Ahmad b. Imam al-Kazim (a)

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Descendant of Imam
Ahmad b. Imam al-Kazim (a)
حرم احمد بن موسی بن جعفر.jpg
His mausoleum
Name Ahmad
Well-Known As Shahchiragh
Father Imam al-Kazim (a)
Mother Umm Ahmad
Place of Burial Shiraz

Aḥmad b. Mūsā b. Jaʿfar (Arabic: أحمَد بن مُوسی بن جَعفَر), known in Iran as Shāhchirāgh (Persian: شاهچراغ) and also as Sayyid al-Sādāt al-Aʿāẓim (Arabic: سَیِّد السادات الأعاظِم), was one of Imam Musa al-Kazim's (a) sons. He is a well-known Imamzada in Iran. He traveled to Iran during the caliphate of al-Ma'mun al-'Abbasi, and once he heard the news about the martyrdom of his brother, Imam al-Rida (a), he stayed in Shiraz and was martyred there. His grave in Shiraz was hidden for a while.

Birth and Lineage

The year of his birth is not known. His father, Musa b. Ja'far (a), was the seventh Shiite Imam, and his mother was known as Umm Ahmad.

Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khadija
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Fatima
 
 
 
Imam Ali
 
 
 
 
Umm al-Banin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Husayn
 
Imam al-Hasan
 
Lady Zaynab
 
Umm Kulthum
 
Muhsin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Abd Allah
 
Uthman
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
'Awn
 
Ali
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Umm Kulthum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hasan
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Fatima
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd Allah
 
Zaynab
 
Ibrahim
 
Al-Hasan
 
al-Hasan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
Ibrahim
 
 
Idris
 
 
 
Nafisa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sajjad
 
'Ali al-Akbar
 
 
'Ali al-Asghar
 
 
Fatima
 
Sukayna
 
Ruqayya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Baqir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sadiq
 
'Abd Allah
 
Ibrahim
 
'Ubayd Allah
 
'Ali
 
Yahya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Kazim
 
Muhammad
 
Ali
 
Ishaq
 
Umm Farwa
 
'Abd Allah
 
Isma'il
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Rida
 
Ma'suama
 
Hamza
 
Ishaq
 
Ahmad
 
Ibrahim
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Jawad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hadi
 
 
Musa
 
 
 
 
Fatima
 
 
 
Hakima
 
 
 
Amama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari
 
 
Husayn
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Mahdi
 
 


Title

The title, "Shahchiragh" (or alternatively transliterated, "Shah Cheragh", literally: the king of the light), has its origin in recent stories, fictions, and books, and it is not found in early sources.

Significance

It is reported that Ahmad b. Musa (a) was very generous, and his father, Imam al-Kazim (a), loved him very much.

Al-Shaykh al-Mufid referred to him as a great figure, saying: "Ahmad b. Musa (a) was a man of dignity, highly respected, and pious, and was loved by his father and preferred by him over his other children. Imam al-Kazim (a) gave him his farm, known as 'Yasira'. Ahmad b. Musa b. Ja'far (a) emancipated 1000 slaves". Al-Shaykh al-Mufid cited a hadith from Isma'il b. Musa b. Ja'far (a) according to which 20 of his father's servants accompanied Ahmad and respected him. Whenever Ahmad stood or sat, they stood or sat with him out of respect. He says that his father, Imam al-Kazim (a), highly regarded of Ahmad, never ignored him, and always looked after him.

Al-Kashshi referred to Ahmad b. Musa (a) as a knowledgeable person in his time and as a transmitter of hadiths who transmitted many hadiths from his father and ancestors. He wrote that Ahmad b. Musa (a) transcribed the whole Qur'an with his handwriting.

After Imam al-Kazim's (a) Martyrdom

After the martyrdom of Imam al-Kazim (a), some people gathered around Ahmad b. Musa (a) on the thought that he was his father's successor in imamate, but he explicitly announced: "As you pledge your allegiance to me, I pledge my allegiance to my brother, 'Ali b. Musa al-Rida (a), and he is the leader and the successor of my father".

After this, everyone pledged their allegiance to 'Ali b. Musa al-Rida (a), and the Imam (a) prayed for his brother. However, some authors of books concerning religious denominations and sects talked about a Shiite sect, called "Ahmadiyya", as followers of Ahmad b. Musa (a). These people held that he was the Imam and the successor of Imam al-Kazim (a) after his martyrdom.

Children

Many genealogists believe that Ahmad b. Musa (a) had no children, but others believe that he had children. For example, Damin b. Shadqam mentioned four sons for Ahmad b. Musa (a): Muhammad, 'Ali, 'Abd Allah, and Dawud. Al-Fayd al-Qummi believes that Imamzada Ibrahim who is buried in Qum was Ahmad's son.

Uprising

Many sources have referred to an uprising by Ahmad b. Musa (a) against the Abbasid caliphate, without providing any details. Such historical accounts imply that Ahmad attended Ibn Tabataba's uprising.

Migration to Iran

Ahmad b. Musa (a) migrated to Iran together with a big caravan allegedly consisting of 3000 to 15000 people. Two reasons have been mentioned for his migration:

  • For the vengeance of his brother, 'Ali b. Musa al-Rida (a) who was martyred by al-Ma'mun.
  • To meet his brother in Merv, although he heard the news of his brother's martyrdom on the way.

Martyrdom

Qutlugh Khan, the ruler of Shiraz and al-Ma'mun's agent, met Ahmad b. Musa (a) and his caravan in Khan Zinan (8 parasangs from Shiraz), giving them the news of the martyrdom of Imam al-Rida (a). The news discouraged people accompanying Ahmad and some of them left him. Ahmad and his close companions went to Shiraz, but he was martyred there in a battle.

Discovery of Grave

Historical sources provide different accounts of how Ahmad b. Musa's mausoleum was discovered:

There is no mention of Ahmad b. Musa's burial place until the late 4th/10th and early 5th/11th centuries. Some sources, such as Riyad al-ansab by Malik al-Kuttab al-Shirazi and Bahr al-ansab by Taymuri, reported that Ahmad b. Musa's mausoleum was found in the 4th/10th century in the period of 'Adud al-Dawla al-Daylami. They claim that Ahmad b. Musa's grave was hidden until it was discovered in the period of 'Adud al-Dawla (reign: 338/949-372/983).

According to a citation by Mulhaqat anwar al-nu'maniyya from al-Bayhaqi's Lubab al-ansab and that of Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin's from al-Nisaburi's Lubb al-ansab, Ahmad b. Musa's burial place was found in Shiraz in the early 5th/11th century.

Other sources such as Shadd al-azar, Ibn Battuta's travel log, and Nuzhat al-qulub—all of which were written in the 8th/14th century, Ahmad b. Musa's burial place was found in the 7th/13th and 8th/14th centuries. According to other sources, his mausoleum was found in the period of Amir Muqarrab al-Din, a minister and a close companion of Atabak Abu Bakr (reign: 653/1255 - 658/1259). His corpse was allegedly recognized by the signet of his ring on which the following phrase was inscribed: "the dignity is for God. Ahmad b. Musa."

References