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Al-Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr

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Companion of Imam (a)
Al-Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr
Full Name Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr
Companion of Imam al-Sajjad (a) and Imam al-Baqir (a)
Kunya Abu Muhammad, Abu 'Abd al-Rahman
Lineage Quraysh
Wellknown Relatives Muhammad b. Abi Bakr
Birth 36/656-7
Place of Birth Medina
Place(s) of Residence Medina
Death/Martyrdom between 101/720 and 112/732
Burial Place Qudayd between Medina and Mecca
Activities Criticism of 'Aisha

Qāsim b. Muḥammad b. Abi Bakr (Arabic: قاسم بن محمد بن ابي بکر) was among the elders of the Followers and one of the seven scholars of fiqh in Medina at the time of Imam al-Sajjad (a). He was the father of Imam al-Sadiq's mother. He was among the close and trustworthy companions of Imam al-Sajjad (a) and Imam al-Baqir (a). He has narrated many hadiths which have been referred to by different narrators.

Lineage

Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr was born in Medina in 36/656-57. His father, Muhammad b. Abi Bakr was the son of Abu Bakr, the first caliph. He was Imam Ali's (a) adopted son and among his special companions. According to a famous report, his mother was the daughter of Yazdegerd III, the last Sasanid king. Thus, Qasim b. Muhammad is regarded as the cousin of Imam al-Sajjad (a), therefore it is said that Yazdegerd had three daughters, one of married to Imam al-Husayn (a), one to Muhammad b. Abi Bakr and the third to 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar.

According to famous historical reports, Qasim b. Muhammad was the father of Imam al-Sadiq's (a) mother and Umm Farwa, Imam al-Baqir's (a) wife, was one of her daughters. Qasim had two sons whose names were Muhammad and 'Abd al-Rahman. He also had a daughter whose name was Umm Hakim.

Titles and Kunyas

For Qasim, two kunyas of Abu Muhammad and Abu 'Abd al-Rahman have been mentioned. His title is Madani due to his life in Medina.

In the View of Imams (a)

Qasim b. Muhammad grew up learning from Imam al-Sajjad (a) and was considered among his companions. Some also regard him as the student of Imam al-Baqir (a). There are expressions of approval and commendation about him in the words of Imams (a). Imam al-Sadiq (a) regarded him among the three elders who had a great position before Imam al-Sajjad (a).

Also, another report says:

"Sa'id b. Musayyib, Qasim b. Muhammad and Abu Khalid al-Kabuli were among narrators and Shias who were trustworthy before Imam al-Sajjad (a)."

It is narrated from Imam al-Rida (a), about Qasim b. Muhammad and Sa'id b. Musayyib, he said (a):

"These two were on the path of Alawi Wilaya and the true Islam."

Scholars' Views

Qasim b. Muhammad is among the hadith transmitters who is reliable and trustworthy in the eyes of both Shia and Sunni scholars. In most tarajim (commentary books) and rijal books of both schools, he has been admired by kind descriptions.

Sunni Scholars

In his Sahih, al-Bukhari has introduced him the most knowledgeable man of his time. Muhammad b. Sa'd, the author of Tabaqat al-Kubra, quotes from Muhammad b. 'Umar al-Waqidi and introduces Qasim b. Muhammad as a great, trustworthy and pious faqih. Ibn Hibban, Ibn Khallakan, Ibn Hajar and some other Sunni scholars have mentioned similar descriptions about Qasim b. Muhammad in their books. These expressions suggest the credit of Qasim b. Muhammad before Sunni scholars.

Shia Scholars

In his rijal, al-Shaykh al-Tusi introduces Qasim b. Muhammad among Shia narrators of hadiths. Also, in his Majalis al-mu'minin, Qadi Nur Allah Shushtari quotes from Ibn Dawud al-Hilli, among Shia scholars of rijal, and introduces Qasim b. Muhammad a faqih and scholar among the companions of Imam al-Sajjad (a). Further, in his Bihar al-anwar, 'Allama al-Majlisi has mentioned Qasim b. Muhammad among Shia's trustworthy scholars. Also in his Qamus al-rijal, Muhamamd Taqi Shushtari introduces Qasim b. Muhammad among pure Shias.

Characteristics

Qasim b. Muhammad was so famous in the knowledge of hadith and fiqh that about him Abu l-Zanad said:

"I have not seen anyone in tradition more knowledgeable than him."

He was one of the seven scholars of fiqh in Medina and according to historical records, he was the reference for answering questions of his time. Also, his accuracy in keeping and transmitting hadiths is among his characteristics which rijal scholars have mentioned.

Criticism of Aisha

In his Qamus al-rijal, Muhammad Taqi Shushtari has quoted from Tarikh al-Ya'qubi that after the martyrdom of Imam al-Hasan (a), when Aisha, riding a horse, shouted, "I do not allow anyone be buried in the house of the Prophet (s)!" Qasim who was still a teenager went to her and said, "O aunt! The memory of the Battle of Jamal is not yet forgotten when you rode a camel! Do you want to do something so that people would say, "once again she has got on the horse and has lit fire of another mischief?!", again!

His Demise

About the date of his demise, historical reports are different mentioning years between 101/719-20, 102/720-21, 108/76-78 and 112/730-31. The more famous report about his demise is in 101/719-20 in a place called Qudayd between Medina and Mecca. Qasim had made a will that he should be buried with his worn-on clothes.

Notes

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