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Sura al-Hujurat

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This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Hujurat; to read its text see text:Sura al-Hujurat.
Sura al-Hujurat
al-Fath← →Qaf
سوره حجرات.jpg
Sura Number 49
Juz' 26
Revelation
Revelation Number 107
Makki/Madani Madani
Information
Verse Count 18
Word Count 353
Letter Count 1533

Sūra al-Ḥujurāt (Arabic: سورة الحجرات) is the forty ninth sura of the Qur'an. It is a Madani sura located in juz' twenty six. "Al-Hujurat" is the plural form of "al-hujra" (الحجرة), meaning "room". It is mentioned in verse four of this sura. This sura speaks about the appropriate behavior toward the Prophet (s) and also socio-moral issues such as suspicion, snooping, and backbiting.

Some of the famous verses of this sura are al-ukhuwwa verse which introduces believers brothers to each other, the "verse of Naba'" which advises not to trust all persons who bring news and the verse thirteen which considers more God-wary people more honorable before God.

Introduction

  • Naming

The word "al-hujurat" is mentioned in verse four of this sura.[1] "Al-hujurat" is the plural form of "al-hujra" meaning "room" and refers to different rooms beside the mosque of the Prophet (s) for his wives.[2]

  • Order and Place of Revelation

Sura al-Hujurat is a Madani sura and was the 107th sura revealed to the Prophet (s). In the current order of completion, This is forty ninth sura of the Qur'an,[3] located in juz' twenty six.

  • Number of Verses and Words

Sura al-Hujurat has eighteen verses, 353 words and 1533 letters. This sura is among Mathani suras and is about half of one hizb in the Qur'an.

Content

According to Tafsir al-Mizan, this sura contains moral instructions, such as the manners of communication with God, manners which should be observed in contact with the Prophet (s) and the manners regarding the relations between people in the society. This sura also speaks about the criterion for the superiority of people over each other and finally mentions the truth of faith and Islam.[4] This sura orders Muslims not to pay attention to gossips and avoid backbiting, foul language, finding people's faults and relying on conjectures and orders them to establish peace and reconcile between Muslims.[5]

Content of Sura al-Hujurat[6]
 
 
 
 
Religious and social duties of Muslims
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First speech: verses 1-8
Duties of believers before the Prophet (s)
 
Second speech: verses 9-12
Social duties of believers against each other
 
Third speech: verses 13-18
Muslims' duties about the religion of God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First duty: verse 1
Not venture ahead of Allah and His Apostle in explaining religious rules
 
First duty: verses 9-10
Establishing peace among Muslims
 
First duty: verse 13
Observing God-wariness instead of racial pride
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
second duty: verses 2-5
Respecting the Prophet (s) in speaking
 
second duty: verse 11
Avoiding ridiculing and belittling each other
 
second duty: verses 14-15
Steadfastness in religion and waging jihad in the way of religion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third duty: verses 6-8
Not putting pressure on the Prophet (a) for following others' requests
 
Third duty: verse 12
Avoiding suspicion, spying and backbiting
 
Third duty: verses 16-18
Not counting embracing Islam as a favor to the Prophet (s)

Famous Verses

Naba' Verse

Main article: Al-Naba' Verse

Most exegetes considered the event about Walid b. 'Aqaba as the occasion of revelation of this verse when the Prophet (s) sent him to Banu l-Mustaliq tribe for collecting zakat.[7] According to Tafsir al-Mizan, the people of this tribe decided to go to the Prophet (s) and give zakat, but the Prophet (s) had sent Walid to collect their zakat. In the middle of the way, Walid feared them and returned and lied to the Prophet (s) that they refrained to give zakat and wanted to kill him. Therefore, the Prophet (s) prepared an army to fight with them, but when the two groups met each other, it was known that Walid had lied. So, the above verse was revealed.[8]

In the principles of jurisprudence, the verse Naba' is extensively discussed about. Scholars of this science have considered this verse referring to the authenticity of the al-khabar al-wahid.[9]

Ukhuwwa Verse

Main article: Ukhuwwa Verse

According to this verse, believers are brothers to each other and in case of occurring fight between them, other Muslims are responsible to reconcile between them. When this verse was revealed, the Prophet (s) established the brotherhood covenant among Muslims; like between Abu Bakr and Umar, Uthman and Abd al-Rahman b. 'Awf and between other companions, based on their positions. He (s) then chose Ali b. Abi Talib (a) as his brother and told Ali (a), "you are my brother and I am your brother."[10]

Backbiting Verse

Main article: Backbiting Verse

In this verse, three moral issues are mentioned: avoiding suspicious, snooping and backbiting. According to Tafsir-i nimuna, these three moral issues are related to each other; suspicion provides the ground for snooping and snooping in others' affairs provides the ground for backbiting them and revealing private issues in their lives.[11] In Tafsir al-Mizan, it is mentioned that backbiting eats the limbs of the body of the society and rots it.[12] To prove the prohibition of backbiting a believer brother, jurists have referred to this verse.[13]

God-wariness, the Benchmark

This verse has been focused both in moral writings and in theological discussions to reject racial superiority of humans over each other. According to Tafsir-i nimuna, the verse says that all humans are from one origin and should not boast to each other about their lineages and tribes. This verse introduces God-wariness as the only true criterion of the superiority of humans before God.[14]

This verse has also been referred to by the intellectual and political movement of "Shu'ubiyya". Shu'ubiyya was a group of Iranians who referred to the above verse and believed that no tribe is superior to another and opposed the racist policies of Umayyads.[15]

Merits and Benefits

In Tafsir Majma' al-Bayan, it is transmitted from the Prophet (s) that if a person recites Sura al-Hujurat, God will give him ten rewards per everyone who obeys Him and everyone who disobeys Him.[16] Also, in al-Shaykh al-Saduq's Thawab al-a'mal, it is transmitted that whoever recites Sura al-hujurat every day or every night, will be among the visitors of the Prophet (s).[17]

Notes

  1. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 22, p. 130.
  2. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 22, p. 141.
  3. Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 166.
  4. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 18, p. 305.
  5. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1251-1252.
  6. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  7. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 22, p. 153.
  8. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 18, p. 475-476.
  9. Farhangnāma-yi uṣūl-i fiqh, p. 62.
  10. Baḥrānī, al-Burhān, vol. 5, p. 108; Niyshābūrī, al-Mustadrak ʿalā l-ṣaḥīḥayn, vol. 3, p. 14.
  11. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 22, p. 184.
  12. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 18, p. 484.
  13. Shāhrūdī, Farhang-i fiqh, vol. 1, p. 199-200.
  14. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 22, p. 197.
  15. Aḥmadī Bahrāmī, "Shuʿūbīyya wa taʾthīrāt-i ān", p. 136.
  16. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 9, p. 196.
  17. Ṣadūq, Thawāb al-aʿmāl, p. 115.

References

  • Markaz-i Iṭṭilāʿāt wa Madārik-i Islāmī. Farhangnāma-yi uṣūl-i fiqh. Qom: Pazhūhishgāh-i ʿUlūm wa Farhang-i Islāmī, 1389 Sh.
  • Aḥmadī Bahrāmī, Ḥamīd. 1382 Sh. "Shuʿūbīyya wa taʾthīrāt-i ān dar sīyāsat wa adab-i Irān wa jahān-i Islām." Dīn wa Irtibāṭāt 18, 19:135-162.
  • Baḥrānī, Sayyid Hāshim b. Sulaymān. Al-Burhān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Qom: Bunyād-i Biʿthat, 1416 AH.
  • Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1374 Sh.
  • Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. [n.p]: Markaz Chāp wa Nashr-i Sāzmān-i Tablīghāt, 1371 Sh.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Thawāb al-aʿmāl wa ʿiqāb al-aʿmāl. Qom: Dār al-Sharīf al-Raḍī, 1406 AH.
  • Shāhrūdī, Farhang-i fiqh muṭābiq bā madhhab-i Ahl al-Bayt. Qom: Muʾassisat Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif al-Fiqh al-Islāmī, 1382 Sh.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī, Mūhammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Translated to Farsi by Mūsawī Hamidānī. Fifth edition. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1374 Sh.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Edited by Hāshim Rasūlī & Yazdī *Ṭabāṭabāyī. Third edition. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Nāṣir Khusru, 1372 Sh.