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Sayyida Nusrat Amin

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Banu-amin.jpg
The Tomb of Banu Amin in Takht-i Fulad cemetery, Isfahan
Personal Information
Full Name Sayyida Nuṣrat Baygum Amīn
Well-Known As Banu Amin
Lineage Khatunabadi Family
Birth 1312/1895
Residence Isfahan
Death 1403/1983
Burial Place Takht-i Fulad Cemetery, Isfahan
Scholarly Information
Professors Sayyid 'Ali Najafabadi, Abu l-Qasim Zafara'i, 'Ali Asghar Sharif
Students Banu Humayuni, 'Iffat al-Zaman Amin, Batul Ghazi
Permission for Hadith
Transmission From
Muhammad Rida Najafi Isfahani
Permission for
Ijtihad From
Muhammad Kazim Shirazi, 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri Yazdi, Ibrahim Istahbanati
Permission for Hadith
Transmission to
Sayyid Shahab al-Din Mar'ashi Najafi, 'Abd al-Husayn Amini, Banu Humayuni and ...
Works Makhzan al-'irfan, al-Arba'in al-Hashimiyya, ...
Socio-Political Activities
Socio-Political
Activities
Opposing the rule of banning Hijab at the time of Pahlawi Dynasty, establishment of Maktab-i Fatima Seminary, establishment of Amin High School

Sayyida Nuṣrat Baygum Amīn (Persian: سیده نصرت بیگم امین) (b. 1312/1895 - d. 1403/1983) known as Banu Amin was a Shi'a jurist (faqih), mystic, and exegete. She published her numerous works under a pseudonym "Banuy-i Irani" (Iranian lady).

Banu Amin has studied under Sayyid 'Ali Najafabadi and received the permission for hadith transmission and Permission of Ijtihad from Muhammad Rida Najafi Isfahani, Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri and others. One of her famous works is her exegesis on the Qur'an, titled Makhzan al-'irfan.

She was also active in social and cultural affairs. She opposed the rule of banning Hijab in the reign of Rida Shah Pahlawi and established some schools.

Family

Banu Amin was born on Dhu l-Hijja 25,1312/ June 19, 1895, late in Nasir al-Din Shah's reign, in Isfahan.

Her father, Sayyid Muhammad Ali Husayni Isfahani, titled as Amin al-Tujjar, was a well-known, religious businessman in Isfahan. He was the grandson of 'Allama Sayyid Ma'sum Husayni Khatunabadi. Her mother –Zahra- was the daughter of Haj Sayyid Mahdi titled as Jinab, one of the members of Jinabi family in Isfahan.

When Sayyida Nusrat was thirteen, she got married to her cousin, Haj Mirza Aqa known as Mu'in al-Tujjar, who was a well-known, religious businessman in Isfahan. They had eight children seven of whom passed away in their childhood, due to unknown diseases and outbreaks of epidemic diseases those days.

Education

Lady Amin began her education when she was 5 by going to Maktabkhane (elementary schools in the past.) At the age of 11, she started to learn Arabic. When she was 20, she started the Islamic studies and Arabic morphology and syntax seriously. Some mujtahids tutored her at her house. She studied preliminary studies under Abu l-Qasim Zifri'i and 'Ali Asghar Sharif. At the age of 32, she learned fiqh, usul al-fiqh and philosophy from Sayyid 'Ali Najafabadi, from whom she received most of her education.

Ijtihad and Its Certifications

In 1354/1935 at the age of 42 and after 23 year of continuous and preserving study in intellectual and traditional sciences, she received her first permission for Ijtihad and permission for hadith narration from Muhammad Kazim Shirazi and 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri Yazdi. That was the first formal permission for Ijtihad and for hadith narration which was given to a woman. At the same time, after numerous exams and questions, Ibrahim Husayni Shirazi Istahbanati gave her another permission for Ijtihad and for hadith transmission. In Rabi' I 1357 (May 1938) and after receiving initial certificates, Lady Amin received a certification for hadith narration from Muhammad Rida Najafi Isfahani.

Students

Some of her famous students are:

  • Zinat al-Sadat Humayuni
  • 'Iffat al-Zaman Amin
  • Batul Ghazi

Giving Certifications

Some of the famous scholars who received permission for Ijtihad and for hadith transmission from Banu Amin are:

Works

The following works have been published from Lady Amin:

  • Makhzan al-la'ali dar fazilat mula al-mawali Hadrat 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a). (About the virtues of Imam Ali (a))
  • Seyr wa suluk dar ravish-i awliya'-i tariq-i seyr-i su'ada'. (Mystical work about the journey toward God)
  • Ma'ad ya akharin seyr-i bashar. (About resurrection on the Day of Judgment and the last journey of humankind)
  • Ravish-i khushbakhti wa tawsiye bi khaharan-i imani. (The way of happiness and advice to [my] sisters in faith)
  • Akhlaq wa rah-i sa'adat. (About morality and the way of happiness. This book is a translation, commentary and adaptation of the book "Taharat al-a'raq" by Ibn Miskawayh)
  • Jami' al-shattat. (written in Arabic)

Scholarly Position

Many scholars and spiritual personalities admired her scholarly and spiritual position. Muhammad Taqi Ja'fari says: "According to the excellent spiritual achievements of this Iranian lady, we should account her among great scholars who did not only learn a science but also found a new life." He, also, said: "According to lady Amin's works –that was accessible to me- we can certainly introduce her as one of the great Shi'a scholars."

Sayyid Muhsin Amin quoted Ayatollah Mar'ashi Najafi that: "She was a unique person in her time, and a perfect example for women of that time." The martyr, Murtada Mutahhari says -reporting his meeting with lady Amin-: "I asked the Lady a question and when she started to answer, I realized that she had a high scholarly position."

Being aware of her scholarly and spiritual position, personalities like 'Allama Amini, Rahim Arbab, 'Allama Tabataba'i, Ayatollah Mar'ashi Najafi, Sayyid Hashim Haddad, Muhammad Taqi Ja'fari and Murtada Mutahhari met her and had discussions with her in various fields of Islamic studies.

Spiritual Position

Her book Nafahat al-rahmaniyyah clearly shows her high spiritual and mystical position. In this book, she has come across the mystical revelations that she had since she was 30. Religious personalities and, also, her students have talked about her mystical states and acts of wonder.

Social and Cultural Activities

In protest against the rule of banning Hijab at the time of Rida Shah Pahlavi, she did not participate in sessions held by the government, instead she openly showed her opposition by leaving Isfahan and staying for 14 months in Qom.

Moreover, by writing articles for newspapers and magazines, she showed an active presence in the field of social issues.

She established an Islamic school called "Maktab-i Fatima" in 1344/1925 for women and "Amin" high school for girls before the Islamic Revolution in Iran.

Demise

Sayyida Nusrat Amin passed away on the eve of Ramadan 1, 1403/June 12, 1983 in Isfahan and was buried in "Takht-i Fulad Cemetery".

References

External Links