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Sa'id b. al-Musayyib b. Hazin

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Companion of Imam (a)
Sa'id b. al-Musayyib b. Hazin
Full Name Sa'id b. al-Musayyib b. Hazn al-Qurashi al-Makhzumi
Companion of Imam al-Sajjad (a)
Teknonym Abu Muhammad
Epithet Sayyid al-Tabi'in
Religious Affiliation Shi'a
Place of Birth Medina
Place(s) of Residence Medina
Death/Martyrdom ~94/712

Saʿīd b. al-Musayyib b. Ḥazn al-Qurashī al-Makhzūmī (Arabic: سَعید بن المُسَیِّب بن حَزن القُرَشی المَخزومی) (d. ~94/712) was one of the Tabi'un (people who met Prophet Muhammad's (s) Sahaba). He is considered as one of the seven faqihs of Medina in the period of Imam al-Sajjad (a).

Lineage

Sa'id's grandfather, Hazn b. Abi Wahb b. 'Amr b. 'A'idh b. 'Imran b. Makhzum al-Qurashi al-Makhzumi, was one of the Muhajirun. He was a nobleman of the Jahiliyya period before the emergence of Islam. Sa'id's father, Musayyib, was also one of the Muhajirun who migrated from Mecca to Medina together with his father, Hazn. Musayyib pledged his allegiance to the Prophet (s) in the Pledge of Ridwan (or Pledge of Satisfaction). He was a merchant and his kunya was Abu Sa'id.

Musayyib was alive until the Conquest of Syria, but the year of his death is not known. His mother's name was Silmiyya. He was Abu Hurayra's son in law.

Birth

There are different accounts of when Sa'id was born:

  • He was born in 13/634

Kunya and Title

Sa'id's kunya was Abu Muhammad and his title was "Sayyid al-Tābi'īn" (Arabic: سَیِّد التابِعِین, the head of Tabi'un). Some people take his kunya to be Abu 'Abd Allah. He was one of the seven faqihs or jurisprudents of Medina. He was a professional scholar of hadith and fiqh and was known for his piety and religiosity. He made a living by trading oil. One of his characteristics was that he never accepted gifts. He was one of the Tabi'un in Medina.

Characteristics

Sa'id exhibited many virtuous characteristics such as knowledgeability, piety, and courage. He was a well-known scholar of fiqh in Medina; he was known among people for his piety, and he challenged the caliphs of his time, which shows his courage. He was an interpreter of dreams too. He was highly respected by people. He was pious, strict, and well-reputed. One of his eyes was blind.

Scholarly Significance

Some people called him "faqih al-fuqaha" and some considered him to be the most knowledgeable scholar of his time. According to al-Ya'qubi, he was a faqih in Medina in the period of Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan until the period of 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan. And according to al-Dhahabi, "he was the most knowledgeable person about the rulings of divorce". 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar believed that Sa'id was competent to issue fatwas. Qutada is quoted as saying, "I have not seen anyone more knowledgeable than Sa'id b. Musayyib". Ahmad b. Hanbal believed that hadiths narrated by Sa'id without chains of narrations (i.e. mursalat hadiths) are reliable and can be acted upon. Hasan al-Basri corresponded with Sa'id and asked him questions whenever he failed to solve a problem. Sa'id and his son, Muhammad, were both scholars of genealogy as well. They were more knowledgeable than their contemporaries in genealogy. Sa'id took himself to be the most knowledgeable person in the rulings of jurisdiction. Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani took him to be the leader of the Medina School in the early Islamic age.

Sa'id sometimes traveled for several days in order to hear a hadith from a narrator.

Interpretation of Dreams

Sa'id was an interpreter of dreams. There are historical reports of some of his interpretations of dreams that came true.

A few days before the martyrdom of Imam al-Hasan (a), a person saw in a dream that Sura al-Tawhid was written between the Imam's (a) two eyes. He told Sa'id about his dream. Sa'id interpreted the dream by saying that "the Imam will only live a few days".

'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan saw in a dream that he urinated in the mihrab four times. Sa'id interpreted his dream by saying that four of his children will undertake the caliphate.

A man went to Sa'id and said: "I saw in a dream that the prophet Musa (a), threw someone into the sea". Sa'id said that "'Abd al-Malik will die three days later". On the third day, the news about 'Abd al-Malik's death arrived. He was asked how he gave such an interpretation. He replied: "Because Musa (a) threw Pharaoh into the sea, and I hold that the Pharaoh of our time is 'Abd al-Malik".

Worship

Sa'id himself said that he performed the hajj rituals 40 times in his life. He was in the first line of congregational prayers for 50 years.

He never accepted gifts. He had 400 dinars which he invested for purchasing and selling olive oil. He made a living by trading oil.

His Treatments of the Caliphs

Sa'id always told the truth in the presence of the rulers and the kings. He usually avoided their companionship.

He held that Yazid b. Mu'awiya's caliphate was illegitimate. In the Event of Harra, Muslim b. 'Aqaba asked him to pledge his allegiance to Yazid as his obedient servant, but he said: "I pledge my allegiance in accordance with the Book of God, the tradition of the Prophet (s), Shaykhayn (i.e. Abu Bakr and 'Umar), and 'Ali (a), the Prophet's (s) cousin". Muslim b. 'Aqaba wanted to kill him, but Sa'id's relatives interceded and told Muslim that he was insane.

He also called 'Abd al-Malik the Pharaoh of the time. When 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz sought to destroy the chambers of the Prophet's (s) wives at the command of Walid b. 'Abd al-Malik, Sa'id opposed him and said that people from different corners of the world can visit this place to set the Prophet (s) as the role-model of piety.

One day, 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan told him: "Sa'id! I am in a condition in which if I do something good, I will not be happy, and if I do something wrong, I will not worry". Sa'id told him: "now the death of your heart is complete". In the Umayyad period, his share of the Treasury ([[Bayt al-Mal) was 30,000 dinars, but he refused to accept it.

He was whipped twice in the period of caliphs. Once during the government of 'Abd Allah b. Zubayr by his ruler in Medina, and once more in the period of 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan by his ruler in Medina.

Sect

In some Shiite sources, Sa'id is considered as a close companion of Imam al-Sajjad (a). The Imam (a) admired Sa'id, and Sa'id admired the Imam (a) too.

Sa'id called the Imam (a) "Sayyid al-'Abidin" (the head of worshippers) saying that he never saw a person more pious than 'Ali b. al-Husayn (a). Sa'id reported that Imam al-Sajjad (a) said 1000 rak'as of prayers during a day and a night, and this was why the Imam (a) came to be known as "Zayn al-'Abidin" (the adornment of the worshippers).

In his book, al-Ikhtisas, al-Shaykh al-Mufid considered Sa'id as a companion of Imam al-Sajjad (a). Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin holds the same view.

Al-Shaykh al-Mufid cited a hadith according to which on Dooms Day, the companions of the Imams (a)—from Imam 'Ali (a) to the last Imam (a)— will be summoned by God. The hadith mentions the companions of the Imams, including Sa'id b. Musayyib as the companion of Imam al-Sajjad (a).

Al-Kulayni cites a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a) according to which Sa'id was a reliable companion of Imam al-Sajjad (a). He has narrated hadiths from Imam al-Sajjad (a).

Imam al-Sajjad (a) said about Sa'id that he "was the most knowledgeable person about the history of people in the past and the most intelligent person in his opinion".

Reliability

There are two classes of hadiths about Sa'id: one in which he was admired and was considered as a close companion of Imam al-Sajjad (a), and the other in which he was reproached and it is said that he did not say Funeral Prayer for Imam al-Sajjad (a). Ayatollah Khu'i examined the implications and the reliability of both classes of hadiths, and finally withheld any judgments about Sa'id's reliability.

Children

One of his sons was Muhammad b. Sa'id b. Musayyib who narrated hadiths from his father. He had a son, called 'Imran, who was a narrator of hadiths as well. Muhammad had another son called Talha.

Sa'id had other children as well: Sa'id, Ilyas, Umm 'Uthman, Umm 'Amr, Fakhta, and Maryam.

Death

There is a disagreement among historiographers over the year of Sa'id's death: 89/707, 91/709, 92/710, and 105/723. The majority of scholars, however, hold that he died in 94/712 in the period of Walid. This year was known as "Sanat al-Fuqaha" (the year of faqihs) because many well-known faqihs of Medina died then. He died at the age of 75.

References