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Miqdad b. 'Amr

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Sahaba
Miqdad b. 'Amr
Personal Information
Full Name Miqdad b. 'Amr b. Tha'laba
Kunya Abu Sa'id, Abu l-Aswad
Epithet al-Kindi, al-Hadhrami, and -al-Bahra'i
Well Known As Miqdad b. al-Aswad
Birth 37 years before Hijra/586-7
Muhajir/Ansar Muhajir
Place(s) of Residence HadramutMeccaMedina
Death/Martyrdom 33/653-54
Burial Place Al-Baqi' cemetery, Median
Religious Information
Presence at Ghazwas Presented in All of the ghazwas
Migration to Abyssinia, Medina
Known for One of the first Shi'as of Imam Ali (a)
Other Activities Refusing to pledge allegiance with Abu Bakr and supporting the succession of Imam 'Ali (a)

Miqdād b. ʿAmr (Arabic: مقداد بن عمرو), known as Miqdad b. al-Aswad (Arabic: مقداد بن الأسود), is one of the noble companions of the Prophet (s), and one of the first Shi'as of Imam Ali (a). Miqdad converted to Islam early after Bi'that and was one of the first people who revealed his conversion to Islam. He attended all battles in the early years of Islam. Miqdad, Salman al-Farsi, 'Ammar b. Yasir, and Abu Dhar are referred to as the first Shi'as (followers) of Imam Ali (a); they were known as Shi'as even in the period of the Prophet (s). After the demise of the Prophet (s), Miqdad supported Imam Ali's (a) immediate succession of the Prophet (s), and did not pledge his allegiance to Abu Bakr b. Abi Quhafa. He was one of the few people who were present at the funeral of Fatima al-Zahra (a). Miqdad is considered as a serious opponent of 'Uthman b. 'Affan. According to some sources, he was a member of Shurtat al-Khamis. Miqdad is praised in hadiths from Ahl al-Bayt (a) in which he is said to return in Raj'a after the Reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a). He transmitted hadiths from the Prophet (s).

Lineage, Birth, and Demise

Miqdad b. 'Amr b. Tha'laba, known as Miqdad b. al-Aswad, there is no information about his birth time but as the historian reported his death time in 33/653-54 when he was 70,[1] probably he was born on 16 years after 'Am al-fil (b. 24 BH/586-7 - d. 33/653-54). Biographers and historians have mentioned up to 20 of his ancestors.[2]

It is said that Miqdad had a quarrel with a person called "Abu Shimr b. Hajar" in Hadhramaut which led to that person's injury. After that, Miqdad went to Mecca and allied with Aswad b. 'Abd Yaghuth al-Zuhri. Thus, Aswad became Miqdad's father, and he came to be known as Miqdad b. Aswad and sometimes Miqdad al-Zuhri.[3]

Several titles like al-Bahra'i, al-Bahrawi,[4] al-Kindi, and al-Hadhrami and kunays such as Abu Ma'bad, Abu Sa'id, and Abu l-Aswad are reported for him.[5]

Family

Wife: Miqdad's wife was Duba'a, the Prophet's (s) cousin and Zubayr b. 'Abd al-Muttalib's daughter.[6] The Prophet (s) married Duba'a to Miqdad although he considered her as having a great prestige and lineage, saying: "I married my cousin, Duba'a, to Miqdad, so that people can take marriage easy, be encouraged to marry their daughters to every believer, regardless of what lineage and prestige they have."[7]

Children: Miqdad had two children called 'Abd Allah and Karima. 'Abd Allah was a supporter of Aisha in the Battle of Jamal, fought against Imam Ali (a), and was killed in that battle. At the end of the battle when Imam Ali (a) looked at 'Abd Allah's corpse, he told him: "how bad a nephew you have been!"[8] On some accounts, the name of Miqdad's son was "Ma'bad", not "'Abd Allah."[9]

In the Period of the Prophet (s)

Conversion to Islam

Miqdad converted to Islam early after Bi'that (the first revelation of the Prophet (s)) and went under the tortures of Quraysh polytheists. Historians have mentioned him among early Muslims, but there is no discussion of how he converted to Islam. 'Abd Allah b. Mas'ud reported that there were seven people who revealed their conversion to Islam before anybody else. One of these people was Miqdad.[10]

Immigration

Miqdad emigrated two times: once to Abyssinia among the third group of Muslim immigrants, and once again to Medina. It is not exactly known when he moved to Medina, but as shown by some evidence, he joined Muslims in 1 AH/623 in Shawwal in the Sariyya of Abu 'Ubayda, and then they all moved to Medina.[11]

Presence in Battles

Miqdad attended all the battles of the Prophet (s) and was a champion among the Sahaba.[12] In the Battle of Badr, Miqdad was a member of the cavalry and his horse was known as "Sabha" (floating), perhaps because Miqdad fought with courage and valor.[13]

Miqdad played a crucial role in the Battle of Uhud as well. According to historical sources, at the end of the battle when everyone fled, few people stayed with the Prophet (s), including Ali (a), Talha b. 'Ubayd Allah, Zubayr b. al-'Awam, Abu Dujana, 'Abd Allah b. Mas'ud, and Miqdad.[14] In this battle, Miqdad was an archer in the Muslim army.[15]

Along with Salman al-Farsi, 'Ammar b. Yasir, and Abu Dhar, Miqdad was one of the first followers of Ali (a). They were known as the Shi'as of Ali (a) even in the period of the Prophet (s).[16]

Supporting the Succession of Imam Ali (a)

After the demise of the Prophet (s) and the election of Abu Bakr b. Abi Quhafa as the caliph and successor of the Prophet (s), a few Muslims stayed loyal to Ali (a) and did not pledge their allegiance to Abu Bakr, including Salman, Abu Dhar, and Miqdad. Miqdad was not present in the Event of Saqifa.[17] According to hadiths, he was one of the few people who were present in the funeral of Fatima al-Zahra (a) and performed Funeral Prayer on her corpse.[18] According to some sources, he was a member of Shurtat al-Khamis.[19]

On different occasions, Miqdad reminded Abu Bakr and his companions of the issues of Imam Ali's (a) succession of the Prophet (s) and took actions to clarify the matter. Here are some examples of Miqdad's activities in defense of Ali's (a) right to the caliphate:

  1. When people pledged their allegiance to Abu Bakr, a group of Muhajirun and Ansar, including Miqdad, refused to pledge their allegiance to him and joined Ali b. Abi Talib (a).[20]
  2. Forty men went to Imam Ali (a) and said: "we are ready to defend and support you." The Imam (a) told them: "if you are steadfast in your pledge, then shave your heads and come back to me tomorrow." The next day it was only Salman, Miqdad, and Abu Dhar who had shaved their heads and gone to Imam Ali (a).[21]
  3. In the story of the Six-Member Council for the selection of the caliph after 'Umar b. al-Khattab, 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'Awf told Ali (a): "I will pledge my allegiance to you if you follow the Book of God [i.e. the Qur'an], the Prophet's (s) tradition, and the practice of Abu Bakr" but Ali (a) accepted only the first two conditions. Miqdad objected to 'Abd al-Rahman: "I swear to God, you have left Ali (a) who adjudicated on the basis of truth and justice". He went on: "I saw no household so oppressed as Ahl al-Bayt (a) after the demise of the Prophet (s)".[22]

Miqdad opposed 'Uthman b. 'Affan's caliphate. He expressed his opposition by delivering a speech in the Mosque of Medina.[23]

Al-Ya'qubi has reported (through some people) that in the night in which people pledged their allegiance to 'Uthman, he went out for the 'Isha' prayer while a candle was lit ahead of him. Miqdad b. 'Amr told him: "what is this heresy?"[24] According to al-Ya'qubi, Miqdad was among people who criticized 'Uthman and joined Ali b. Abi Talib (a).[25]

In the Hadiths of Ahl al-Bayt (a)

There are numerous hadiths from the Infallibles (a) concerning the virtues, the moral character, and the faith of Miqdad. Here are some of these hadiths:

  1. The Prophet's (s) affection for Miqdad: the Prophet (s) said: "God has ordered me to love four people." A person asked him to introduce those people. The Prophet (s) replied: "Ali, Salman, Miqdad, and Abu Dhar".[26]
  2. Miqdad in the Heaven: according to a hadith from Anas b. Malik, one day the Prophet (s) said: "the Heaven aspires to four of my people. When Ali (a) asked him about those people, the Prophet said: "I swear to God that you are the first of those people. The rest are Miqdad, Salman, and Abu Dhar." Also in an exegesis of the Quranic verse, "Surely (as for) those who believe and do good deeds, their place of entertainment shall be the gardens of paradise" (Sura al-Kahf: 107), Imam al-Sadiq (a) said: "this verse was revealed about Abu Dhar, Miqdad, Salman, and 'Ammar".[27]
  3. Miqdad's faith: according to a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a): "the faith (iman) has 10 degrees: Miqdad is at the 8th degree, Abu Dhar is at the 9th, and Salman is at the 10th".[28]
  4. Acting upon al-Mawadda Verse: Imam al-Sadiq said about al-Mawadda Verse ("I ask of you no wage except the love of near relatives"): "I swear to God that nobody acted upon the verse except seven people, including Miqdad."[29]
  5. Miqdad is from Ahl al-Bayt (a): one day Jabir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansari asked the Prophet (s) about Salman, Miqdad, and Abu Dhar. The Prophet (s) talked about them individually. He said about Miqdad: "Miqdad is from us. God is the enemy of his enemies and friend with his friends. O Jabir! Whenever you pray for something and you want God to answer your prayer, ask Him with their names, because these are the best names for God".[30]
  6. Loyalty to Imam Ali (a): Imam al-Baqir (a) said: "after the demise of the Prophet (s) people deviated from the Prophet's (s) path except three people: Salman, Abu Dhar, and Miqdad.[31] According to some hadiths, Miqdad was the most obedient companion of Amir al-Mu'minin (a).[32]
  7. Miqdad's Raj'a: according to some hadiths, Miqdad will return to the world after the Reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a) and will be a companion and commander of the Imam's (a) government."[33]
  8. Obligation to love Miqdad: Imam al-Sadiq (a) said: "it is an obligation to love people who did not deviate from the right path after the Prophet (s)." These people include Salman, Abu Dhar, and Miqdad.[34]

Transmission of Hadiths

Miqdad transmitted hadiths from the Prophet (s). Some people have transmitted his hadiths; for example: Sulaym b. Qays, Anas b. Malik, 'Abd Allah b. 'Abbas, 'Abd Allah b. Mas'ud, 'Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Layla, Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, Duba'a bt. Zubayr b. 'Abd al-Muttalib (his wife), and his daughter Karima.[35]

Death and Burial Place

Late in his life, Miqdad resided in "Jurf" (an area one parasang away from Medina towards Syira), and died in 33/654 at the age of 70. The Muslims took his corpse to Medina, 'Uthman b. 'Affan said the Funeral Prayer for him, and he was buried in al-Baqi' cemetery.[36] There is a grave attributed to Miqdad in Van in Turkey.[37] On one account, Miqdad was rich and willed that 36000 dirhams of his possessions be given to Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a).[38]

Notes

  1. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 6, p. 161.
  2. Ibn Ḥazm al-Andulusī, Jamhart ansāb al-ʿarab, p. 441.
  3. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 6, p. 160.
  4. Ibn Ḥazm al-Andulusī, Jamhart ansāb al-ʿarab, p. 441.
  5. Māmaqānī, Tanqīh al-maqāl, vol. 3, p. 245.
  6. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 205.
  7. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 22, p. 265.
  8. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 5, p. 22.
  9. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 264-265.
  10. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 5, p. 242.
  11. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 205; Māmaqānī, Qāmūs al-Rijāl, vol. 9, p. 114.
  12. Ziriklī, al-Aʿlām, vol. 7, p. 282.
  13. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 120.
  14. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 114.
  15. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 152.
  16. See: Nawbakhtī, Firaq al-Shīʿa, p. 18.
  17. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 22, p. 328.
  18. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, vol. 1, p. 34.
  19. Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 6, p. 188.
  20. Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-Balāgha, vol. 1, p. 137-138; Ṣadūq, al-Khiṣāl, p. 461-465.
  21. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 126.
  22. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 233.
  23. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 233.
  24. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 54.
  25. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 54-55.
  26. Mufīd, al-Ikhtiṣāṣ, p. 9.
  27. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 4, p. 151.
  28. Qummī, Muntahī l-āmāl, vol. 1, p. 228.
  29. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 22, p. 237.
  30. Mufīd, al-Ikhtiṣāṣ, p. 223.
  31. Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 6, p. 186.
  32. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, vol. 1, p. 46.
  33. Mufīd, al-Irshād, p. 636.
  34. Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 6, p. 187.
  35. Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 6, p. 185.
  36. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 121; Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 10, p. 134; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 204; Ziriklī, al-Aʿlām, vol. 7, p. 282.
  37. Qummī, Muntahī l-āmāl, vol. 1, p. 228.
  38. Mazzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 28, p. 452.

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