Shahīda, 1391 AH.
  • Khomeini, Rūḥollāh. Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil. [n.p], [n.p], 1426 AH.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Aḥkām-i bānuwān. Qom: Madrisa-yi Imām ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, 1386 Sh.
  • Mishkīnī, ʿAlī. Muṣṭalaḥāt al-fiqh wa iṣṭilāḥāt al-uṣūl. Beirut: Manshūrāt al-Riḍā, 1431 AH.
  • Mughnīya, Muḥammad Jawād. Fiqh al-Ṣādiq. Qom: Muʾassisa-yi Anṣārīyān, 1342 Sh.
  • Muḥaqqiq Dāmād, Muṣṭafā. Barrasī-yi fiqhī ḥuqūqī-yi khāniwāda nikāḥ wa inḥilāl-i ān. Tehran: Markaz-i nashr-i ʿulūm-i Islāmī, 1384 Sh.
  • Najafī, Muḥammad Ḥasan al-. Jawāhir al-kalām. Tehran: Dār al-Kitāb al-Islāmīyya, 1362 Sh.
  • Rustamī, Suhaylā & et. al. 1395 Sh. Muṭāliʿa-yi taṭbīqī sinn-i yāʾisiqī. Majallay-yi Fiqh-i Pizishkī 28, 29:217-251.
  • Shahīd al-Thānī, Zayn al-Dīn b. ʿAlī al-. Masālik al-afhām. Qom: Muʾassisa-yi maʿārif-i Islāmī, 1413 AH.
  • Yazdī, Muḥammad Kāẓim al-. Al-ʿUrwa al-wuthqā. Beirut: Muʾassisat Aʿlamī, 1409 AH.