Rubab bt. Imri' al-Qays
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|Rubab bt. Imri' al-Qays|
Wife of Imam al-Husayn (a)
|Full Name||Rubab bt. Imri' al-Qays b. 'Adi|
|Religious Affiliation||Twelver Shi'a|
|Well-known Relatives||Imam al-Husayn (a) (husband), Sukayna bt. al-Husayn (daughter), Ali Asghar (son)|
|Places of Residence||Medina, Syria|
|Era||Yazid b. Mu'awiyya, Ummayid Dynasty|
|Known for||Wife of Imam al-Husayn (a), Mother of Ali Asghar|
|Activities||Being present in the Event of Karbala|
Rubāb bt. Imriʾ al-Qays (Arabic: رُباب بنت إمرِئ القَیس) was the wife of Imam al-Husayn (a) and the mother of 'Ali al-Asghar (Abd Allah al-Radi') and Sukayna. She was known as a knowledgeable and eloquent woman. She was present in the Event of Karbala, and she was taken as captive to Syria. She passed away 1 year after the Battle of Karbala due to grieving and weeping.
Rubab was the daughter of Imru' al-Qays b. 'Adi. Her father was 'Arab Christian from Syria who converted to Islam in the time of the second caliph, 'Umar b. al-Khattab. According to sources, Hind al-Hunud, the daughter of Rabi' b. Mas'ud b. Musad b. Husn b. Ka'b, was her mother.
Al-Shaykh al-Mufid mentioned the names of the children of Imam al-Husayn (a), and also his wives, where Rubab is named as his wife. Their marriage is narrated as: When Imru' al-Qays came to mosque and converted to Islam in the time of 'Umar b. al-Khattab, he saw Imam 'Ali (a) and his sons, Al-Hasan (a) and Al-Husayn (a), on the way back to his house. Imam 'Ali (a) said to him: I am 'Ali b. Abi Talib, the cousin of Prophet Muhammad (s), and they are my sons. We request to marry your daughters. Then Imru' al-Qays accepted their request and let his daughter Mahya marry Imam 'Ali (a), Salma (according to al-Baladhuri: Zaynab) marry with Imam al-Hasan (a), and Rubab marry with Imam al-Husayn (a).
Apparently 'Awf was the only narrator of the cited event, whose father's name was mentioned in Ansab al-ashraf as Haritha, and in Tarikh madina al-Dimashq (History of Damascus) and in al-Aghani as Kharija. As stated in Ansab al-ashraf, Umma Yu'li was the child of Imam 'Ali (a) and Mahya, Imam al-Hasan and Zaynab did not have a child, while Sukayna was the child of Rubab and Imam al-Husayn.
Because this event was only narrated by only one source, also al-Shaykh al-Mufid did not mention the name of Umm Yu'li, as a child of Imam 'Ali (a), as result accepting this event and this request of marriage seems highly improbable. At least it raises questions which are unanswered in this narration.
Fondness of Imam al-Husayn (a) toward Rubab
According to narrations Imam al-Husayn (a) adored Rubab, he even wrote poems to her:
I swear I love the house in which Rubab and Sukayna are living
I loved them dearly and I sacrifice all my belongings to them
And no one can disapprove my admiration toward them.
Presence in the Battle of Karbala
According to narrations, Rubab was present in the Battle of Karbala, and she was taken as captive to Syria. It is said, she witnessed the martyrdom of 'Ali al-Asghar in the arms of his father, Imam al-Husayn (a). Ibn Kathir stated: "She accompanied Imam al-Husayn (a), and after his martyrdom she was heavily grieving."
It is also said she held the holy head of Imam al-Husayn (a) in the palace of 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad and said:
Oh, Husayn; I will never forget you your body was hurt by enemies' spear They betrayed him in Karbala and martyred him Oh! Allah, bring drought to Karbala
After the Battle of Karbala
As stated in a number of narrations, Rubab stayed in Karbala, near the burial site of Imam al-Husayn (a), for a year and then returned to Medina. However, Qadi Tabatabai believed, she came back to Medina after the incident. In addition, Imam al-Sajjad (a) would not let her stay in deserts of Karbala for a year. He also said: no narration has said with certainty that Rubab has stayed in Karbala for a year. Even Ibn al-Athir, who narrated it, did not mention the name of the narrator. As a result this narration seems weak and improbable.
When Rubab came back to Medina, she was offered requests for marriage and she refused them all; she said I want no other father-in-law after the Prophet Muhammad (s).
Masqalat al-Tahan narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a): When Imam al-Husayn (a) was martyred, his Kilabiyya wife held mourning ceremonies and they all wept for Imam until their tears gone dry, except for one of the servants who was still constantly weeping for Imam al-Husayn (a). When she asked her about the reason, she replied: I drank Sawiq syrup. Afterwards she ordered to prepare the syrup as it helped to weep for Imam al-Husayn (a).
Ibn al-Athir wrote about Rubab: "After the Battle of Karbala, Rubab lived only for a year, in which she was mourning and weeping." Al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin stated that Rubab has passed away a year after 'Ashura, in 62/681-2.
- The material for writing this article is mainly taken from رباب دختر امرؤ القیس in Farsi WikiShia.