Al-Sayyid Isma'il al-Sadr
- For other people named Al-Sadr, see Al-Sadr (disambiguation).
|Well-Known Relatives||al-Sayyid Sadr al-Din al-Sadr • al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr • al-Sayyid Musa al-Sadr|
|Place of Birth||Isfahan|
|Residence||Isfahan, Najaf, Samarra and Kadhimiyya|
|Studied in||Najaf, Samarra|
|Burial Place||Kadhimiyya, Iraq|
|Professors||Mirza Shirazi • Shaykh Radi|
|Students||Muhammad Husayn Na'ini • Sayyid Husayn fisharaki • Al-Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din|
Al-Sayyid Ismāʿīl al-Ṣadr (Arabic: السيد إسماعیل الصَدر) was a Shi'ite scholar and marja' in the 14th/20th century and the head of the al-Sadr Family. He studied in Isfahan, Najaf, and Samarra. He was a student of Mirza Shirazi. He and some other scholars of Najaf issued a fatwa of jihad against the invasions of Russia, Britain, and Italy on Islamic territories.
Al-Sayyid Isma'il b. Sayyid Sadr al-Din's lineage goes back to Ibrahim al-Asghar b. Musa b. Ja'far (a). His father was from Jabal Amel who immigrated to Iraq and then to Isfahan after the Sedition of Jazzar Pasha.
Al-Sayyid Isma'il was born in Isfahan in 1258/1842. His father died when he was just 6 years old, and then he was raised by his brother, Sayyid Muhammad 'Ali, known as Aqa Mujtahid. He studied Arabic literature and parts of usul al-fiqh and fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) with his brother. After his brother's death when he was 14, he studied the rest of fiqh with Muhamamd Baqir Razi Isfahani, the son of the author of Hidayat al-mustarshidin. In 1281/1864, he went to Najaf in order to attend the lectures of al-Shaykh al-Ansari, but al-Shaykh al-Ansari died before he arrived in Najaf. So in Najaf, he attended the lectures of al-Shaykh Radi al-Najafi and Mahdi Kashif al-Ghita'. After his hajj travel in 1282/1865, he contracted a disease and thus, he returned to Isfahan. In Isfahan, he was highly honored by people, but in 1294/1877, he left Isfahan under the pretext of visiting a village, and then went back to Iraq in order to continue his studies. In 1300/1882, he visited Khorasan and then went back to al-'Atabat al-'Aliyat. After the death of Shaykh Musa Al Sharara in Jabal Amel, people there invited him to go to Jabal Amel, but he rejected the invitation. He stayed in Iraq for about 20 years and studied fiqh and usul al-fiqh with Mirza Shirazi in Najaf and Samarra. Mirza Shirazi left his teaching chair in the last ten years of his life to three of his students: Sayyid Isma'il al-Sadr, Muhammad Taqi Shirazi, and Sayyid Muhammad Isfahani. He stayed in Samarra until 1314/1896, two years after the demise of Mirza Shirazi. He then moved to Karbala and started teaching there. He was followed by a group of Shi'as in Iran and Iraq as a marja'. Late in his life, he went to Kadhimiya. He died on Jumada I 3, 1337/February 4, 1919. According to another account, he died on Jumada I 12, 1338/February 2, 1920. He was buried in a chamber in the Shrine of Kadhimayn.
He came to be known as "al-Sadr" because Mirza Shirazi had two students called "Sayyid Isma'il", and in order to distinguish them, he referred to him as "al-Sadr" because of his father's name, Sadr al-Din.
Al-Sayyid Isma'il al-Sadr was a pious ascetic person. He was good-tempered, pious, humble, and never sought fame. He walked alone and did not like anyone to accompany him. He was very cautious in his fatwas.
|Family tree of al-Sadr Family|
Al-Sayyid Isma'il had four sons all of whom were scholars.
- Sayyid Sadr al-Din (1299-1373/1882-1954): he was a Shi'ite jurisprudent and marja' and an expert of usul al-fiqh, rijal, poetry, and exegesis of the Qur'an. He was the executor of the will of 'Abd al-Karim al-Ha'iri al-Yazdi, the founder of the Islamic Seminary of Qom. After the demise of al-Ha'iri al-Yazdi, he and Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari and Sayyid Muhammad Hujjat Kuhkamara'i administered the Islamic Seminary of Qom and tried to protect and develop it. He is the father of al-Sayyid Musa al-Sadr and Sayyid Rida Sadr.
- Sayyid Muhammad Jawad (b. 1301/1884): he was a student of Diya' al-Din 'Iraqi, Sayyid Husayn Faisharaki, and Abu l-Hasan Taliqani.
- Sayyid Haydar (1309-1356/1891-1937): he attended the lectures of Sayyid Husayn Fisharaki and 'Abd al-Karim al-Ha'iri al-Yazdi. Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din believed that he was of a higher scholarly ranking than his brothers. He was the father of al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr.
- His brother, Sayyid Muhammad 'Ali,
- Muhammad Baqir Isfahani,
- Mahdi Kashif al-Ghita',
- Shaykh Radi Najafi,
- Musa Kirmanshahi Ha'iri,
- Sayyid Mirza 'Ali Shirazi,
- Sayyid 'Ali Sistani, the grandfather of Ayatollah Sistani,
- Sayyid Husayn b. Sayyid Ibrahim Fisharaki,
- Muhammad Husayn Tabasi,
- Muhammad 'Ali b. 'Abbas Hirawi Khurasani,
- Muhammad Hadi Birjandi.
- Sayyid Muhammad Kazim al-Yazdi
Political and Social Activities
Supporting Shirkat-i Islamiyya (Islamic Company) in Isfahan: Shirkat-i Islamiyya in Isfahan was founded in 1316/1898 in order to provide textiles needed by Iranians and to resist dependence on foreign imports. Aqa Najafi Isfahani and his brother, Aqa Nur Allah Najafi Isfahani, were among the founders of the company. Scholars issued statements to support the company and encourage people to purchase domestic products. Akhund Khurasani, al-Sayyid Isma'il al-Sadr, Mirza Husayn Nuri, Haj Mirza Khalil, Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi, Muhammad Gharawi Sharabyani, Muhammad Husayn Mamaqani, and Shaykh al-Shari'a Isfahani announced their support for the company.
Fatwa of Jihad against the Russians: when Russia invaded Iran, a telegraph was sent by al-Sayyid Isma'il al-Sadr, Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi, and Shaykh 'Abd Allah Mazandarani on Safar 22, 1330/February 11, 1912 to Persian territories:
- … The land's nomads and tribes, who are the defense powers of the state and the nation, … should not allow the humiliation of captivation by the foreigners and misery of the khans of Caucasus, Turkistan, and the like …
Fatwa of Jihad against Italy after its invasion on Libya: al-Sayyid Isma'il al-Sadr as well as Akhund Khurasani, Shaykh 'Abd Allah Mazandarani, and Shaykh al-Shari'a Isfahani issued a statement asking Muslims to defend the Islamic territories.
- Russian invasion on Iran and Italian invasion on Tripoli will result in the disappearance of Islam, Shari'a, and the Qur'an. All Muslims are obliged to gather together and ask their respective governments to prevent the illegal aggressions of Russia and Italy. As long as the huge sedition is not defeated, they should avoid comfort and lodgment and consider this Islamic movement as a jihad on the path of Allah, like warriors of Badr and Hunayn.
Fatwa of Jihad against the British invasion on Iraq: at the beginning of the World War I in 1914 when the Allies declared war against the Ottoman government, al-Sayyid Isma'il al-Sadr and other Iraqi scholars and great authorities declared jihad against the aggressions of the Allies on Ottoman territories.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from سید اسماعیل صدر in Farsi Wikishia.