Al-Sayyid 'Ali Khan al-Madani
|Full Name||'Ali b. Ahmad b. Muhammad Ma'sum al-Husayni al-Dashtaki al-Shirazi|
|Well-Known As||al-Sayyid 'Ali Khan al-Madani, Sayyid 'Ali Khan Kabir|
|Religious Affiliation||Twelver Shi'a|
|Well-Known Relatives||Zayd b. Ali (ancestor)|
|Place of Birth||Medina|
|Residence||Medina, Mecca, Hyderabad, Shiraz|
|Death||1118/1706-7 or 1120/1708-9|
|Professors||Ja'far b. Kamal al-Din al-Bahrani, Hasan b. Zayn al-Din al-'Amili, ...|
|Students||Muhammad Salih Khatunabadi, Muhammad Husayn Khatunabadi, ...|
|Works||Riyad al-salikin, al-Darajat al-rafi'a, ...|
|Crown Prince of Sultan 'Abd Allah Qutb Shah in Hyderabad|
Al-Sayyid Ṣadr al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad Maʿsum al-Ḥusaynī al-Dashtakī al-Shīrāzī (1052/1642 – 1118/1706-07 or 1120/1708-09) known as al-Sayyid 'Ali Khan al-Madani, Sayyid 'Ali Khan Kabir or Ibn Ma'sum was a Shi'ite scholar in the 12th/17th century. Riyad al-salikin which is a commentary on al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is regarded one of the notable works of him; he has written a number of works on Arabic literature as well. During his life time, Sayyid 'Ali Khan traveled numerous cities. When he moved to India, he was appointed as the Crown Prince of Sultan 'Abd Allah Qutb Shah in Hyderabad, then after some time he was appointed as the head of administration of Sultan Muhammad in Burhanpur. Sayyid 'Ali Khan spend the last years of his life teaching in Shiraz.
Birth, Lineage and Demise
Sayyid 'Ali Khan Madani was born in Jumada I 1052/August 1642 in Medina, as a result he was known as al-Madani. His father was Amir Nizam al-Din Ahmad and his mother was the daughter of al-Shaykh Muhammad al-Manufi, the Imam of Shafi'i in Hijaz. His lineage goes back to Zayd b. 'Ali within twenty six generations which was mentioned in introduction of his book Riyad al-salikin.
Al-Sayyid 'Ali Khan passed away in 1118/1706-07 or 1120/1708-09 in Shiraz. His body was buried in the shrine of Sayyid Ahmad b. Musa al-Kazim (a) known as Shah Cheragh, next to the grave of Al-Sayyid Majid al-Bahrani.
As al-Sayyid 'Ali Khan was born in Medina, he was titled as al-Madani which was the most famous title of him. He also cherished this title a lot and he used it in his book Riyad al-salikin numerously. As sixteen ancestors of al-Sayyid 'Ali were living in Shiraz, he was also known as al-Shirazi. He became known as al-Sayyid 'Ali Khan Kabir and al-Sayyid 'Ali Sharih Sahifa in Seminaries of Iran.
Education, Travels and Positions
After years of living in Medina, al-Sayyid 'Ali moved to Mecca with his family where he stayed until 1066/1655-56. Al-Sayyid 'Ali learned basic Arabic literature and some fiqh and mathematics from his father al-Sayyid Ahmad Nizam al-Din, al-Shaykh Ja'far al-Bahrani and al-Shaykh Muhammad b. 'Ali Shah.
Al-Sayyid 'Ali migrated to India in 1066/1655-56 with his family. He managed to enter the courts of local rulers and Sultans and he achieved governmental positions. Al-Sayyid 'Ali spent the majority of his life in this country.
In 1113/1701-2 al-Sayyid 'Ali left his position and traveled to Mecca to make pilgrimage. He lived in Hijaz for some time but he left Mecca and moved to Isfahan because of the changes of social situations in 1114/1702-3 Shah Husayn, the Safavid Shah of the time, welcomed and respected al-Sayyid 'Ali.
After some time, he left Isfahan and moved to his ancestors' city, Shiraz where he started teaching in Mansuriyya School. Al-Sayyid 'Ali lived in Shiraz until his demise.
A large number of Shi'ite scholars mentioned the name of al-Sayyid 'Ali in their books and they admired and praised characteristics and knowledge of him including al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-'Amili in Amal al-amil, Khwansari in Rawdat, al-Shaykh 'Abbas al-Qummi in Safina al-bihar, 'Allama Amini in al-Ghadir, Mudarris Tabrizi in Rayhana al-adab, Mirza 'Abd Allah al-Afandi in Riyad al-'ulama' and al-Muhaddith al-Nuri in Mustadrak al-wasa'il.
- His father
- Ja'far b. Kamal al-Din al-Bahrani
- Hasan b. Zayn al-Din al-'Amili
- Hisam al-Din al-Hilli
- Muhammad b. Ali Shah
Riyad al-salikin fi sharh Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is one the most notable works of al-Sayyid 'Ali Khan Kabir which is a commentary on al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya. In this work subjects related to literature, Quran, fiqh, Kalam and history are presented which gave the book a form of encyclopedia of Islamic theology.
He had several works in different area, specially in Arabic literature like Anwar al-rabi' and Anwa' al-rabi' and rijal like al-Darajat al-rafi'a fi tabaqat al-imamiyya min al-Shi'a.
- The material of this article is mainly taken from سید علی خان مدنی in Farsi WikiShia.