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Ruqayya Daughter of the Prophet (s)

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For other people named Ruqayya, see Ruqayya (disambiguation).
Ruqayya Daughter of the Prophet
Daughter of the Prophet (s)
Full Name Ruqayya bt. Muhammad (s)
Lineage Banu Hashim
Well-known Relatives The Prophet (s), Khadija (a), 'Uthman b. 'Affan
Place of Birth Mecca
Places of Residence Mecca, Medina
Death/Martyrdom 2/624
Burial Place Al-Baqi' Cemetery
Era Early Islam
Known for Wife of 'Uthman b. 'Affan
Activities Migration to Abyssinia and Medina

Ruqayya the daughter of the Prophet (s) (Arabic: رُقَیة بنت رسول الله) (d. 2/624) at first married 'Utba b. Abi Lahab, but when Sura al-Masad was revealed, her husband divorced her, then she married 'Uthman b. 'Affan. She took part in the Migration to Abyssinia and Hijra to Medina. She finally passed away in 2/624 and was buried in Baqi' Cemetery.

In the opinion of Shi'a scholars such as al-Sayyid Ja'far Murtada al-'Amili, however, Ruqayya was not the daughter of the Prophet (s) and Khadija (a). She is believed to be the daughter of Hala, the sister of Khadija, who was raised in the Prophet (s)'s house and became famous as the daughter of the Prophet (s).

Lineage

Ruqayya the daughter of Khadija bt. Khuwaylid[1] was born before Hijra in Mecca. She is counted as the eldest, the second, or even the last daughter of the Prophet (s).[2]

Marriage and Emigration

Ruqayya bt. Khadija married 'Utba b. Abi Lahab, but when Sura al-Masad was revealed, 'Utba divorced her by the order of his father, Abu Lahab.[3] After that she married 'Uthman b. 'Affan and emigrated with him to Abyssinia. When the Prophet (s) immigrated from Mecca to Medina, she emigrated from Abyssinia to Medina.[4]
 Historical sources cast doubt on she and 'Uthman b. 'Affan having two chidren named 'Abd Allah and 'Amr who died in childhood.[5]

When Khadija converted to Islam, Ruqayya also embraced Islam and pledged allegiance to the Prophet (s).[6]

Demise

When the Prophet (s) was on his way to the Battle of Badr, Ruqayya got typhoid and the Prophet (s) order 'Uthman to stay with her.[7] Ruqayya passed away in Ramadan 17, 2/March 16, 624 (on the day of Muslim's victory in the Battle of Badr).[8]

Shi'a sources,[9] however, reported a different cause for her death: 'Uthman beat her severely accusing her of revealing the hiding place of Mughayrat b. Abi l-'As to the Prophet (s).[10]

There are some reports that some women including Fatima (a) came to her grave and wept. The second caliph prevented them from crying at her grave by threatening them with a whip The Prophet (s) rebuked him and stopped him from doing this action..[11]

In her burial, the Prophet (s) prevented 'Uthman from entering her grave by saying "Whoever had intercourse last night will not enter the grave."[12]

Her name is mentioned in a supplication of the month of Ramadan: "O, Allah send your peace upon Ruqayya the daughter of your Messenger …"[13]

Tomb

The shrines of the daughters of the Prophet (left) near the shrine of the four imams (a) (right) in al-Baqi' cemetery.

The building on the graves of the Prophet's daughters: Ruqayya, Umm Kulthum, and Zaynab, was located on north of the Shi'a Imams's graves and on the southwest of the Prophet's wives's graves. However, historical sources reported that she was buried near the grave of 'Uthman b. Maz'un due to the Prophet's (s) order. In the past, there was a brass burial chamber on their (the Prophet's daughters) graves.[14] The building was destroyed by Wahhabis.

View point of Shi'a and Sunni

Sunni believes that Ruqayya was the daughter of the Prophet (s) and Khadija, and was the wife of 'Uthman b. 'Affan.[15] And 'Uthman was called Dhu l-Nurayn (the one who has two lights) because he had married Ruqayya and Umm Kulthum -two daughters of the Prophet (s).[16]

But there are different standpoints about her among Shi'a scholars:

  • Ruqayya -the wife of 'Uthman- was not the daughter of the Prophet (s); but she was the daughter of Hala, sister of Khadija, and was brought up in the Prophet's (s) house. Ruqayya -the daughter of the Prophet (s)- was born after Bi'tha.[17]
  • Ruqayya was the daughter of Khadija not the Prophet's. Because Khadija had married to other men before her marriage to the Prophet (s).
  • Ruqayya was the daughter of Khadija and the Prophet (s).

Notes

  1. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1139-1140.
  2. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1139-1140.
  3. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 401.
  4. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1308, vol. 4, 1139-1140; Kaḥḥāla, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ, vol. 1, p. 457; vol. 1, p. 457; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 35.
  5. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 35; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1840; vol. 3, p. 1037.
  6. Kaḥḥāla, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ, vol. 1, p. 457.
  7. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1308.
  8. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1038.
  9. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 3, p. 236.
  10. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 22, p. 167.
  11. Kaḥḥāla, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ, vol. 4, p. 458.
  12. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 487.
  13. Shaykh al-Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 3, p. 120.
  14. Jaʿfarīyān, Panjāh safarnāmih Ḥajj Qājārī, vol. 5, p. 241.
  15. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1839.
  16. Suyūṭī, Tārīkh al-khulafāʾ, p. 119.
  17. ʿĀmilī, al-Ṣaḥīḥ min sīrat al-Nabī al-aʿẓam, vol. 1, p. 123-125.

References

  • ʿĀmilī, Jaʿfar Murtaḍā al-. Al-Ṣaḥīḥ min sīrat al-Nabī al-aʿẓam. Qom: Intishārāt-i Jāmiʿa-yi Mudarrisīn. 1402 AH.
  • Amīn, Sayyid Muḥsin al-. Aʿyān al-Shīʿa. Edited by Ḥasan al-Amīn. Beirut: Dār al-Taʿāruf l-l-Maṭbūʿāt, n.d.
  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Edited by Suhayl Zakkār & Rīyāḍ Ziriklī. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1417 AH.
  • Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb. Edited by ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī. Beirut: Dār al-Jīl, 1412 AH.
  • Ibn Saʿd. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Edited by Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Qādir. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1418 AH.
  • Jaʿfarīyān, Rasūl. Panjāh safarnāmih Ḥajj Qājārī. Tehran: Nashr-i ʿIlm, 1389 Sh.
  • Kaḥḥāla, ʿUmar Riḍā. Aʿlām al-nisāʾ fī ʿālamay al-ʿarab wa l-Islām. Tenth edition. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-risāla, 1412 AH.
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb. Al-Kāfī. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1407 AH.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Second edition. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Wafāʾ, 1403 AH.
  • Shaykh al-Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Tahdhīb al-aḥkām. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1365 Sh.
  • Suyūṭī, Jalāl al-Dīn al-. Tārīkh al-khulafāʾ. Edited by Ḥamdī al-Damardāsh. n.p: Maktabat Nazār Muṣṭafā al-Bāz, 1425 AH.