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Shaykh 'Abbas Qummi

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شیخ عباس قمی.jpg
Personal Information
Full Name Abbas b. Muhammad Rida Qummi
Birth 1294/1877
Residence Qom
Studied in Qom, Najaf
Death 22 Dhu l-Hijja, 1359/1940
Burial Place Shrine of Imam 'Ali (a), Najaf
Scholarly Information
Professors Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Tabataba'i Yazdi, Mirza Husayn Nuri, Muhammad Taqi Shirazi, ...
Students Shaykh Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, Sayyid Ahmad Musawi Mustanbit, Sayyid Ahmad, ...
Works Mafatih al-jinan, Safinat al-bihar wa madinat al-hikam wa l-athar, Nafas al-mahmum, ...

ʿAbbās b. Muḥammad Riḍā Qummī (Arabic: عباس بن محمد رضا القُمي) (b. 1294/1877 - d. 1359/1940), known as Shaykh ʿAbbās Qummī (Persian: شیخ عباس قمی) and Muḥaddith Qummī (Persian: محدّث قمی), was a prominent Shi'a figure in the 14th/20th century in the fields of hadith, Islamic history, sermons (wa'z), and religious orations (khataba). He has authored many books in different domains the best-known of which are Mafatih al-jinan, Safinat al-bihar, and Muntaha al-amal.

Birth and Parentage

Shaykh 'Abbas Qummi was born in 1294/1877 in Qom. His father, Muhammad Rida Qummi, was a religious person whom people consulted in order to know about their religious tasks. His mother, Banu Zinat, was a poius, religious woman.

Shaykh 'Abbas Qummi says about his mother: I have everything from my mother, since she always tried to breast-feed me with cleanliness (tahara).

Marriage

Shaykh 'Abbas's first marriage took place upon his return from Najaf to Qom —he married the daughter of Sayyid Zakariyya Qazvini, one of the scholars in Qom, but after a while they divorce. His second marriage took place when he resided in Mashhad; he married the daughter of Ayatollah Sayyid Ahmad Tabataba'i.

Education

In his teens, Qummi was educated in Qom. Here are some of his teachers in Qom:

  • Mirza Muhammad Arbab Qummi
  • Shaykh Abu l-Qasim Qummi
  • Sayyid Ahmad Tabataba' Qummi, Shaykh 'Abbas's father-in-law
  • Shaykh Muhammad Husayn Qummi, his master in calligraphy (Nasta'liq script).

Travels

In order to continue his education in Islamic sciences, Shaykh 'Abbas travelled to some Islamic cities.

Najaf

In 1316/1898 when he was 22 years old, Shaykh 'Abbas went to Najaf. In this city, he studied with the following prominent scholars of Shia:

During his sojourn in Najaf, Shaykh 'Abbas went to Hajj in 1318/1900.

Return to Iran

After Muhaddith Nuri's death, Shaykh 'Abbas left Najaf in 1322/1904 and returned to Iran. During his life in Iran, he went to visit Karbala and Najaf and he also went to the Hajj again.

Mashhad

On Friday, Rabi' II 1, 1332/1914, Shaykh 'Abbas went to Mashhad intending to stay there. It was at the request of Haj Aqa Husayn Qumi. Shaykh 'Abbas stayed there until 1354/1935. In the introduction to his book, al-Fawa'id al-Radawiyya, Shaykh 'Abbas writes: because of my sadness and the troubles that I had, it occurred to me to take refuge to the leader of the pious and the refuge of the helpless, Imam 'Ali b. Musa al-Rida (a).

Here are some of Shaykh 'Abbas's teachers in Mashhad:

In his 22 years of living in Mashhad, Shaykh 'Abbas authored many books and delivered sermons and orations that were very well-known. In his orations he talked against Americans. He was threatened to death by the Punishment Committee of the Democratic Party.

Return to Najaf

After the events in the Goharshad Mosque and the massacre of people and the exile of Haj Aqa Husayn Qumi, Shaykh 'Abbas Qummi returned to Najaf in 1354/1935, and stayed there until his death.

Character Traits

Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, one of Shaykh 'Abbas's friends, says: he was a perfect and knowledgeable person; he was good-tempered, unselfish, and honest. He avoided fame and had an ascetic life. There are many anecdotes about his character.

Pupils

Writings

  • Mafatih al-jinan; the best-known work of Shaykh 'Abbas Qummi containing some prayers, pilgrimages, and psalms narrated from the Prophet (s) and Imams (a),
  • Tuhfa al-'ahbab; a book about the narrators of hadiths,
  • Al-Durr al-nazim fi lughat al-Qur'an al-'azim; a book about the vocabularies of the Quran,
  • Kuhl al-basar fi sirat sayyid al-bashar; a book about the life of the Prophet (s),
  • Naqd al-wasa'il; a critique of Wasa'il al-Shi'a authored by al-Hurr al-'Amili,
  • Taqsim bidayat al-hidaya; a categorization of the book, Bidayat al-hidaya, authored by al-Hurr al-'Amili,
  • Commentary on Kitab al-wajiza authored by Shaykh Baha'i,
  • Fayd al-qadir fi ma yata'allaq bi-hadith al-ghadir; a book about Hadith al-Ghadir,
  • 'Ilm al-yaqin; a summary of Haqq al-yaqin authored by al-'Allama al-Majlisi,
  • Maqalid al-falah fi 'amal al-yawm wa al-layla; containing prayers that are recited in days and nights,
  • Miqlad al-najah; a summary of Maqalid al-falah,
  • A summary of the 11th volume of Bihar al-anwar by al-'Allama al-Majlisi,
  • A commentary of Imam 'Ali (a)'s aphorisms in Nahj al-balagha,
  • Hadiyyat al-anam ila waqayi' al-ayyam; a summary of Fayd al-'ulum,
  • Fayd al-'ilam fi waqayi' al-shuhur wa al-ayyam; a book about the events occurred in the Islamic history on a monthly and daily basis,
  • Safinat al-bihar wa madinat al-hikam wa al-athar; a thematic summary of Bihar al-anwar by al-'Allama al-Majlisi,
  • Tuhfat al-ahbab fi tarajim al-ashab; a book about the companions of the Prophet Muhammad (s) and Imams (a) in Farsi,
  • Al-Fawa'id al-rajabiyya fi ma yata'llaq bi-al-shuhur al-'arabiyya,
  • Al-Durrat al-yatima fi tatimmat al-durra al-thamina; a Farsi commentary of Nisab al-sibyan, and a supplement of Fadil Yazdi's Commentary of Nisab al-Sibyan,
  • Hadyat al-za'irin wa bahjat al-nasirin; about the Ziyarah of Imams (a) and the graves of Shiite scholars who are buried near the holy shrines of Imams (a),
  • Al-la'ali l-manthura fi l-ahraz wa al-adhkar al-madhkura; about prayers,
  • Al-Fusul al-'aliyya fi l-manaqib al-murtadawiyya; about the character and life of Imam 'Ali b. 'Abi Talilb (a),
  • Sabil al-rashad,
  • Hikmat baligha wa mi'at kalimat jami'a; Imam 'Ali (a)'s words about beliefs and the principles of the religion,
  • Dhakhira al-abrar fi muntakhab anis al-tujjar; a summary of Mulla Mahdi Naraqi's Anis al-tujjar about the jurisprudential laws of businesses and transactions,
  • Ghayat al-ghuswa fi tarjimat al-'urwa al-wuthqa; a Farsi translation of Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi's al-'Urwa al-wuthqa in Islamic jusrisprudence,
  • Al-Tuhfat al-tusiyya wa al-nafhat al-qudsiyya; about the Ziyarah of Imam al-Rida (a),
  • Nafas al-mahmum; about the Maqtal of Imam al-Husayn (a),
  • Nafthat al-masdur; a supplement of Nafas al-mahmum,
  • Al-Anwar al-bahiyya fi tarikh al-hujaj al-'ilahiyya; the life of Imams (a),
  • An essay about minor and major sins in Islam,
  • Manazil al-akhira; about the afterlife on the basis of hadiths,
  • A Farsi translation of Misbah al-mutahajjid authored by al-Shaykh al-Tusi,
  • Nuzhat al-nawazir,
  • Al-Maqamat al-'aliyya; a summary of Mulla Ahmad Naraqi's Mi'raj al-sa'ada,
  • A Farsi translation of Jamal al-usbu' authored by Sayyid b. Tawus,
  • Al-Baqiyat al-salihat; published in the margins of Mafatih al-jinan,
  • Muntaha al-amal fi tawarikh al-nabi wa al-al; concerning the history of the Prophet (s) and Shiite Imams (a),
  • Tatimmat al-muntaha fi waqayi' ayyam al-khulafa,
  • A Farsi translation of Luhuf by Sayyid b. Tawus,
  • A supplement of Tahiyyat al-za'ir authored by Muhaddith Nuri,
  • Al-Kuna wa al-alqab; a biography of scholars and poets,
  • Hadiyyat al-'ahbab fi l-ma'rufin bi-al-kuna wa al-'alqab; a summary of al-Kuna wa al-'alqab]],
  • Al-Fawa'id al-radawiyya fi ahwal 'ulama' al-madh'hab al-ja'fari—a biography of Shiite scholars,
  • Bayt al-ahzan fi masa'ib sayyidat al-niswan.

Death and Burial

Shaykh 'Abbas passed away on Tuesday night, Dhu l-Hijja 22, 1359/January 21, 1941 in Najaf when he was 65 years old. Sayyid Abu l-Hasan Isfahani prayed on his corpse in the holy shrine of Imam 'Ali (a), and he was buried near his master, Muhaddith Nuri, in the shrine. Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin writes: three mourning ceremonies were held for him in Najaf, Karbala, and Kadhimiya.

References