Midnight in religious law
Shahid Sadr mentioned two definitions for midnight in religious law: in the first definition, it is considered the exact time between the sunset and fajr of the next morning; and in the second definition, it is considered the exact time between the sunset and the sunrise of the next morning. He considered the second definition more correct and matching the proofs and some hadiths.
According to the views of most religious authorities, almost eleven hrs and fifteen mins after the end of the time for performing zuhr prayer is the midnight in religious law, or the end of time for performing Isha prayer.
Some jurists believe that if a person does not perform Maghrib or Isha prayer until midnight has to perform it, based on obligatory caution, before the beginning of fajr prayer or fajr adhan with the intention of "Ma fi l-dhimma" (performing "what is obliged") (without the intention of ada' (due) or qada' (missed) task).
The issue of midnight is also mentioned in the discussions of some rituals and kaffaras of hajj; such as the obligation of staying in Mina on the eleventh and twelfth nights until midnight and also in the example of a person who does not go out of Mina before the sunset of twelfth day who is obliged to stay there until midnight.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from نیمهشب شرعی in Farsi WikiShia.