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Mustahab

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Furu' al-Din

Prayer
Wajib: Daily PrayersEssentials of PrayerFriday PrayerEid PrayerAl-Ayat PrayerFuneral PrayerIstijari Prayer

Mustahab: Night PrayerGhufayla PrayerJa'far al-Tayyar Prayer


Other types of worship
FastingKhumsZakatHajjJihadEnjoining the goodForbidding the evilTawalliTabarri


Rulings on Tahara
Wudu'GhuslTayammumNajisMutahhirat


Civil Law
WikalaWasiyyaDimanKifalaIrth


Family Law
MarriageTemporary marriagePolygamyDivorceMahrBreastfeedingIntercourseSexual gratification


Criminal Law
JudgmentDiyatHududQisasTa'zir


Economic Laws
Bay'IjaraQardRiba


Other Laws
HijabSadaqaNadhrTaqlidFoods and drinksWaqf


See also
FiqhRulings of Shari'aManual of Islamic lawPubertyWajibHaramMustahabMubahMakruh

Mustaḥab (Arabic:المستحب) is a jurisprudential term referring to actions and practices that according to Islamic laws doing them is better than leaving them, yet they are not obligatory. Night prayer (Salat al-Layl), Daily Nawafil (daily Mustahab prayers), mustahab fastings, supplications, and many other practices are counted among mustahab acts.

Terminology

Lexicologically, Istihbab (recommendation) is an Arabic word derived from Hubb (to like) and means to like or to prefer something. The term is used in its lexical meaning in the Qur'an and hadiths. In jurisprudential terminology, Mustahab refers to an action that according to Islamic laws, doing it is recommended, yet leaving it is permissible.

Synonym Terms

Nadb (and Mandub), Nafl (and Nafila), Sunna and Tatawwu' convey a similar meaning to that of Istihbab (recommendation).

Jurisprudential Discussions

In almost all of Shi'a jurisprudential topics, Istihbab is used as one of al-Ahkam al-Khamsa (the Five Ruling Values). In the Principle of Jurisprudence (Usul al-Fiqh) it is discussed in chapters of al-Awamir (commands), al-Ḍid (opposite) and Muqaddamat al-Wajib (prerequisite of compulsory act).

Types

There are different types of Mustahab. Some of the most important ones are:

  • Mustahab al-Nafsi: is a Mustahab due to itself, such as Mustahab prayers and fastings.
  • Mustahab al-Ghayri: is a Mustahab that is not Mustahab due to itself, rather because of another act, such as Ghusl for Ziyarah.
  • Mustahab al-'Ayni : is a Mustahab that is recommended for each individual Muslim.
  • Mustahab Al-Kifa'I : is a Mustahab that if one Muslim do that it is no longer recommended for others, such as Adhan announcing Salat time.
  • Mustahab al-Mu'akkad : A Mustahab that has been emphasized, such as Ghusl al-Jum'a.

Related Rulings

when a person starts a mustahab it is disliked to not finish it, like mustahab prayer. In some cases when a mustahab action reach specific stage it is obligatory to finish it and the person is not allowed to leave it. Two well-known examples of this creed are mustahab hajj and 'Umra that if a person starts each of them he must finish it. Another example is I'tikaf that if a person starts it and fasts the first two days he must fast the third day.

Well-known Mustahabs

Mustahab Prayers

One can hardly find a holy occasion in Islam with no Mustahab prayer. Many of these Mustahab prayers have been mentioned in Mafatih al-Jinan. Some of the most important Mustahab prayers are: the Daily Mustahab Prayers, the Night Prayer, Prayer of Ja'far al-Tayyar, Salat al-Istisqa' (asking for rain prayer), the prayer of the first day of lunar months.

Mustahab Fasts

Fasting all the days in a year, except for days in which fasting is forbidden (like Eid al-Fitr) or disliked (like 'Ashura), is Mustahab. However, fasting in some days have been emphasized in Hadiths. Some of these days are:

Supplications

Although praying to God is not limited to specific words, it is recommended to pray to Him by supplications that have been narrated from the Infallibles (a). Some of these supplications are:

Other Mustahabs

Some other acts that have been mentioned in Hadiths as Mustahab are:

  • Reciting the Qur'an
  • Having Wudu constantly
  • Saying سبحان الله (glory be to God)
  • Saying ألحمدلله (all praises belong to God)
  • Saying لاإله الا الله (there is no god but God)
  • Saying لاحول و لا قوة إلا بالله (there is no might nor power except in God)
  • Giving Sadaqa (charity)
  • Ta'qibat al-Salat (after-prayer rituals)

References

  • The material for this article was mainly taken from مستحب in Farsi WikiShia.