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Ahmad al-Naraqi

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ملا احمد نراقی.jpg
Personal Information
Full Name Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahdi b. Abi Dhar al-Naraqi
Well-Known As Mulla Ahmad al-Naraqi, al-Fadil al-Naraqi
Well-Known Relatives Muhammad Mahdi al-Naraqi (father)
Birth 1185/1771
Residence Naraq
Studied in Naraq, Kashan, Najaf
Death Rabi' II 23, 1245/October 22, 1829
Burial Place Shrine of Imam Ali (a), Najaf
Scholarly Information
Professors Mulla Mahdi al-Naraqi, al-Sayyid Mahdi Bahr al-'Ulum, Mirza Muhammad Mahdi al-Musawi al-Shahristani, ...
Students Al-Shaykh Murtada al-Ansari, Aqa Muhammad Baqir Hizar Jaribi, ...
Works Mi'raj al-sa'ada, 'Awa'id al-ayyam min muhimmat al-ahkam, Mustanad al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shari'a, ...
Socio-Political Activities
Socio-Political
Activities
Leading people against Russian forces

Ethics
مکارم اخلاق.jpg


Moral Verses
Ifk VersesAl-Ukhuwwa VerseAl-It'am VerseAl-Naba' VerseNajwa Verse


Moral Hadiths
Hadith of qurb al-nawafilHadith Makarim al-akhlaqHadith of Mi'rajHadith Junud al-'Aql wa l-Jahl


Moral Virtues
HumilityContentmentGenerosityControlling AngerTruthfulnessHilm (forbearance)AsceticismBraveryChastityInsaf (Equity) • Silat al-Rahim


Moral Vices
HubrisGreedEnvyLieBackbitingNamima (Talebearing)MiserlinessDisobedience to Parents'Ujb (self-conceit)Sum'aCutting blood relationSpreading grave sinsIngratitudeHypocrisy


Moral Terminologies
Jihad with the selfSelf-accusing soulAmmara soulSoul at peaceSelf-reckoningSelf-observationMusharataSinMorality lessonsImperceptibility


Scholars of Ethics
Muhammad Mahdi NaraqiAhmad al-NaraqiSayyid 'Ali Qadi Tabataba'iSayyid Rida Baha' al-DiniSayyid 'Abd al-Husayn DastghaybMuhammad Taqi Bahjat


References of Ethics

Qur'anNahj al-balaghaMisbah al-shari'a wa miftah al-haqiqaMakarim al-AkhlaqAl-Mahajja al-bayda' fi tahdhib al-ahya'Tanbih al-khawatir wa nuzhat al-nawazirJami' al-sa'adatMi'raj al-sa'adaAl-Muragabat

Aḥmad b. Muḥammad Mahdi b. Abī Dhar al-Narāqī (Arabic: احمد بن محمد مهدی بن ابی ذر نراقی), or Mulla Aḥmad Narāqī (Persian: ملا احمد النراقی) known as al-Fāḍil al-Narāqī (Persian: فاضل نراقی) (b. 1185/1771-1772 – d. 1245/1829) was son of Mahdi al-Naraqi. He was among Shia scholars of thirteen century AH. He was born in Naraq and passed primary educations with his father. He then went to Iraq and benefited from the scholars there. He studied with teachers including al-Sayyid Muhammad Mahdi Bahr al-'Ulum, al-Mirza Mahdi al-Shahristani, al-Shaykh Ja'far Kashif al-Ghita' and the author of Riyad and after his father passed away, he became the sole authority for the people of his hometown.

Mulla Ahmad had many works in Islamic sciences including the two great books in fiqh, Mustanad al-Shi'a and 'Awa'id al-ayyam and the ethical book, Mi'raj al-sa'ada.

Al-Fadil al-Naraqi joined with people during the invasion of Russians to Iran and taking some regions and led people's demonstrations.

Life

Ahmad was born in 1185/1771 in Naraq. He passed primary and first level of seminary education in Kashan before his father when he was a teenager and soon passed scientific levels and began teaching Ma'alim and Mutawwal. In 1205/1790-1791, he went to the holy cities in Iraq with his father and benefited from teachers there. After he achieved the level of ijtihad, he began teaching, discussion and compilation of different works.

After his father passed away in 1209/1795, inevitably Ahmad al-Naraqi came back to Kashan and became the sole authority there.

On Rabi' II 23, 1245/October 22, 1829, he passed away due to cholera which prevailed in Naraq, Kashan, and surrounding areas. His body was taken to Najaf and was buried beside the grave of his father, behind the grave of Imam Ali (a).

Children

Ahmad al-Naraqi had two sons:

  • Muhammad, titled as "Abd al-Sahib" and known as "hujjat al-Islam". He had some works some of which have been published. He passed away at the age of 80, in 1297/1879-1880 in Kashan.
  • Nasir al-Din; he had several works including a commentary on al-Kafi.

Teachers

Through his father, he narrated from al-Shaykh Yusuf al-Bahrani, Mulla Rafi' Gilani, and Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi.

Pupils

Some great scholars benefited from the presence of al-Fadil al-Naraqi including:

  • Al-Shaykh Murtada al-Ansari
  • Aqa Muhammad Baqir Hizar Jaribi
  • His brother, Muhammad Mahdi b. Muhammad Mahdi al-Naraqi (d. 1286/1869-70), known as Aqa Buzurg
  • Sayyid Muhammad Shafi' Husayni Japalaqi
  • Muhammad Hasan Jasbi
  • Haj Mawla Muhammad, titled as 'Abd al-Sahib, grandson of al-Muhaqqiq al-Qummi
  • Brother of Haj Mirza Abu l-Qasim Kashani

Scientific Position

Ahmad al-Naraqi had a special position among scholars of recent centuries. He was among top scholars of his time in different Islamic sciences such as fiqh, usul al-fiqh, hadith, rijal, diraya, mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, kalam, ethics, Arabic literature and poetry.

Works

There are several works left after him including:

Fiqh

Usul al-Fiqh

Mathematics and Astronomy

  • Sharh muhassal al-hay'a
  • Sharh rasa'il al-hisab
  • Hashiya akr thawdhusius, marginal notes on Tahrir akr of Mahdi al-Naraqi

Philosophy, Ethics, etc.

  • Sayf al-umma wa burhan al-milla
  • Mi'raj al-sa'ada
  • Diwan Safa'i Naraqi
  • Khaza'in
  • Taqdis or Mathnawi Lisan al-Ghayb or Mathnawi shifa'i
  • Mushkilat al-'ulum
  • Sharh hadith jasad al-mayyit

Software of the Library of Fadilayn Naraqi

The software of the library of Fadilayn Naraqi

Following a suggestion by some top scholars of Naraq and the support of the scholars in the Islamic seminary of Qom for acknowledgment of the scientific position of Muhammad Mahdi al-Naraqi and Ahmad al-Naraqi and the order of the commemoration congress for Fadilayn-i Naraqi, a software was made and distributed by the Computer Research Center of Islamic Sciences (Noor).

Poems

Ahmad al-Naraqi was talented in poetic devices and had the pen name of Safa'i. Most of his poems were ethical, romantic and mystic.

Fighting Deviations

He was competent in Arabic, Hebrew, and Latin and his knowledge about different sciences helped him compile various books. Sayf al-umma wa burhan al-milla which is written to answer questions of the British pastor Henry Martin shows his knowledge in Christianity and his caution in answering deviated thoughts.

Political Activities

Al-Naraqi lived during the rule of Qajar, especially the time of Fath Ali Shah Qajar. At that time, Russians had taken some areas from the north of Iran and treated the people there the worst possible way.

According to the author of Tarikh-i siyasi wa diplomasi, political activities of Ahmad al-Naraqi beside the activities of other clergymen of his time helped influencing on the declaration of war by Iran against Russian forces and eventually at the end of Muharram 1242/1826, areas given to Russia based on Gulistan treaty, were taken by Iran.

Commemoration Congress

The three day congress for acknowledgment of Fadilayn-i Naraqi was held in Qom, Kashan and Naraq in May 22-25, 2002. In this congress which was held to acknowledge the scientific, ethical, political, and social positions of these two famous Shia scholars, Muhammad Mahdi al-Naraqi and Ahmad al-Naraqi and there many teachers and scholars of university and seminary attended; some of them gave lecture and some others presented their papers.

References

The material for this article is mainly taken from ملا احمد نراقی in Farsi WikiShia.