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Shu'ayb b. Salih

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Shuʿayb b. Ṣāliḥ (Arabic: شعيب بن صالح) is the person who is among those who make uprisings before the reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a) and is introduced as the standard-bearer of Imam (a). He comes from Khorasan and is considered among indefinite signs of reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a). There are different hadiths about him, his uprising and his role in the reappearance of Imam (a). He defeats Sufyani in a war.

In Hadiths

In hadiths mentioned about the reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a), the name of Shu'ayb b. Salih is mentioned. In some hadiths, his uprising is considered among the signs of the reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a).[1] The hadiths mentioned about Shu'ayb b. Salih, sometimes mention some of his personal characteristics, the manner of his uprising before Imam's (a) reappearance and his standard-bearing upon Imam al-Mahdi's (a) coming.

  • Personal Characteristics

In hadiths, Shu'ayb b. Salih is described a light-brown-skin[2] young man[3] with a stubble.[4] He is considered from Banu Tamim[5] or a servant of them.[6]

  • Manner of Uprising

In hadiths, Shu'ayb b. Salih is introduced as the commander of the uprising of a person from Banu Hashim from Khorasan.[7] The beginning of the uprising from Khorasan is led by Shu'ayb b. Salih.[8] His uprising is considered from Samarkand,[9] Nishapur,[10] Rey,[11] or Taleqan.[12] In hadiths, the number of his soldiers is mentioned four thousand.[13] His soldiers hold black flags[14] and wear black cummerbunds[15] and white dresses.[16] They fight with Sufyani in Istakhr[17] and defeat his army and then go to Jerusalem al-Quds.[18] He defeats anyone he fights.[19]

The uprising of Shu'ayb b. Salih is after the uprising of 'Awf al-Silmi and before the uprising of Sufyani.[20] The period between his uprising and the reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a) is seventy two months.[21]

  • Role in the Reappearance of Imam (a)

As it is mentioned in hadiths, after the army of Shu'ayb b. Salih defeats Sufyani's army, three hundred people join him from Syria and go to Jerusalem al-Quds and prepare the grounds for the reappearance of Imam (a).[22] seventy two months after his uprising, Imam al-Mahdi (a) comes and Shu'ayb b. Salih gives allegiance to him. In some hadiths, he is introduced as the standard-bearer of Imam al-Mahdi (a).[23]

Analysis

With regards to hadiths related to Shu'ayb b. Salih, Najm al-Din Tabasi claimed that the fact about Shu'ayb b. Salih and his uprising has the degree of tawatur of the content or at least reaches the limit of "istifada" (transmitted by several sources but under the level of tawatur); but, his attributes and the manner of his uprising does not reach the degree of istifada. From all these hadiths, only the hadith transmitted from Imam al-Rida (a) is authentic.[24] The content of this hadith only suggests that before the reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a), the uprising of Shu'ayb b. Salih happens and it is an (indefinite) sign of Imam's (a) reappearance. Other hadiths about Shu'ayb b. Salih have problems regarding their chains of transmission. In the Four Books, even though about three hundred hadiths are mentioned about Mahdism, there is no mention of Shu'ayb b. Salih.

Relationship with Shu'ayb b. Salih, the Delegate

In a report, al-Shaykh al-Saduq mentioned in al-Nubuwwa about a person called Shu'ayb b. Salih who was one of the delegates of Prophet Shu'ayb (a) and was martyred by his people.[25] al-Rawandi believed that Shu'ayb b. Salih who comes before Imam's (a) reappearance is that martyred Shu'ayb b. Salih and will return.[26] In Fiqh 'ala'im al-zuhur, this matching has been rejected and it is considered possible that Shu'ayb b. Salih in that report was Prophet Shu'ayb (a) who will return together with Khidr (a) and Ilyas (a) (Elijah) and is different from Shu'ayb b. Salih, who is the commander of the army of Khorasan.[27]

Notes

  1. Nuʿmānī, al-Ghayba, p. 253.
  2. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 54.
  3. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 53.
  4. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 54; Ibn Ḥammād, al-Fitan, p. 189.
  5. Ibn Ḥammād, al-Fitan, p. 189.
  6. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 53.
  7. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 53.
  8. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 53.
  9. Ṭūsī, al-Ghayba, p. 444; Rāwandī, al-Kharāʾij wa l-jarāʾiḥ, vol. 3, p. 1155.
  10. Ṣadūq, Kamāl al-dīn, vol. 2, p. 443.
  11. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 53.
  12. Kūrānī, Muʿjam aḥādīth al-imām al-Mahdī, vol. 4, p. 34.
  13. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 53.
  14. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 52; Ibn Ḥammād, al-Fitan, p. 188.
  15. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 52; Ibn Ḥammād, al-Fitan, p. 188.
  16. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 52.
  17. Kūrānī, Muʿjam aḥādīth al-imām al-Mahdī, vol. 4, p. 105.
  18. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 52; Ibn Ḥammād, al-Fitan, p. 188.
  19. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 54; Ibn Ḥammād, al-Fitan, p. 188.
  20. Ṭūsī, al-Ghayba, p. 444.
  21. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 54; Ibn Ḥammād, al-Fitan, p. 165, 188.
  22. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 52; Ibn Ḥammād, al-Fitan, p. 213.
  23. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, p. 53, 127; Ibn Ḥammād, al-Fitan, p. 192; Ṭūsī, al-Ghayba, p. 444.
  24. Nuʿmānī, al-Ghayba, p. 253.
  25. Ṣadūq, al-Nubuwwa, p. 139.
  26. Rāwandī, al-Kharāʾij wa l-jarāʾiḥ, vol. 3, p. 1167.
  27. Sanad, Fiqh ʿalāʾim al-ẓuhūr, p. 44-46.

References

  • Ibn Ḥammād, Naʿīm al-Mirwazī. Al-Fitan. Edited by Suhayl Zakār. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, [n.d].
  • Ibn Ṭāwūs, ʿAlī b. Mūsā. Al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan fī ẓuhūr al-ghāʾib al-muntaẓar. Qom: Manshūrāt al-Raḍī, [n.d].
  • Kūrānī, ʿAlī. Muʿjam aḥādīth al-imām al-Mahdī. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Maʿārif al-Islāmīyya, 1411 AH.
  • Nuʿmānī, Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm al-. Al-Ghayba. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Tehran: Maktabat al-Ṣadūq, [n.d].
  • Rāwandī, Quṭb al-Dīn ibn Hibat Allāh. Al-Kharāʾij wa l-jarāʾiḥ. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Imām al-Mahdī, 1409.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al. Al-Nubuwwa. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Wizārat-i Farhang wa Irshād-i Islāmī, 1381 Sh.
  • Sanad, Muḥammad al-. Fiqh ʿalāʾim al-ẓuhūr. Najaf: Markaz al-Dirāsāt al-Takhaṣṣuṣīyya fī al-Imām al-Mahdī, 1425 AH.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Al-Ghayba. Edited by ʿAbd Allāh Tīhrānī & Aḥmad Nāṣiḥ. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Maʿārif al-Islāmīyya, 1411 AH.